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Automatisierte Vhdl-code-generierung Eines Delta-sigma Modulators ...

By: R. Spilka; T. Ostermann

Description: Institut für Integrierte Schaltungen, JK Universität Linz, Altenberger Str. 69, 4040 Linz, Austria. Im vorliegenden Beitrag wird eine automatische Generierung des VHDL-Codes eines Delta-Sigma Modulators präsentiert. Die Koeffizientenmultiplikation wird hierbei durch Bit-Serielle-Addition durchgeführt. Mit Hilfe zweier neuer Matlab Funktionen wird der Systementwurf durch die bekannte Delta-Sigma Toolbox von R. Schreier erweitert und direkt synthesefähiger VHDL Code erzeugt.

Schreier,~R.: The Delta-Sigma Toolbox Vers. 7.1, 2004.

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Radio Network Planning and Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Field...

By: W. Wiesbeck; M. A. Baldauf; W. Sörgel

Description: Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik und Elektronik (IHE), Universität Karlsruhe (TH), Germany. This paper analyzes the effect of a change in cell size and of transmit power control on the human exposure to electromagnetic fields. In a simplified network configuration the well accepted COST-Hata model is considered to assess the path loss. It is shown that increasing the base station density will not generally raise the exposure but can rather help to lowe...

Balanis,~C. A.: Antenna theory: A review, Proceedings of the IEEE, vol 80, pp. 7–23, Jan., 1992.; Baldauf,~M. A., Herschlein,~A., Sörgel,~W., and Wiesbeck,~W.: Safety distances in mobile communications, in: Proceedings of 2nd International Workshop on Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields, Rhodes, Greece, pp. 148–156, Oct., 2002.; Baldauf,~M. A., Knörzer,~S., Sörgel,~W., and Wiesbeck,~W.: Cell splitting and exposure in GSM networks, in: 13th International Conferen...

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Fully-integrated Ldo Voltage Regulator for Digital Circuits : Volu...

By: B. Eversmann; D. Schmitt-landsiedel; R. Brederlow; M. Lüders

Description: Munich University of Technology, Munich, Germany. Low-dropout (LDO) voltage regulators are widely used to supply low-voltage digital circuits. For recent ultra-low-power microcontroller systems, a fully-integrated LDO without any external capacitance is preferred in order to achieve a fast and energy-efficient wake-up.

Commonly, an LDO is specified, designed and verified for DC load currents. In contrast, a digital load creates large current...

Zwerg, M., Baumann, A., Kuhn, R., Arnold, M., Nerlich, R., Herzog, M., Ledwa, R., Sichert, C., Rzehak, V., Thanigai, P., and Eversmann, B.: An 82 μA/MHz Microcontroller with Embedded FeRAM for Energy-Harvesting Applications, IEEE ISSCC 2011, 334–335, 2011.; Kristjansson, E.: ARM7 Low Power Design, White Paper www.microcontroller.com/ARM7_Low_Power_Design_-_White_Paper.htm, November 2006.; Guo, J. and Leung, K.: A 6 μW Chip-Area-Efficient Output-Capacitorless LDO in 90-nm...

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Design Und Analyse Elektrisch Kleiner Antennen Für Den Einsatz in ...

By: M. Camp; H. Eul; R. Herschmann

Description: Universität Hannover, Institut für Hochfrequenztechnik und Funksysteme, Germany. RFID Systeme werden seit Anfang der neunziger Jahre mit stetig zunehmender Verbreitung im Bereich der automatischen Produktidentifikation, der Diebstahlsicherung (EAS, Electronic Article Surveillance) und für automatische Zutrittskontrollsysteme eingesetzt. Objekte werden hierzu mit einem Transponder ausgestattet, der aus einer Antenne und einem Chip auf einem Trägermateria...

Wheeler,~H A.: Small Antennas, IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 23, 462–469, 1975.; Herschmann,~R. and Eul,~H.: RFID Systeme für den Einsatz in UHF und Mikrowellenbereich, presented at RadioTecC, Radio Techniques and Technologies for Commerc. Commun. and Sensing Appl. Berlin, 2004.; Best,~S R.: A Discussion on the Properties of Electrically Small Self Resonant Wire Antennas, IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, 46, 9–22, 2004.

