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A Study of the Hydrographic Conditions in the Adriatic Sea from Nu...

By: P. Oddo; A. Guarnieri

Description: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Viale Aldo Moro 44, Bologna, Italy. The inter-annual variability of Adriatic Sea hydrographic characteristics is investigated by means of numerical simulation and direct observation. The period investigated runs from the beginning of 2000 to the end of 2008. The model used to carry out the simulation is derived from the primitive equation component of the Adriatic Forecasting System (AFS). The model is bas...

Mellor, G. L. and Blumberg, A. F.: Modeling vertical and horizontal diffusivities with the sigma coordinate ocean models, Mon. Weather Rev., 113, 1379–1383, 1985.; Artegiani, A. and Salusti, E.: Field observation of the flow of dense water on the bottom of the Adriatic Sea during the winter of 1981, Oceanol. Acta., 10, 387–391, 1987.; Artegiani, A., Azzolini, R., and Salusti, E.: On the dense water in the Adriatic Sea. Oceanol. Acta., 12, 151–160, 1989.; Artegiani, A., B...

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Assessment of an Ensemble System That Assimilates Jason-1/Envisat ...

By: J. M. Brankart; P. Brasseur; G. Candille

Description: CNRS, LGGE, 38041 Grenoble, France. A realistic circulation model of the North Atlantic ocean at 1/4° resolution (NATL025 NEMO configuration) has been adapted to explicitly simulate model uncertainties. This is achieved by introducing stochastic perturbations in the equation of state to represent the effect of unresolved scales on the model dynamics. The main motivation for this work is to develop ensemble data assimilation methods, assimilating altime...

Anderson, J.: A method for producing and evaluating probabilistic forecasts from ensemble model integrations, J. Climate, 9, 1518–1530, 1996.; Barnier, B., G., Madec, T., Penduff, J.-M., Molines, A.-M., Treguier, J., Le Sommer, A., Beckmann, A., Biastoch, C., Böning, J., Dengg, C., Derval, E., Durand, Gulev, S., Remy, E., Talandier, C., Theetten, S., Maltrud, M., McClean, J., and DeCuevas, B.: Impact of partial steps and momentum advection schemes in a global ocean circu...

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Entrainment in the Denmark Strait Overflow Plume by Meso-scale Edd...

By: D. Quadfasel; G. Voet

Description: Institut für Meereskunde, KlimaCampus, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany. The entrainment of buoyant ambient water into the overflow plume of Denmark Strait and the associated downstream warming of the plume are estimated using time series of currents and temperature from moored instrumentation and classical hydrographic data. Warming rates are highest (0.4–0.5 K/100 km) within the first 200 km of the sill, and decrease to 0.05–0.1 K/100 km furthe...

Schott, F. A., Zantopp, R., Stramma, L., Dengler, M., Fischer, J., and Wibaux, M.: Circulation and deep-water export at the western exit of the subpolar North Atlantic, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34, 817–843, 2004.; Spall, M. A. and Price, J. F.: Mesoscale V}ariability in {D}enmark {S}trait: {T}he {PV {O}utflow {H}ypothesis, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 28, 1598–1623, 1998.; Bruce, J. G.: Eddies southwest of the {D}enmark {S}trait, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 42, 13–29, 1995.; Stahr, F. R. and...

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Evaluation of Meris Products from Baltic Sea Coastal Waters Rich i...

By: S. Kratzer; C. Brockmann; J. M. Beltrán-abaunza

Description: Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden. In this study, retrievals of the medium resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS) reflectances and water quality products using four different coastal processing algorithms freely available are assessed by comparison against sea-truthing data. The study is based on a pair-wise comparison using processor-dependent quality flags for the retrieval of v...

