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Reference Quality Upper-air Measurements: Gruan Data Processing fo...

By: D. F. Hurst; F. J. Immler; M. Sommer; R. Kivi; R. J. Dirksen; H. Vömel

Description: Deutscher Wetterdienst, Meteorologisches Observatorium Lindenberg, Richard Aßmann Observatorium, Am Observatorium 12, 15848, Lindenberg/Tauche, Germany. The GCOS Reference Upper Air Network (GRUAN) data processing for the Vaisala RS92 radiosonde was developed to meet the criteria for reference measurements. These criteria stipulate the collection of metadata, the use of well-documented correction algorithms, and estimates of the measurement uncertain...

Bock, O., Bosser, P., Bourcy, T., David, L., Goutail, F., Hoareau, C., Keckhut, P., Legain, D., Pazmino, A., Pelon, J., Pipis, K., Poujol, G., Sarkissian, A., Thom, C., Tournois, G., and Tzanos, D.: Accuracy assessment of water vapour measurements from in situ and remote sensing techniques during the DEMEVAP 2011 campaign at OHP, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2777–2802, doi:10.5194/amt-6-2777-2013, 2013.; Calbet, X., Kivi, R...

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Maritime Aerosol Network as a Component of Aeronet – First Results...

By: R. Losno; J. I. Goes; M. J. Harvey; I. Slutsker; N. T. O'Neill; Y. Courcoux; D. M. Giles; C. L. Heald; B. N. Holben; P. K. Quinn; T. L. Diehl; P. Larouche; T. J. Smyth; A. Smirnov; T. Zielinski; S. Kinne; L. A. Remer; R. G. Kleidman; D. S. Covert; J. S. Reid; J. Sciare; R. A. Kahn; J. Griesfeller; M. Schulz; A. MacKe; J. Zhang; Q. Tan; P. Croot; K. J. Voss; E. Joseph; C. M. Duarte; G. Milinevsky; N. B. Nelson; E. Horne; S. Belanger; K. Lapina; B. J. Gaitley; S. M. Sakerin; M. Chin; G. Zibordi; T. F. Eck; V. F. Radionov; K. Krishna Moorthy; S. K. Gulev; N. R. Nalli

Description: Sigma Space Corporation, Lanham, Maryland, USA. The Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN) has been collecting data over the oceans since November 2006. Over 80 cruises were completed through early 2010 with deployments continuing. Measurements areas included various parts of the Atlantic Ocean, the Northern and Southern Pacific Ocean, the South Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, the Arctic Ocean and inland seas. MAN deploys Microtops hand-held su...

Anguelova, M. D. and Webster, F.: Whitecap coverage from satellite measurements: A first step toward modeling the variability of oceanic whitecaps, J. Geophys. Res., 111, C03017, doi:10.1029/2005JC003158, 2006.; Barteneva, O. D., Nikitinskaya, N. I., Sakunov, G. G., and Veselova, L. K.: Atmospheric transmittance in the visible and near IR spectral range, Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 224 pp., 1991 (in Russian).; Chin, M., Ginoux, P., Kinne, S., Holben, B. N., Duncan, B. N....

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Characterisation of Gome-2 Formaldehyde Retrieval Sensitivity : Vo...

By: H. Bösch; I. De Smedt; M. P. Barkley; W. Hewson

Description: EOS Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK. Formaldehyde (CH2O) is an important tracer of tropospheric photochemistry, whose slant column abundance can be retrieved from satellite measurements of solar backscattered UV radiation, using differential absorption retrieval techniques. In this work a spectral fitting sensitivity analysis is conducted on CH2O slant columns retrieved from the Glo...

Abbot, D. S., Palmer, P. I., Martin, R. V., Chance, K. V., Jacob, D. J., and Guenther, A.: Seasonal and interannual variability of North American isoprene emissions as determined by formaldehyde column measurements from space, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 5-1–5-4, doi:10.1029/2003GL017336, 2003.; Aliwell, S. R., Van Roozendael, M., Johnston, P. V., Richter, A., Wagner, T., Arlander, D. W., Burrows, J. P., Fish, D. J., Jones,...