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Analytische Modellierung Des Zeitverhaltens Und Der Verlustleistun...

By: H.-j. Pfleiderer; R. Geißler

Description: Universität Ulm, Abteilung Allgemeine Elektrotechnik und Mikroelektronik, Albert-Einstein-Allee 43, D-89081 Ulm, Germany. In modernen CMOS-Technologien werden die Verzögerungszeit, die Ausgangsflankensteilheit und der Querstrom eines Gatters sowohl durch die Lastkapazität als auch durch die Steilheit des Eingangssignals beeinflusst. Die heute verwendeten Technologiebibliotheken beinhalten Tabellenmodelle mit 25 oder mehr Stützpunkten dieser Abhängigkeit...

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New Experiments to Validate the Radiation Pattern of the Middle At...

By: R. Latteck; W. Singer; G. Stober; T. Renkwitz; M. Rapp

Description: Leibniz-Institute of Atmospheric Physics at the Rostock University, Schloss-Str. 6, 18225 Kühlungsborn, Germany. The Middle Atmosphere Alomar Radar System (MAARSY) is a monostatic radar with an active phased array antenna designed for studies of phenomena in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. Its design in particular the flexible beam forming and steering capability makes it to a powerful instrument to perform observations with high angular and tempo...

Baars, J. W. M., Mezger, P. G., and Wendker, H.: The flux density values of standard sources used for antenna calibrations, Tech. rep., National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 1964.; Boland, J. W., Hollinger, J. P., Mayer, C. H., and McCullough, T. P.: Polarization of Cygnus A, Taurus A, and Cassiopeia A at 2.07 Centimeters, Astrophys. J., 144, 437–439, 1966.; Cane, H.: A 30 MHz map of the whole sky, Australian Journal of Physics, 31, 561–565, 1978.; Campistron, B., Despau...

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Berechnung Des Hochfrequenzverhaltens Komplexer Strukturen Mit Der...

By: H.-w. Glock; U. Van Rienen; K. Rothemund

Description: Institut für Allgemeine Elektrotechnik, Universität Rostock. Es wird eine Methode zur Berechnung der Hochfrequenz-Eigenschaften komplexer Strukturen vorgestellt. Das Verfahren beruht auf der Zerlegung der Gesamtstruktur in einzelne einfachere Segmente, deren breitbandige S-Matrizen mit kommerziellen Programmen berechnet werden. Das Gesamtsystem kann von beliebiger Topologie sein, und die Zahl der die Segmente verkoppelnden Hohlleiter- Moden ist nicht ...

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Assessing Polarization Effects for the Airborne Imaging Spectromet...

By: D. Schläpfer; J. Nieke; U. Böttger

Description: DLR, Institut für Planetenforschung, Berlin, Germany. In the scope of hyperspectral airborne imaging spectrometer (APEX) design activities, the acceptable sensitivity of linear polarization of the spectrometer is analyzed by assessing the amount of polarization of reflected light in the atmosphere-surface system. A large number of calculations is performed for a wide variaty of viewing geometries to study the influences of aerosol models, natural surfa...

Böttger, U., Preusker, R., and Nieke, J.: Radiative transfer model STORM for full Stokes vector calculations for a plane parallel atmosphere-surface-system, submitted to SPIE, Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere X conference, 2005.; Chandrasekhar, S.: Radiative Transfer, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1950.; Brazile, J., Kaiser, J., Schläpfer, D., Nieke, J., Schaepman, M., and Itten, K.: Parallization of APEX airborne imaging spectrometer product generation, su...

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A Modified Drought Index for Wmo Ra VI : Volume 6, Issue 1 (20/10/...