Kajiyama, T., D'Alimonte, D., and Zibordi, G.: Regional Algorithms for European Seas: A Case Study Based on MERIS Data, IEEE Geosci. Remote S., 10, 283–287, 2013.; ACRI-ST: The AMORGOS MERIS CFI (Accurate MERIS Ortho-Rectified Geo-location Operational Software) Software User Manual & Interface Control Document, pO-ID-ACR-GS-0003, 2011.; ACRI-ST: ODESA software distribution, Quick start guide, oDESA-ACR-QSG, 2012.; Antoine, D. and Morel, A.: ATDB 2.7. Atmospheric Correcti...

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An Observed 20 Yr Time-series of Agulhas Leakage : Volume 11, Issu...

By: A. Biastoch; H. A. Dijkstra; W. P. M. De Ruijter; J. V. Durgadoo; D. Le Bars

Description: IMAU, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.005, 3508 TA Utrecht, the Netherlands. We provide a time series of Agulhas leakage anomalies over the last twenty years from satellite altimetry. Until now, measuring the interannual variability of Indo-Atlantic exchange has been the major barrier in the investigation of the dynamics and large scale impact of Agulhas leakage. We compute the difference of transport between Agulhas Current and Agulhas Return Curr...

Ansorge, I. J., Speich, S., Froneman, P. W., Rouault, M., and Garzoli, S.: Monitoring the oceanic flow between Africa and Antarctica: report of the first GoodHope cruise, S. Afr. J. Sci., 101, 29–35, 2005.; Backeberg, B. C., Penven, P., and Rouault, M.: Impact of intensified Indian Ocean winds on mesoscale variability in the Agulhas system, Nature Climate Change, 2, 1–5, 2012.; Bang, N. D. and Andrews, W. R. H.: Direct current measurements of a shelf-edge frontal jet in ...

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A Study of the Hydrographic Conditions in the Adriatic Sea from Nu...

By: A. Guarnieri; P. Oddo

Description: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Viale Aldo Moro 44, Bologna, Italy. The inter-annual variability of Adriatic Sea hydrographic characteristics is investigated by means of numerical simulation and direct observation. The period under investigation runs from the beginning of 2000 to the end of 2008. The model used to carry out the simulation is derived from the primitive equation component of the Adriatic Forecasting System (AFS). The model...

Artegiani, A. and Salusti, E.: Field observation of the flow of dense water on the bottom of the Adriatic Sea during the winter of 1981, Oceanol. Acta, 10, 387–391, 1987.; Artegiani, A., Azzolini, R., and Salusti, E.: On the dense water in the Adriatic Sea, Oceanol. Acta, 12, 151–160, 1989.; Artegiani, A., Bregant, D., Paschini, E., Pinardi, N., Raicich, F., and Russo, A.: The Adriatic Sea general circulation. part I: Air-sea interactions and water mass structure, J. Phy...

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Obstacles and Benefits of the Implementation of a Reduced-rank Smo...

By: P. Brasseur; E. Cosme; J.-m. Brankart; E. Kpemlie; N. Freychet

Description: Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1, LEGI, Grenoble, France. Most of oceanographic operational centers use three-dimensional data assimilation schemes to produce reanalyses. We investigate here the benefits of a smoother, i.e. a four-dimensional formulation of statistical assimilation. A square-root sequential smoother is implemented with a tropical Atlantic Ocean circulation model. A simple twin experiment is performed to investigate its benefits, c...

Allen, M. R., Lawrence, S. P., Murray, M. J., Mutlow, C. T., Stockdale, T. N., Llewellynjones, D. T., and Anderson, D. L. T.: Control of tropical instability waves in the pacific, Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 2581–2584, 1995.; Anderson, B. D. O. and Moore, J. B.: Optimal Filtering, Prentice-Hall, 357 pp., 1979.; Brankart, J.-M., Testut, C.-E., Brasseur, P., and Verron, J.: Implementation of a multivariate data assimilation scheme for isopynic coordinate ocean models: applica...

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Variability in the Subtropical-tropical Cells and Its Effect on Ne...

By: C. W. Böning; A. Biastoch; J. F. Lübbecke

Description: Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences at the University of Kiel, Germany (IfM-GEOMAR). A set of experiments utilising different implementations of the global ORCA-LIM model with horizontal resolutions of 2°, 0.5° and 0.25° is used to investigate tropical and extra-tropical influences on equatorial Pacific SST variability at interannual to decadal time scales. The model experiments use a bulk forcing methodology building on the global forcing data set for...