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Near-surface Profiles of Aerosol Number Concentration and Temperat...

By: P. Vaattovaara; D. A. Orsini; A. Held; C. Leck; M. Tjernström

Description: University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth Center of Ecology and Environmental Research, 95440 Bayreuth, Germany. Temperature and particle number concentration profiles were measured at small height intervals above open and frozen leads and snow surfaces in the central Arctic. The device used was a gradient pole designed to investigate potential particle sources over the central Arctic Ocean. The collected data were fitted according to basic logarithmic flux-profi...

Aller, J. Y., Kuznetsova, M. R., Jahns, C. J., and Kemp, P. F.: The sea surface microlayer as a source of viral and bacterial enrichment in marine aerosols, J. Aerosol Sci., 36, 801–812, 2005.; Andreas, E. L: Comment on Vertical coarse aerosol fluxes in the atmospheric surface layer over the North Polar Waters of the Atlantic by Tomasz Petelski and Jacek Piskozub, J. Geophys. Res., 112, C11010, doi:10.1029/2007JC004184, ...

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First Eddy Covariance Flux Measurements by Ptr-tof : Volume 2, Iss...

By: R. Schnitzhofer; M. Graus; T. Titzmann; A. Hansel; I. Bamberger; L. Kaser; L. Hörtnagl; T. M. Ruuskanen; T. Karl; G. Wohlfahrt; M. Müller

Description: Institut für Ionenphysik und Angewandte Physik, Universität Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria. The recently developed PTR-TOF instrument was evaluated to measure methanol fluxes emitted from grass land using the eddy covariance method. The high time resolution of the PTR-TOF allowed storing full mass spectra up to m/z 315 with a frequency of 10 Hz. Three isobaric ions were found at a nominal mass of m/z 33 due to the high mass resolving power o...

Baldocchi, D. D.: Assessing the eddy covariance technique for evaluating carbon dioxide exchange rates of ecosystems: past, present and future, Glob. Change Biol., 9, 479–492, 2003.; Bamberger, I., Hörtnagel, L., Schnitzhofer, R., Graus, M., Ruuskanen, T. M., Müller, M., Wohlfahrt, G., and Hansel, A.: Long Term Flux Measurements of Biogenic VOCs over a Temperate Mountain Grassland, Biogeosciences Discuss., in review, 2009.; Blake, R. S., Whyte, C., Hughes, C. O., Ellis, ...

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On the Characteristics of Ascat Wind Direction Ambiguities : Volum...

By: A. Stoffelen; M. Portabella; A. Verhoef; W. Lin

Description: Institut de Ciències del Mar (ICM) – CSIC, Barcelona, Spain. The inversion of the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) backscatter measurement triplets generally leads to two wind ambiguities with similar wind speed values and opposite wind directions. However, for up-, down- and crosswind (with respect to the mid-beam azimuth direction) cases, the inversion often leads to three or four wind solutions. In most of such cases, the inversion residuals or maximum...

Portabella, M., Stoffelen, A., Verhoef, A., and Verspeek, J.: A new method for improving scatterometer wind quality control, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote. Sens. Lett., 9, 579–583, 2012a.; Cornford, D., Csató, L., Evans, D. J., and Opper, M.: Bayesian analysis of the scatterometer wind retrieval inverse problems: some new approaches, J. R. Statist. Soc. B., 66, 609–626, 2004.; Figa-Saldana, J., Wilson, J. J. W., Attema, E., Gelsthorpe, R., Drinkwater, M. R., and Stoffelen, ...

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Validation of Middle Atmospheric Campaign-based Water Vapour Measu...