By: S. Pietzsch; P. Bissolli

Description: Deutscher Wetterdienst, Offenbach, Germany. Drought is a phenomenon which can cause large economical impact even in Europe. To assess the magnitude and the spatial extension of drought events, it is important to have a standardized drought index which is applicable for a large climatically heterogeneous region like Europe or the WMO RA VI Region (Europe and the Middle East). Such an index should describe the drought phenomenon adequately, but it should ...

Müller-Westermeier, G.: Die Klimatische Wasserbilanz, in: Deutscher Wetterdienst (2005): Klimaatlas Bundesrepublik Deutschland 4, Offenbach am Main, 2005 (in German).; McKee, T. B., Doesken, N. J., and Kleist, J.: The relationship of drought frequency and duration to time scales, Proceedings of the Eighth Conference on Applied Climatology, Anaheim, California, 1993.; National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC): Interpretation of 1-Month Standardized Precipitation Index Map...

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Improving Short-term Forecasting During Ramp Events by Means of Re...

By: A. Cuerva; A. Costa; C. Gallego

Description: Wind Energy Forecasting Group, CIEMAT. Avd. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid, Spain. Ramp events are large rapid variations within wind power time series. Ramp forecasting can benefit from specific strategies so as to particularly take into account these shifts in the wind power output dynamic. In the short-term context (characterized by prediction horizons from minutes to a few days), a Regime-Switching (RS) model based on Artificial Neural Nets (ANN) is pr...

Costa, A.: Mathematical/Statistical and Physical/Meteorological Models for Short-term Prediction of Wind Farms Output, Ph.D. thesis, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales (Universidad Politécnica de Madrid), 2005.; Cutler, N., Kay, M., Jacka, K., and Nielsen, T. S.: Detecting, categorizing and forecasting large ramps in wind farm power output using meteorological observations and WPPT, Wind Energy, 10, 453–470, 2007.; Giebel, G.: The state of the art in sho...

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Euclis – a Web Based European Climate Information System : Volume ...

By: P. Bissolli

Description: German Meteorological Service, Offenbach, Germany. The German Meteorological Service (Deutscher Wetterdienst) is presently developing a European climate information system (EuCLIS) which is presented here. The aim of this system is to distribute climate monitoring information of the area of the WMO (World Meteorological Organisation) Region VI (Europe and the Middle East) via the web. EuCLIS will be the successor of the already existing platform GCMP (G...

Behrendt, J. and Rösner, S.: The climate information system KLIS at the DWD, Climate and Environmental Database Systems, Workshop, Hamburg, Germany, edited by: Lautenschlager, M., Boston, 1997.; Bissolli, P., Hechler, P., and Nitsche H.: WMO Regional Climate Centres – concept and DWD's potential role, Deutscher Wetterdienst, Climate Status Report 2005.; Bundesverwaltungsamt of the German government: Government Site Builder (in German), Cologne, http://www.government-site...

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Coherent and Non-coherent Processing of Multiband Radar Sensor Dat...

By: J. Detlefsen; U. Siart; S. Tejero

Description: Institute for High Frequency Engineering, Technische Universität München, D-80290 München, Munich, Germany. Increasing resolution is an attractive goal for all types of radar sensor applications. Obtaining high radar resolution is strongly related to the signal bandwidth which can be used. The currently available frequency bands however, restrict the available bandwidth and consequently the achievable range resolution. As nowadays more sensors become...

Hansen, R C.: Geometric Theory of Diffraction, IEEE Press, New York, 1981.; James, G L.: Geometrical Theory of Diffraction for Electromagnetic Waves, Peter Peregrinus, Stevenage, Herts, England, revised third edn., 1986.; Marple, S.: Digital Spectral Analysis, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1987.; McNamara, D A., Pistorius, C., and Malherbe, J.: Introduction to the Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction, Artech House, Boston London, 1990.; Schmidt, R O.:...

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An Accelerated Hybrid Tlm-ie Method for the Investigation of Shiel...

By: P. Russer; N. Fichtner

Description: Institute for High Frequency Engineering, Technische Universität München, Arcisstr. 21, 80333 München, Germany. A hybrid numerical technique combining time-domain integral equations (TD-IE) with the transmission line matrix (TLM) method is presented for the efficient modeling of transient wave phenomena. This hybrid method allows the full-wave modeling of circuits in the time-domain as well as the electromagnetic coupling of remote TLM subdomains u...