Gent, P R. and McWilliams, J.: Isopycnal mixing in ocean circulation models, J Phys Oceanogr., 20, 150–156, 1990.; Adcroft, A., Hill, C., and Marshall, J.: Representation of topography by shaved cells in a height coordinate ocean model, Mon. Wea. Rev., 125, 2293–2315, 1997.; Alory, G., Cravatte, S., Izumo, T., and Rodgers, K B.: Validation of a decadal OGCM simulation for the tropical pacific, Ocean Modelling, 10, 272–282, 2005.; Barnier, B., Siefridt, L., and P., M.: Th...

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Sea Level Trend and Variability Around the Peninsular Malaysia : V...

By: T. W. Tay; P. Tkalich; Q. H. Luu

Description: Tropical Marine Science Institute, National University of Singapore, Singapore. Peninsular Malaysia is bounded from the west by Malacca Strait and the Andaman Sea both connected to the Indian Ocean, and from the east by South China Sea being largest marginal sea in the Pacific Basin. Resulting sea level along Peninsular Malaysia coast is assumed to be governed by various regional phenomena associated with the adjacent parts of the Indian and Pacific Oc...

Aparna, S. G., McCreary, J. P., Shankar, D., and Vinayachandran, P. N.: Signatures of Indian Ocean dipole and El Niño–Southern Oscillation events in sea level variations in the Bay of Bengal, J. Geophys. Res., 117, C10012, doi:10.1029/2012JC008055, 2012.; AVISO: Altimetric data, available at: http://www.aviso.oceanobs.com/en/data.html (last access: 25 January 2013), ...

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The Near-inertial Variability of Meridional Overturning Circulatio...

By: C. Liu; J. Xiao; J. Chen; D. Wang; Y. Shu; Q. Xie

Description: State Key Laboratory of Tropical Oceanography (LTO), South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China. The near-inertial variability of the meridional overturning circulation in the South China Sea (SCSMOC) has been analyzed based on a global 1/12° ocean reanalysis. The wavelet analysis and power spectrum of deep SCSMOC time series shows that there is a significant signal in the near-inertial band. The maximum amplit...

Anderson, D. L. T. and Gill, A. E.: Beta dispersion of inertial waves, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 84, 1836–1842, 1979.; Blaker, A. T., Hirschi, J. J. M., Sinha, B., de Cuevas, B., Alderson, S., Coward, A., and Madec, G.: Large near-inertial oscillations of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, Ocean Model., 42, 50–56, 2012.; Chao, S. Y., Shaw, P. T., and Wu, S. Y.: Deep water ventilation in the South China Sea, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 43, 445–466, 1996.; Chen, G., ...

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Particle Aggregation at the Edges of Anticyclonic Eddies and Impli...

By: S. S. Hjøllo; R. Patel; J. A. Johannessen; A. Samuelsen

Description: Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Thormøhlensgate 47, 5006 Bergen, Norway. Acoustic measurements show that the biomass of zooplankton and mesopelagic fish is redistributed by mesoscale variability and that the signal extends over several hundred meters depth. The mechanisms governing this distribution are not well understood, but influences from both physical (i.e. redistribution) and biological processes (i.e. nutrient transport, primary ...

Andersson, M., Orvik, K. A., LaCasce, J. H., Koszalka, I., and Mauritzen, C.: Variability of the Norwegian Atlantic Current and associated eddy field from surface drifters, J. Geophys. Res., 116, C08032, doi:10.1029/2011JC007078, 2011.; Bertino, L. and Lisæter, K. A.: The TOPAZ monitoring and prediction system for the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans, Journal of Operational Oceanography, 1, 15–18, 2008.; Bakun, A.: Fronts and ...

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Impact of Combining Grace and Goce Gravity Data on Ocean Circulati...