By: D. Scheiben; C. Straub; K. A. Walker; G. P. Stiller; N. Kämpfer; B. Tschanz

Description: Institute of Applied Physics, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland. Middle atmospheric water vapour can be used as a tracer for dynamical processes. It is mainly measured by satellite instruments and ground-based microwave radiometers. Ground-based instruments capable of measuring middle atmospheric water vapour are sparse but valuable as they complement satellite measurements, are relatively easy to maintain and have a long lifetime. MIAWARA-C is a gr...

Bernath, P. F., McElroy, C. T., Abrams, M. C., Boone, C. D., Butler, M., Camy-Peyret, C., Carleer, M. R., Clerbaux, C., Coheur, P. F., Colin, R., DeCola, P., Bernath, P. F., McElroy, C. T., Abrams, M. C., Boone, C. D., Butler, M., Camy-Peyret, C., Carleer, M. R., Clerbaux, C., Coheur, P. F., Colin, R., DeCola, P., DeMaziere, M., Drummond, J. R., Dufour, D. G., Evans, W. F. J., Fast, H., Fussen, D., Gilbert, K., Jennings, D. E., Llewellyn, E. J., Lowe, R. P., Mahieu, E., ...

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Greenhouse Gas Observations from Cabauw Tall Tower (1992–2010) : V...

By: A. Hensen; M. E. Popa; W. C. M. Van Den Bulk; P. A. C. Jongejan; A. T. Vermeulen

Description: ECN – Energy Research Centre of The Netherlands, Petten, The Netherlands. Since 1992 semi-continuous in-situ observations of greenhouse gas concentrations have been performed at the tall tower of Cabauw (4.927° E, 51.971° N, −0.7 m a.s.l.). Through 1992 up to now, the measurement system has been gradually extended and improved in precision, starting with CO2 and CH4 concentrations from 200 m a.g.l. in 1992 to vertica...

Ahmadov, R., Gerbig, C., Kretschmer, R., Körner, S., Rödenbeck, C., Bousquet, P., and Ramonet, M.: Comparing high resolution WRF-VPRM simulations and two global CO2 transport models with coastal tower measurements of CO2, Biogeosciences, 6, 807–817, doi:10.5194/bg-6-807-2009, 2009.; Bacastow, R. B., Keeling, C. D., and Whorf, T. P.: Seasonal amplitude increase in atmospheric CO2 concentr...

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Fast Response Cavity Enhanced Ozone Monitor : Volume 5, Issue 5 (2...

By: E. P. Rosen; A. L. Gomez

Description: Southwest Sciences, Inc., 1570 Pacheco St. Ste. E-11, Santa Fe, NM, USA. Ozone is an important atmospheric gas due to its role in air quality and radiative forcing. A new method for sensitive, rapid monitoring of ambient ozone has been developed using a compact platform and relatively inexpensive components. Based on Incoherent Broadband Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy (IBB-CEAS), the device utilizes an optical cavity of just 14.5 cm and ...

Fuhrer, J. and Booker, F.: Ecological issues related to ozone: agricultural issues, Environ. Int., 29, 141–154, doi:10.1016/s0160-4120(02)00157-5, 2003.; Gauderman, W. J., Gilliland, G. F., Vora, H., Avol, E., Stram, D., McConnell, R., Thomas, D., Lurmann, F., Margolis, H. G., Rappaport, E. B., Berhane, K., and Peters, J. M.: Association between air pollution and lung function growth in Southern California child...

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Laboratory Evaluation of the Effect of Nitric Acid Uptake on Frost...

By: J. B. Burkholder; T. Gierczak; H. Vömel; R. S. Gao; L. A. Watts; D. W. Fahey; T. Thornberry

Description: NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Chemical Sciences Division, Boulder, CO, USA. Chilled mirror hygrometers (CMH) are widely used to measure water vapour in the troposphere and lower stratosphere from balloon-borne sondes. Systematic discrepancies among in situ water vapour instruments have been observed at low water vapour mixing ratios (<5 ppm) in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS). Understanding the source of the measurement dis...

