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Magnetic-Fieldinduced Dna Strand Breaks in Brain Cells of the Rat

By: Narendra P. Singh

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: In previous research, we found that rats acutely (2 hr) exposed to a 60-Hz sinusoidal magnetic field at intensities of 0.1?0.5 millitesla (mT) showed increases in DNA single- and double-strand breaks in their brain cells. Further research showed that these effects could be blocked by pretreating the rats with the free radical scavengers melatonin and N-tert-butyl-(Alpha)-phenylnitrone, suggesting the involvement of free radicals. In the present study, effects of...

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Synergistic Interaction in Simultaneous Exposure to Streptomyces C...

By: Kati Huttunen

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The microbial exposure associated with health complaints in moldy houses consists of a heterogeneous group of components, including both living and dead bacteria, fungi, and their metabolites and active compounds. However, little is known about the interactions between different microbes and their metabolites, although the cytotoxicity and inflammatory potential of certain individual microbes have been reported. In this study, we investigated the inflammatory re...

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The Effect of Ozone Exposure on the Ability of Human Surfactant Pr...

By: Todd M. Umstead

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Ozone exposure can cause inflammation and impaired lung function. Human surfactant protein A (SP-A) may play a role in inflammation by modulating cytokine production by macrophages. SP-A is encoded by two genes, SP-A1 and SP-A2, and several allelic variants have been characterized for each gene. These allelic variants differ among themselves in amino acids that may exhibit differential sensitivity to ozone-induced oxidation and this may produce functional differ...

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Urinary Creatinine Concentrations in the U.S. Population : Implica...

By: Dana B. Barr

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Biologic monitoring (i.e., biomonitoring) is used to assess human exposures to environmental and workplace chemicals. Urinary biomonitoring data typically are adjusted to a constant creatinine concentration to correct for variable dilutions among spot samples. Traditionally, this approach has been used in population groups without much diversity. The inclusion of multiple demographic groups in studies using biomonitoring for exposure assessment has increased the...

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Degradation Pathways of Pcb Upon Gamma Irradiation

By: François Lepine

Government Reference Publication

Introduction: In a previous publication (I), the effects of gamma irradiation on Aroclor 1260 in solution were investigated. Considerable modlcations of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) gas chromatographic profile were observed at irradiation doses similar to the maximum recommended by the Food and Aericultural Ormnkation of the United Nations (,F AO.) for fogd processin; Interestingly, dechlorination was the sole degradation pathway observed. Most of the congeners for...

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Perspectives in Memoriam

By: David P. Rall

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: As a scientist, administrator, and diplomat, David P. Rall pioneered the effort to identify and understand the elements that make up the human environment and their consequences for human health. As an intellectual and aggressive activist, he educated scientists, governments, and the world community to the critical need to address the existence of environmental agents and their consequences for human health. As a leader he marshalled some of the best minds and h...

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Effects of Ammonium Perchlorate on Thyroid Function in Developing ...

By: Helen M. Crane

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Perchlorate is a known environmental contaminant, largely due to widespread military use as a propellant. Perchlorate acts pharmacologically as a competitive inhibitor of thyroidal iodide uptake in mammals, but the impacts of perchlorate contamination in aquatic ecosystems and, in particular, the effects on fish are unclear. Our studies aimed to investigate the effects of concentrations of ammonium perchlorate that can occur in the environment (1, 10, and 100 mg...

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Chemical and Biological Investigations of a Transformer Accident a...

By: Patrick W. Okeefe

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Since 1977, government regulations in the U.S. have prohibited the manufacture of transformers or capacitors containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as dielectric fluids. However, it has been estimated that over 150,000 tons of PCBs are present in capacitors and transformers still in current use. In 1978, laboratory experiments demonstrated that pyrolysis of PCBs at high temperatures (200-600?C) could result in the for-.

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Waterborne Outbreak Control : Which Disinfectant

By: Elmer W. Akin

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Since the turn of the century, the benefits to public health from the disinfection of drinking water have been broadly recognized. The discovery that water could be a major vehicle of disease transmission preceded scientific verification of the germ theory of disease in the late 1800s. In 1854, John Snow made his classic deduction that a water supply was responsible for a severe cholera epidemic that was localized in a section of London, England. The outbreak th...

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Interrelations of Lead Levels in Bone, Venous Blood, And Umbilical...

By: Joel Schwartz

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Lead is a well-known human reproductive toxin. For centuries, lead exposure has been linked to adverse outcomes in pregnant women and newborns (1). In addition, fetal lead exposure can cause delay in the embryonic development of multiple organ systems, including retardation of cognitive development in early childhood (2). Most studies that have used biomarkers to measure fetal lead exposure have relied on lead levels in maternal blood or umbilical cord blood at ...