Tai, C.-T.: Direct Integration of Field Equations, Progress in Electromagn. Research, 28, 339–359, 2000.; Balanis, C.: Antenna Theory – Analysis and Design, John Wiley & Sons, 2nd edn., 1997.; Chew, W., Michielssen, E., Song, J M., and Jin, J M.: Fast and Efficient Algorithms in Computational Electromagnetics, Artech House, Norwood, MA, USA, 2001.; Ergin, A., Shanker, B., and Michielssen, E.: The Plane-Wave Time Domain Algorithm for the Fast Analysis of Transient Wave Ph...

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Comparative Verification of Different Nowcasting Systems to Suppor...

By: M. Goeber; S. Trepte; K. Wapler

Description: Deutscher Wetterdienst, Offenbach, Germany. The development and use of nowcasting systems should inevitably be accompanied by the development and application of suitable verification methods. A thorough verification strategy is needed to adequately assess the quality of the system and consequently to lead to improvements. Different verification methods for thunderstorms and its attributes are discussed along with the importance of observational data set...

Betz, H. D., Schmidt, K., Laroche, P. Blanchet, P., Oettinger, W. P., Defer, E., Dziewit, Z., and Konarski, J.: LINET – An international lightning detection network in Europe, Atmos. Res., 91, 564–573, 2009.; Davis, C. A., Brown, B. G., and Bullock, R. G.: Object-based verification of precipitation forecasts. Part I: Methodology and application to mesoscale rain areas, Mon. Weather Rev., 134, 1772–1784, 2006.; Doswell III, C. A.: Verification of forecasts of convection: ...

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Modeling of Field Singularities at Dielectric Edges Using Grid Bas...

By: E. Gjonaj; U. Römer; R. Schuhmann; T. Weiland; C. Classen

Description: University of Paderborn, Fachgebiet Theoretische Elektrotechnik, Germany. Electric field singularities at sharp metallic edges or at a dielectric contact line can be described analytically by asymptotic expressions. The a priori known form of the field distribution in the vicinity of these edges can be used to construct numerical methods with improved accuracy. This contribution focuses on a modified Finite Integration Technique and on a Discontinuous G...

Arnold, D N., Brezzi, F., Cockburn, B., and Marini, L D.: Unified Analysis of Discontinuous Galerkin Methods for Elliptic Problems, SIAM Journal on Numerical Analysis, 39, 1749–1779, 2002.; Beilenhoff, K. and Heinrich, W.: Treatment of field singularities in the finite-difference approximation, Microwave Symposium Digest, 1993., IEEE MTT-S International, 2, 979–982, 1993.; Chahine, E., Laborde, P., and Renard, Y.: Crack tip enrichment in the XFEM method using a cut-off f...

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Analyse Unterschiedlicher Modellierungsvarianten Des Direct Power ...

By: W. Wilkening; O. Jovic; S. Ritzmann; U. Stürmer

Description: Fraunhofer Institut für Zuverlässigkeit und Mikrointegration, Gustav-Meyer-Allee 25, 13355 Berlin, Germany. Dieser Beitrag analysiert zwei Ansätze zur Modellierung eines Teststandes zur Charakterisierung von integrierten Schaltungen mittels Direct Power Injection (DPI) auf einem Wafer. Die erste Variante ist zur Analyse bereits vorliegender integrierter Schaltungen nutzbar. Sie benötigt gemessene S-Parameterdaten, mit denen die an einem realen Messobjek...

IEC 62132-4: Integrated Circuits-Measurements of Electromagnetic Immunity 150 kHz to 1 GHz-Part 4: Direct RF Power Injection Method, Int. Electro-Tech. Commiss. Standard IEC 62132, pp. 8–9, December 2004.; Fiori, F.: A New Nonlinear Model of EMI-Induced Distortion Phenomena in Feedback CMOS Operational Amplifiers, IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, 44, 495–502, 2002.; Johannsmann, F.: Messung und Modellierung der elektromagnetischen Beeinflussung mikroel...

