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Formaldehyde Exposure and Health Status in Households

By: P. Brasher

Government Reference Publication

Introduction: Formaldehyde has long been known to have acute surface irrirant effects on humans, as indicated mainly by observations made in industry. Based on whether the exposed individual is highly sensitive or average in sensitivity, ocular irritation is observed at between 0.05 ppm and 1.0 ppm, nasal and throat effects at 0.1 to I.Oppm, andcough at 5 to 30ppm. Less information is available relevant to the nonindustrial indoor setting (1-7).

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Exposure to Pcbs and P, P-Dde and Human Sperm Chromatin Integrity

By: Anna Rignell Hydbom

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p-DDE), the major metabolite of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), are stable lipophilic compounds widely found in the environment and in the general population. They can enter the food chain, and their negative impact on male reproduction is currently under active scrutiny. To explore the hypothesis that environmental exposure to thes...

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Effect of Chrysotile Asbestos and Silica on the Microsomal Metabol...

By: Peter J. Obrien

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Exposure to complex chemical mixtures is usually considered to induce neoplastic transformation of the respiratory tract epithelium, termed as bronchogenic carcinoma (I). The best illustrated example is cigarette smoke which, on the basis of several epidemiological studies, is regarded as the main etio logical agent in the induction of bronchogenic carcinoma 12). However. the genesis of lung cancer seems to be associated with the combined exposure of cigarette s...

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Nutritional Factors and Susceptibility to Arsenic-Caused Skin Lesi...

By: Soma R. Mitra

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: There has been widespread speculation about whether nutritional deficiencies increase the susceptibility to arsenic health effects. This is the first study to investigate whether dietary micronutrient and macronutrient intake modulates the well-established human risk of arsenic-induced skin lesions, including alterations in skin pigmentation and keratoses. The study was conducted in West Bengal, India, which along with Bangladesh constitutes the largest populati...

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Carcinogenicity Testing of Phthalate Esters and Related Compounds ...

By: William M. Kluwe

Government Reference Publication

Introduction: Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) are chemicals frequently added to plastic formulations to impart flexibility or other charac- teristics that determine product use. Such plasticizers do not become part of the polymer matrix and, under certain use or disposal conditions, can migrate from the plastic to the external environment. Although they are not components of the plastic polymer, plastici...

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Spheres of Influence Trusting Better Future

By: W. Conard Holton

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Individual countries acting alone cannot solve environmental problems that span national borders. The Global Environment Facility (GEF) was created in 1991 to serve as a mechanism for international cooperation in the resolution of environmental problems through the funding of grants. The GEF is intended to benefit four areas of global environmental concern: biological diversity, climate change, international waters, and ozone layer depletion.

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Metabolic Activationldeactivation Reactions during Perinatal Devel...

By: George W. Lucier

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The role of metabolism in xenobiotic pharmacokinetics and toxicity has received considerable attention over the last two decades. The concept of metabolic activation of chemicals to reactive intermediates is critical in attempts to characterize the sequence of molecular events eventually leading to environmental carcinogenesis, mutagenesis and teratogenesis. A theoretical scheme whereby chemicals might initiate carcinogenesis could begin by exposure to an inacti...

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Toxicity of Vesicant Agents Scheduled for Destruction by the Chemi...

By: A. P. Watson

Government Reference Publication

Introduction: This paper is the second in a journal series of review articles synthesizing pertinent toxicological data on chemical wafare agents scheduled for destruction by the Department of the Army (DoA) in the 1990s. The first paper in this series (I) summarized recommended treatment/decontamination protocols for the organophosphate nerve agents VX [S-(diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothiolate, 0-ethyl esterl, GA [Tahun; N-N-dimethylphosphoroamidocyanidate, eth...

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Binding of Benzidine, N=Acetylbenzidine, N, N-Diacetylbenzidine an...

By: J. C. Kennelly

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Benzidine (BZ) has been shown to induce tumors at various sites in laboratory animals (1, 2). The major target organ in the rat and mouse is the liver, whereas tumors of the bladder are observed in dogs. BZ is also known to be responsible for the induction of bladder cancer in humans occupationally exposed to this compound 4). Morton et al. (5) have shown in vitro that BZ can be sequentially acetylated to N-acetylbenzidine (ABZ) and N,N- diacetylbenzidine (DABZ)...

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Metabolomics : Whats Happening Downstreamof Dna

By: Charles W. Schmidt

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The decoding of the human genome gave rise to genomics and proteomics?? global? studies of genes and proteins, respectively?which are often touted in terms of their enormous clinical potential. In the midst of a growing shift toward translational studies in todays biomedical research scene, yet another ?-omics? science has come to the fore. The science is called metabolomics, and its protagonists say it offers a cheap, rapid, and effective way to diagnose illnes...