Abbatt, J. P. D.: Interactions of atmospheric trace gases with ice surfaces: adsorption and reaction, Chem. Rev., 103, 4783–4800, 2003.; Dessler, A. E., Zhang, Z., and Yang, P.: Water-vapor climate feedback inferred from climate fluctuations, 2003–2008, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L20704, doi:10.1029/2008GL035333, 2008; Fahey, D. W., Kelly, K. K., Ferry, G. V., Poole, L. R., Wilson, J. C., Murphy, D. M., Loewenstein, M., an...

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Field Deployable Diode-laser-based Differential Absorption Lidar (...

By: B. Morley; A. R. Nehrir; D. Moen; K. S. Repasky; S. M. Spuler; M. Hayman

Description: National Center for Atmospheric Research, Earth Observing Lab, Boulder, CO 80307, USA. A field deployable water vapor profiling instrument that builds on the foundation of the preceding generations of diode-laser-based differential absorption lidar (DIAL) laboratory prototypes has been constructed and tested. Significant advances are discussed, including: a unique shared telescope design that allows expansion of the outgoing beam for eye-safe operation ...

American National Standard Institute: American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers, in: Z136.1-2007, edited by: Laser Institute of America, Orlando, FL, USA, 2007.; Behrendt, A., Wulfmeyer, V., Riede, A., Wagner, G., Pal, S., Bauer, H., and Späth, F.: Scanning differential absorption lidar for 3D observations of the atmospheric humidity field, in: International Laser Radar Conference, St. Petersburg, Russia, p. 3, 2010.; Bösenberg, J. and Linné, H.: Continuous groun...

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A New Method for the Simulation of the Ring Effect in Observations...

By: S. Beirle; T. Deutschmann; T. Wagner

Description: Max-Planck-Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany. We present a new technique for the quantitative simulation of the Ring effect for scattered light observations from various platforms and under different atmospheric situations. The method is based on radiative transfer calculations at only one wavelength λ0 in the wavelength range under consideration, and is thus computationally fast. The strength of the Ring effect is calculated from stati...

de Beek, R., Vountas, M., Rozanov, V. V., Richter, A., and Burrows, J. P.: The Ring effect in the cloudy atmosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 721–724, 2001.; Grainger J. F. and Ring, J.: Anomalous Fraunhofer line profiles, Nature, 193, p 762, 1962.; Aben, I., Stam, D. M., and Helderman, F.: The ring effect in skylight polarization, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28(3), 519–522, doi:10.1029/2000GL011901, 2001.; Brinkmann, R. T.: Rotational Raman scattering in planetary atmospheres,...

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Using Sonic Anemometer Temperature to Measure Sensible Heat Flux i...

By: T. W. Horst; L. Jacobsen; P. D. Blanken; S. P. Burns; R. K. Monson

Description: National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado, USA. Sonic anemometers simultaneously measure the turbulent fluctuations of vertical wind (w') and sonic temperature (Ts'), and are commonly used to measure sensible heat flux (H). Our study examines 30-min heat fluxes measured with a Campbell Scientific CSAT3 sonic anemometer above a subalpine forest. We compared H calculated with Ts to ...

Aubinet, M., Grelle, A., Ibrom, A., Rannik, U., Moncrieff, J., Foken, T., Kowalski, A. S., Martin, P. H., Berbigier, P., Bernhofer, C., Clement, R., Elbers, J., Granier, A., Grunwald, T., Morgenstern, K., Pilegaard, K., Rebmann, C., Snijders, W., Valentini, R., and Vesala, T.: Estimates of the annual net carbon and water exchange of forests: The EUROFLUX methodology, Adv. Ecol. Res., 30, 113–175, 2000.; Barr, A. G., Morgenstern, K., Black, T. A., McCaughey, J. H., and Ne...

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The Inter-comparison of Major Satellite Aerosol Retrieval Algorith...

