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Plos Biology : Evolution for the Next Generation, Volume 2

By: Masakado Kawata
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Plos Biology : Stitching Together Multiple Data Dimensions Reveals...

By: Andre Levchenko

Description : Cells employ multiple levels of regulation, including transcriptional and translational regulation, that drive core biological processes and enable cells to respond to genetic and environmental changes. Small-molecule metabolites are one category of critical cellular intermediates that can influence as well as be a target of cellular regulations. Because metabolites represent the direct output of protein-mediated cellular processes, endogenous metabolite co...

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Plos Biology : an Endoribonuclease Functionally Linked to Perinucl...

By: Anita Corbett

Description : Nuclear mRNA export is a crucial step in eukaryotic gene expression, which is in yeast coupled to cotranscriptional messenger ribonucleoprotein particle (mRNP) assembly and surveillance. Several surveillance systems that monitor nuclear mRNP biogenesis and export have been described, but the mechanism by which the improper mRNPs are recognized and eliminated remains poorly understood. Here we report that the conserved PIN domain protein Swt1 is an RNA endon...

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Plos Biology : a Holistic Approach to Marine Eco-systems Biology, ...

By: Public Library of Science (Plos)
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Plos Biology : the Hedgehog Signaling Pathway ; Where Did it Come ...

By: Matthew P. Scott
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Plos Biology : a High Precision Survey of the Molecular Dynamics o...

By: Sandra L. Schmid

Description : Dual colour total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy is a powerful tool for decoding the molecular dynamics of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). Typically, the recruitment of a fluorescent protein–tagged endocytic protein was referenced to the disappearance of spot-like clathrin-coated structure (CCS), but the precision of spot-like CCS disappearance as a marker for canonical CME remained unknown. Here we have used an imaging assay based on tota...

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Plos Biology : a Map of Recent Positive Selection in the Human Gen...

By: Laurence Hurst

Description : The identification of signals of very recent positive selection provides information about the adaptation of modern humans to local conditions. We report here on a genome-wide scan for signals of very recent positive selection in favor of variants that have not yet reached fixation. We describe a new analytical method for scanning single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for signals of recent selection, and apply this to data from the International HapMap ...

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Plos Biology : Vertnet ; a New Model for Biodiversity Data Sharing...

By: Heather Constable
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Plos Biology : the Dead-box Protein Dhh1 Promotes Decapping by Slo...

By: Antonio J. Vidal-puig

Description : Translational control and messenger RNA (mRNA) decay represent important control points in the regulation of gene expression. In yeast, the major pathway for mRNA decay is initiated by deadenylation followed by decapping and 59–39 exonucleolytic digestion of the mRNA. Proteins that activate decapping, such as the DEAD-box RNA helicase Dhh1, have been postulated to function by limiting translation initiation, thereby promoting a ribosome-free mRNA that is ta...

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Plos Biology : Heritable Stochastic Switching Revealed by Single-c...

By: Mikhail S. Gelfand

Description : The partitioning and subsequent inheritance of cellular factors like proteins and RNAs is a ubiquitous feature of cell division. However, direct quantitative measures of how such nongenetic inheritance affects subsequent changes in gene expression have been lacking. We tracked families of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as they switch between two semi-stable epigenetic states. We found that long after two cells have divided, they continued to switch in a...

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Plos Biology : Capturing Hammerhead Ribozyme Structures in Action ...

By: Young-in Chi

Description : PDZ domains are protein–protein interaction modules that recognize specific C-terminal sequences to assemble protein complexes in multicellular organisms. By scanning billions of random peptides, we accurately map binding specificity for approximately half of the over 330 PDZ domains in the human and Caenorhabditis elegans proteomes. The domains recognize features of the last seven ligand positions, and we find 16 distinct specificity classes conserved from...

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Plos Biology : Functional Dissection of an Innate Immune Response ...

By: Michael Levine

Description : The innate immune system is ancient and highly conserved. It is the first line of defense and the only recognizable immune system in the vast majority of metazoans. Signaling events that convert pathogen detection into a defense response are central to innate immunity. Drosophila has emerged as an invaluable model organism for studying this regulation. Activation of the NF-jB family member Relish by the caspase-8 homolog Dredd is a central, but still poorly...

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Plos Biology : Natural Selection, Not Mutation ; Recombination in ...

By: Public Library of Science (Plos)
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Plos Biology : of a Caterpillar, Volume 4

By: Andy Dobson

Description : Risk of human exposure to vector-borne zoonotic pathogens is a function of the abundance and infection prevalence of vectors. We assessed the determinants of Lyme-disease risk (density and Borrelia burgdorferi-infection prevalence of nymphal Ixodes scapularis ticks) over 13 y on several field plots within eastern deciduous forests in the epicenter of US Lyme disease (Dutchess County, New York). We used a model comparison approach to simultaneously test the ...

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Plos Biology : when Bacteria Lose a Single Dna Base, Aphids Suff E...

By: Mary Hoff
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Plos Biology : a Safeguard Mechanism Regulates Rho Gtpases to Coor...

By: Thomas D. Pollard

Description : The spatiotemporal control of cell polarity is crucial for the development of multicellular organisms and for reliable polarity switches during cell cycle progression in unicellular systems. A tight control of cell polarity is especially important in haploid budding yeast, where the new polarity site (bud site) is established next to the cell division site after cell separation. How cells coordinate the temporal establishment of two adjacent polarity sites ...

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Plos Biology : Emergence of Large-scale Cell Morphology and Moveme...

By: Jonathan B. Alberts

Description : Variations in cell migration and morphology are consequences of changes in underlying cytoskeletal organization and dynamics. We investigated how these large-scale cellular events emerge as direct consequences of small-scale cytoskeletal molecular activities. Because the properties of the actin cytoskeleton can be modulated by actinremodeling proteins, we quantitatively examined how one such family of proteins, enabled/vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein ...

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Plos Biology : White-opaque Switching in Natural Mtla, Volume 11

By: Joseph Heitman

Description : Phenotypic transitions play critical roles in host adaptation, virulence, and sexual reproduction in pathogenic fungi. A minority of natural isolates of Candida albicans, which are homozygous at the mating type locus (MTL, a/a or a/a), are known to be able to switch between two distinct cell types : white and opaque. It is puzzling that white-opaque switching has never been observed in the majority of natural C. albicans strains that have heterozygous MTL g...

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Plos Biology : Dorsoventral Patterning in Hemichordates ; Insights...

By: Edward De Robertis

Description : We have compared the dorsoventral development of hemichordates and chordates to deduce the organization of their common ancestor, and hence to identify the evolutionary modifications of the chordate body axis after the lineages split. In the hemichordate embryo, genes encoding bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmp) 2/4 and 5/8, as well as several genes for modulators of Bmp activity, are expressed in a thin stripe of ectoderm on one midline, historically called ...

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Plos Biology : a Pacific Culture Among Wild Baboons ; Its Emergenc...

By: Frans B. M. De Waal

Description : Reports exist of transmission of culture in nonhuman primates. We examine this in a troop of savanna baboons studied since 1978. During the mid-1980s, half of the males died from tuberculosis: because of circumstances of the outbreak, it was more aggressive males who died, leaving a cohort of atypically unaggressive survivors. A decade later, these behavioral patterns persisted. Males leave their natal troops at adolescence: by the mid-1990s, no males remai...

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