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Elemental Analysis of Asbestos Fibers by Means of Electron Probe T...

By: Ivan B. Rubin

Government Reference Publication

Introduction: The relation of a variety of asbestiform minerals to disease is well documented (1-9). Furthermore, the widespread use of these minerals has been demonstrated (h). In order to monitor these health effects and the extent of environmental contamination by asbestos it is useful to be able to identify the different forms of the mineral rapidly, and with further progress to perform this identification routinely and eventually by automated techniques.

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U.S.-Japan Joint Meeting on the Toxicological Characterization of ...

By: Terri Damstra

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: A joint meeting was held January 30 through February 1,1989, between scientists fromthe U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP), Research Triangle Park, NC, and the National Institute of Hygienic Sciences (NIHS), Tokyo, Japan, to exchange information on the scientific issues and processes involved in the design, conduct, and evaluation of both short-term and longterm toxicitylcarcinogenicity studies. As emphasized in the opening statements by Dr. Y. Omori (NIHS) ...

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Exposure Assessment in the National Children's Study : Introduction

By: Larry L. Needham

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The science of exposure assessment is relatively new and evolving rapidly with the advancement of sophisticated methods for specific measurements at the picogram per gram level or lower in a variety of environmental and biologic matrices. Without this measurement capability, environmental health studies rely on questionnaires or other indirect means as the primary method to assess individual exposures. Although we use indirect methods, they are seldom used as st...

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Biochemical and Physiological Effects of Chlordimeform

By: R. W. Beeman

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Chlordimeform is a very unusual pesticide from several standpoints. First, its effectiveness against insect and acarine pests in the field does not always come from its direct killing action. For instance, chlordimeform causes marked excitation in adult rice stem borers which results in abnormal egg-laying behavior. In the young larvae, chlordimeform causes different types of behavioral changes which may be collectively described as general sedation. Here the la...

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Spheres of Influence Indi-Gene-Ous Conflicts

By: Judy Gobert

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: With nearly two-thirds of the population afflicted, the Nuu-chah-nulth Indians of Vancouver Island in British Columbia have one of the highest rates of arthritis in the world. Often passed down family lines, the genetics of arthritis in this unique population was studied extensively during the 1980s by Richard Ward, now head of the Institute of Biological Anthropology at the University of Oxford in England. As part of his study, Ward traveled through Nuu-chah-nu...

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Building a Tsunami Warning System

By: Carol Potera

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The 26 December 2004 tsunami that devastated coastal areas in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Myanmar, India, the Maldives, Sri Lanka, and Somalia was produced by a magnitude 9.0 earthquake 155 kilometers southwest of northern Sumatra. The tsunami inundated coasts with waves more than 30 feet high every 30?40 minutes for several hours. It killed more than 150,000 people and injured millions, making it one of the worst natural disasters the modern world has ever seen.

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The Search for Chlorinated Dibenzofürans and Chlorinated Dibenzodi...

By: Gerald W. Bowes

Government Reference Publication

Introduction: Various Kinds of reproductive abnormalities have been documented among wildlife species in north America.

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Airborne Acidity : Estimates of Exposure and Human Health Effects

By: Morton Lippmann

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Session 1 of this Conference was designed to address the question of whether there are human health effects from the inhalation of pollutants associated with acid precipitation. The authors presented excellent reviews in their assigned topics, including much new and important information. The session ended with a comprehensive review by Hackney, which re&v_es me of the need to present a summary of current knowledge on the topics that he covered. Still, it is cle...

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Mutagenicity of Halogenated Alkanes and Their Derivatives

By: Herbert S. Rosenkranz

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Because of their widespread use as lead scaven gers in gasoline, fumigants, refrigerants, anesthetics, industrial solvents, and intermediates, the hu man population is widely exposed to halogenated olefins. For this reason our laboratory has for the last several years been involved in the study of the genetic and DNA-modifying properties of such agents (1-4). Moreover, because a numbel- of halogenated alcohols are present as residues in fumigated food products a...

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Molecular Medicine : An Introductory Text, 3Rd Edition

By: Ronald J. Trent

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The third edition of Molecular Medicine: An Introductory Text, like the previous editions, continues to provide a contemporary and succinct overview of DNA in medicine. Chapter topics include a history of molecular medicine, DNA, RNA, genes, and chromosomes; Mendelian genetic traits; complex genetic traits; genomics, proteomics, and bioinformatics; genetic and cellular therapies; reproduction and development; infectious diseases; forensic medicine and science; a...

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