By: C. Emde; J. L. Deuzé; D. Tanré; G. E. Thomas; P. R. J. North; D. J. Diner; V. V. Rozanov; J. Keller; O. Dubovik; E. P. Zege; M. J. Garay; A. S. Prikhach; I. L. Katsev; R. G. Grainger; Y. Ota; F. Ducos; R. Levy; A. Heckel; A. M. Sayer; M. Herman; A. A. Kokhanovsky

Description: Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Bremen, O. Hahn Allee 1, 28334 Bremen, Germany. Remote sensing of aerosol from space is a challenging and typically underdetermined retrieval task, requiring many assumptions to be made with respect to the aerosol and surface models. Therefore, the quality of a priori information plays a central role in any retrieval process (apart from the cloud screening procedure and the forward radiative ...

Abdou, W. A., Martonchik, J. V., Kahn, R. A., West, R. A., and Diner, D. J.: A modified linear-mixing method for calculating atmospheric path radiances of aerosol mixtures, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 16883–16888, 1997.; Ahmad, Z. and Fraser, R. S.: An iterative radiative transfer code for ocean-atmosphere systems, J. Atmos. Sci., 39, 656–665, 1982.; Berk, A., Anderson, G. P., Bernstein, L. S., Acharya, P. K., Dothe, H., Matthew, M. W., Adler-Golden, S. M., Chetwynd, J. H., R...

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Combined Wind Measurements by Two Different Lidar Instruments in t...

By: U.-p. Hoppe; J. Fiedler; G. Baumgarten; B. Kaifler; J. Hildebrand; F.-j. Lübken; B. P. Williams

Description: Leibniz-Institute of Atmospheric Physics at the Rostock University, Kühlungsborn, Germany. During a joint campaign in January 2009 the Rayleigh/Mie/Raman (RMR) lidar and the sodium lidar at the ALOMAR Observatory (69° N, 16° E) in Northern Norway were operated simultaneously for more than 40 h, collecting data for wind measurements in the middle atmosphere from 30 up to 110 km altitude. At the upper (lower) altitude range where the RMR (s...

Baumgarten, G.: Doppler Rayleigh/Mie/Raman lidar for wind and temperature measurements in the middle atmosphere up to 80 km, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 3, 1509–1518, doi:10.5194/amt-3-1509-2010, 2010.; Chanin, M.-L. and Hauchecorne, A.: Lidar observation of gravity and tidal waves in the stratosphere and mesosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 86, 9715–9721, doi:10.1029/JC086iC10p09715...

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Tropospheric Column Amount of Ozone Retrieved from Sciamachy Limb-...

By: K. Eichmann; A. Rozanov; C. Von Savigny; A. Ladstätter-weißenmayer; H. Bovensmann; F. Ebojie; S. Bötel; J. P. Burrows; M. Weber; N. Rahpoe

Description: Institute of Environmental Physics (IUP), University of Bremen, P.O. Box 330440, 28334 Bremen, Germany. Tropospheric ozone, O3, has two sources: transport from the stratosphere and photochemical production in the troposphere. It plays important roles in atmospheric chemistry and climate change. In this manuscript we describe the retrieval of tropospheric O3 columns from limb-nadir matching (LNM) observations of the SCanning Imaging ...

Aumann, H. H., Chahine, M. T., Gautier, C., Goldberg, M. D., Kalnay, E., McMillin, L. M., Revercomb, H., Rosenkranz, P. W., Smith, W. L., Staelin, D. H., Strow, L. L., and Susskind, J.: AIRS/AMSU/HSB on the Aqua mission: Design, science objectives, data products and processing systems, IEEE T. Geosci. Remote, 41, 253–264, 2003.; Beer, R.: TES on the Aura mission: Scientific objectives, measurements,and analysis overview, IEEE T. Geosci. Remote, 44, 1102–1105, 2006.; Beir...

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Calibration of 3-d Wind Measurements on a Single Engine Research A...