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Biomarker Correlations of Urinary 2, 4-D Levels in Foresters : Gen...

By: Vincent F. Garry

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Chlorophenoxy herbicides remain one of the most commonly used pesticide products due to their efficacy in weed control, relatively low cost, and low acute toxicity in humans (1). Historically, epidemiologic studies conducted in the midwestern United States have suggested an association between chlorophenoxy use and non?Hodgkin lymphoma (2,3). Chronic, long-term animal studies do not support carcinogenic effects for this herbicide in its pure form (4). Early comm...

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Workshop Report : Environmental Exposures and Cancer Prevention

By: Fredrick D. Ashbury

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The Workshop on Environmental Exposures and Cancer was held by Cancer Care Ontario (CCO) 25?26 April 2001. An expert panel convened to achieve consensus on a list of important environmental exposures, priority environmental exposures in Ontario, and recommendations for CCO in the areas of surveillance, research, and prevention activities to address these environmental exposures. Panel members developed a working definition of environmental exposure and criteria ...

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Regression Analysis of Time Trends in Perinatal Mortality in Germa...

By: Hagen Scherb

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: To date, the explosion of the nuclear reactor in Chernobyl, Ukraine, approximately 160 km northwest of Kiev, on 26 April 1986 is the most serious accident in a nuclear power station. The event led to a release of large quantities of radioactive material over a 10-day period. Depending on atmospheric conditions at the time, the extent of contamination in Europe was variable. Ukraine, Belarus, and parts of Russia and Scandinavia were highly contaminated by radioac...

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Analyses of Ethylene Glycol Monoalkyl Ethers and Their Proposed Me...

By: Anthony W. Smallwood

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Glycol ethers are known to produce embryotoxic and teratugenic effects in a variety of animal species. In addition, testicular edema and tubular atrophy have been reported. The health effects of this class of compounds are not known in humans, despite the fact that these solvents arc widely used in industry. In order to evaluate potential effects in humans, it is first necessary to estimate expusure in the workplace (environmental monitoring). However. in the ra...

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Some Concepts in Toxicology

By: Sheldon D. Murphy

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Toxicology has recently been defined by the educational committee of the Society of Toxicology as the science which studies the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms and assesses the probability of their occurrence (I). Thus, a satisfactory toxicological assessment of a chemical will include not only the identification, quantitation and interpretation of injurious effects of chemicals in living systems, but it will also include a quantitative analysis...

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The Influence of Ambient Coarse Particulate Matter on Asthma Hospi...

By: Richard T. Burnett

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Numerous studies have documented that ambient particulate matter is associated with asthma hospitalizations, emergency department visits, respiratory symptoms, and pulmonary function (1?6). Most previous studies have focused on fine particulate matter < 2.5 micrometer in average aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) and thoracic particulate matter < 10 micrometer in average aerodynamic diameter (PM10) that dominate concentrations of fine particles in most urban areas (7)...

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Methyl Mercury and Inorganic Mercury in Swedish Pregnant Women and...

By: K. Ask Björnberg

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: We studied exposure to methyl mercury (MeHg) in Swedish pregnant women (total mercury [T-Hg] in hair) and their fetuses (MeHg in cord blood) in relation to fish intake. The women were recruited at antenatal care clinics in late pregnancy to participate in an exposure study of environmental pollutants. Fish consumption was evaluated using food frequency questionnaires including detailed questions on fish consumption. In addition, we determined inorganic mercury (...

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Mediators of Ca2+-Dependent Secretion

By: Ronald P. Rubin

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The role of calcium (Ca2+) in stimulus-secretion coupling has been unequivocally established. In electrically excitable cells such as the neuron, adrenal medullary chromaffin cell, the p cell of the endocrine pancreas, and cells of the adeno- and neurohypophysis, the rise in cellular Ca2+ following stimulation is derived to a large extent from influx of cation through voltage-sensitive channels (I) . In nonexcitable secretory cells, such as those of exocrine gla...

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Children's Health, Susceptibility, And Regulatory Approaches to Re...

By: Resha M. Putzrath

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Few issues in risk analysis have generated as heated controversy as that of how best to protect children?s health from chemical contaminants in the environment. The issue is not whether to protect children, because few would argue against protecting children; the issue is how best to protect them. Insults that occur during development in utero or during childhood can have tragic consequences in terms of birth defects and greater likelihood of disease throughout ...

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Foreword

By: James K. Selkirk

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The National Toxicology Program (NTP) was established in 1978 by the Secretary of Health and Human Services to coordinate toxicology research and testing of potentially hazardous chemicals. The NTP is composed of sections of several Federal agencies that perform toxicology research. Members include the National Institute of Healths National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the Center for Disease Controls National Institute for Occupational Safety and ...

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