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Implementierung Eines Verlustleistungsoptimierten Dezimators Für K...

By: M. Ortmanns; J. Becker; N. Lotze; M. Becker; Y. Manoli

Description: Lehrstuhl für Mikroelektronik, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität, Georges-Köhler-Allee 102 DG, 79110 Freiburg, Germany. Dieser Beitrag stellt die Implementierung eines neuartigen Ansatzes einer effizienten Dezimator-Architektur für kaskadierte Sigma-Delta Modulatoren vor. Die Rekombinationslogik kaskadierter Modulatoren und die Korrektur des Verstärkungsfehlers zeitkontinuierlicher (CT) Modulatoren werden in die erste Stufe des Dezimators integriert. Eine ents...

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Challenges for Wireless Mesh Networks to Provide Reliable Carrier-...

By: N. Bayer; D. Von Hugo

Description: Deutsche Telekom AG Laboratories, 64295 Darmstadt, Germany. Provision of mobile and wireless services today within a competitive environment and driven by a huge amount of steadily emerging new services and applications is both challenge and chance for radio network operators. Deployment and operation of an infrastructure for mobile and wireless broadband connectivity generally requires planning effort and large investments. A promising approach to redu...

Akyildiz, I., Wang X., and Wang, W.: Wireless mesh networks: a survey, Computer Networks, 47(4), 445–487, 2005.; Azcorra, A., Banniza, T., Chieng D., Fitzpatrick, J., von Hugo, D., Natkaniec, M., Robitzsch, S., and Zdarsky, F.: Supporting carrier grade services over wireless mesh networks - the approach of the European FP-7 STREP CARMEN, IEEE Communications Magazine, 2009 April 2009.; CARMEN: CARrier grade MEsh Networks, http://www.ict-carmen.eu/, retrieved October 2009....

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Inca-ce: a Central European Initiative in Nowcasting Severe Weathe...

By: B. Bica; G. Pistotnik; A. Kann

Description: Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics, Vienna, Austria. The INCA-CE (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis – Central Europe) project aims at implementing a transnational weather information system as well as applications for different socio-economic sectors to reduce risks of major economic damage and loss of life caused by severe weather. Civil protection and also stakeholders from eco...

Hand, W. H.: An object-oriented technique for nowcasting heavy showers and thunderstorms, Meteorol. Appl., 3, 31–41, 1996.; Browning, K. A. and Collier, C. G.: Nowcasting of precipitation systems, Rev. Geophys., 27, 345–370, 1989.; Crook, N. A. and Sun, J.: Analysis and forecasting of the low-level wind during the Sydney 2000 Forecast Demonstration Project, Weather Forecast., 19, 151–167, 2004.; Derrien, M. and Le Gléau, H.: MSG/SEVIRI cloud mask and type from SAFNWC, In...

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Breakdown Behavior of Electronics at Variable Pulse Repetition Rat...

By: S. Korte; H. Garbe

Description: Institute of Electrical Engineering and Measurement Science, University of Hannover, Germany. The breakdown behavior of electronics exposed to single transient electromagnetic pulses is subject of investigations for several years. State-of-the-art pulse generators additionally provide the possibility to generate pulse sequences with variable pulse repetition rate. In this article the influence of this repetition rate variation on the breakdown behavior ...

Camp,~M.: Empfindlichkeit elektronischer Schaltungen gegen transiente elektromagnetische Feldimpulse, Diss., Univ. of Hanover, Shaker Verlag, 2004.; Camp,~M., Garbe,~H., and Nitsch,~D.: Influence of the Technology on the Destruction Effects of Semiconductors by Impact of EMP and UWB Pulses, IEEE Intern. Symposium on Electrom. Compatibility, USA, Minneapolis, 87–92, 2002.; Camp,~M., Korte,~S., and Garbe,~H.: Classification of the Destruction Effects in CMOS-Devices after ...

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