By: C. Mallaun; R. Baumann; A. Giez

Description: Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Flight Experiments, Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany. An innovative calibration method for the wind speed measurement using a boom mounted Rosemount model 858 AJ air velocity probe is introduced. The method is demonstrated for a sensor system installed on a medium size research aircraft which is used for measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer. The method encounters a series of coordinated flight manoeuvr...

Bange, J., Esposito, M., Lenschow, D. H., Brown, P. R. A., Dreiling, V., Giez, A., Mahrt, L., Malinowki, S. P., Rodi, A. R., Shaw, R. A., Siebert, H., Smit, H., and Zöger, M.: Measurement of Aircraft State and Thermodynamic and Dynamic Variables, in: Airborne Measurements for Environmental Research, edited by: Wendisch, M. and Brenguier, J.-L., 7–75, Wiley-VCH, 2013.; Boegel, W. and Baumann, R.: Test and calibration of the DLR falcon wind measuring system by maneuvers, J...

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The White-light Humidified Optical Particle Spectrometer (Whops) –...

By: G. Wehrle; M. Gysel; E. Weingartner; P. Zieger; B. Rosati; U. Baltensperger

Description: Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), 5232 Villigen, Switzerland. Aerosol particles experience hygroscopic growth at enhanced relative humidity (RH), which leads to changes in their optical properties. We developed the white-light humidified optical particle spectrometer (WHOPS), a new instrument to investigate the particles' hygroscopic growth. Here we present a detailed technical description and characterization of the WHO...

Andreae, M. O. and Rosenfeld, D.: Aerosol–cloud–precipitation interactions, Part 1. The nature and sources of cloud-active aerosols, Earth-Sci. Rev., 89, 13–41, doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2008.03.001, 2008.; Bohren, C. F. and Huffman, D. R.: Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, 530, 2007.; Després, V. R., Huffman, J. A., Burrows, S. M., Hoose, C., Safatov, A. S., Buryak, G...

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New Retrieval of Bro from Sciamachy Limb: an Estimate of the Strat...

By: T. Canty; K. Chance; R. J. Salawitch; K. Pfeilsticker; M. Dorf; J. P. Parrella

Description: School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA. We present a new retrieval of stratospheric BrO from channel 2 SCIAMACHY limb observations. Retrievals are shown to agree with independent balloon observations to within one standard deviation of the retrieval noise. We retrieve BrO profiles for all of April 2008, and apply simulated [BrO]/[Bry] ratios to estimate the stratospheric Bry loading....

Anderson, J. G., Brune, W. H., Lloyd, S. A., Toohey, D. W., Sander, S. P., Starr, W. L., Loewenstein, M., and Podolske, J. R.: Kinetics of O3 destruction by ClO and BrO within the Antarctic vortex: an analysis based on in situ ER-2 data, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 11480–11520, doi:10.1029/JD094iD09p11480, 1989.; Brinckmann, S., Engel, A., Bönisch, H., Quack, B., and Atlas, E.: Short-lived brominated hydrocarbons...

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Development of a New Jma Flask Sampling and Trace Gas Measuring Sy...

By: Y. Sawa; D. Kuboike; Y. Niwa; H. Matsueda; K. Tsuji; Y. Hanamiya; K. Tsuboi; K. Saito; Y. Baba; H. Nishi; S. Iwatsubo; H. Ohmori; M. Nakamura

Description: Geochemical Research Department, Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan. We developed and evaluated a flask air sampling system for atmospheric trace gas observation on a cargo C-130H aircraft, as well as an automated analysis system for the flask samples, as part of a new operational monitoring program of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). Air samples were collected during each flight, between Kanagawa Prefecture (near Tokyo) and Mi...

Akimoto, H.: Global air quality and pollution, Science, 302, 1716–1719, doi:10.1126/science.1092666, 2003.; Allison, C. E. and Francey, R. J.: Verifying Southern Hemisphere trends in atmospheric carbon dioxide stable isotopes, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D21304, doi:10.1029/2006JD007345, 2007.; Baer, D. S., Paul, J. B., Gupta, M., and O'Keefe, A.: Sensitive absorption meas...

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