By: J. Schröter; W. Bosch; R. Rummel; R. Savcenko; O. Klatt; A. Albertella; T. Janjić

Description: Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bussestrasse 24, 27570 Bremerhaven, Germany. In this work we examine the impact of assimilation of multi-mission-altimeter data and the GRACE/GOCE gravity fields into the finite element ocean model (FEOM), with the focus on the Southern Ocean circulation. In order to do so, we use the geodetic approach for obtaining the dynamical ocean topography (DOT), that combines the multi-mission-altimeter data ...

Albertella, A., Savcenko, R., Janjić, T., Rummel, R., Bosch, W., and Schroeter, J.: First experiments with high resolution dynamical topography computation from GOCE, Geophys. J. Int., submitted, 2011.; Beckmann, A., Hellmer, H., and Timmermann, R.: A numerical model of the Weddell Sea:large-scale circulation and water mass distribution, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 23374–23391, 1999.; Bingham, R. J., Haines, K., and Hughes, C. W.: Calculating the Ocean's Mean Dynamic Topograp...

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The Influence of the Brazil and Malvinas Currents on the Southwest...

By: A. R. Piola; E. D. Palma; R. P. Matano

Description: College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA. The oceanic circulation over the southwestern Atlantic shelf is influenced by large tidal amplitudes, substantial freshwater discharges, high wind speeds and – most importantly – by its proximity to two of the largest western boundary currents of the world ocean: the Brazil and Malvinas currents. This review article aims to discriminate the dynamical processes ...

Campos, E. J., Velhote, D., and da Silveira, I. C.: Shelf break upwelling driven by Brazil Current cyclonic meanders, Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 6, 751–754, 2000.; Acha, E. M., Mianzan, H. W., Guerrero, R. A., Favero, M., and Bava, J.: Marine fronts at the continental shelves of austral South America, physical and ecological processes, J. Mar. Syst., 44, 83–105, 2004.; Bianchi, A. A., Bianucci, L., Piola, A. R., Pino, D. R., Schloss, I., Poisson, A., and Balestrini, C. F.: ...

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Mixing, Heat Fluxes and Heat Content Evolution of the Arctic Ocean...

By: A. Sirevaag; M. Tjernström; M. G. McPhee; I. Fer; M. Nicolaus; S. De La Rosa

Description: Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen, Norway. A comprehensive measurement program was conducted during 16 days of a 3 week long ice pack drift, from 15 August to 1 September 2008 in the Central Amundsen Basin, Arctic Ocean. The data, sampled as part of the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS), included upper ocean stratification, mixing and heat transfer as well as transmittance o...

Aagaard, K., Coachman, L. K., and Carmack, E.: On the halocline of the Arctic Ocean, Deep-Sea Res Pt. I, 28, 529, 1981.; Comiso, J. C.: Warming trends in the Arctic from clear sky satellite observations, J. Climate, 16, 3498–3510, 2003.; Alkire, M. B., Falkner, K. K., Rigor, I., Steele, M., and Morison, J.: The return of Pacific waters to the upper layers of the Central Arctic Ocean, Deep-Sea Res Pt. I, 54, 1509–1529, doi: 10.1016/j.dsr.2007.06.004, 2007.; Comiso, J. C.,...

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A Practical Scheme to Introduce Explicit Tidal Forcing Into Ogcm :...

By: H. Nakano; M. Hirabara; H. Tsujino; G. Yamanaka; K. Sakamoto

Description: Oceanographic Research Department, Meteorological Research Institute, Nagamine, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0052, Japan. A practical scheme is proposed to introduce tides explicitly into ocean general circulation models (OGCM). In this scheme, barotropic linear response to the tidal forcing is calculated by the time differential equations modified for ocean tides, instead of the original barotropic equations of OGCM. This allows usage of various parameterizations...

Arbic, B. K., Garner, S. T., Hallberg, R. W., and Simmons, H. L.: The accuracy of surface elevations in forward global barotropic and baroclinic tide models, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 51, 3069–3101, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2004.09.014, 2004.%; Arbic, B. K., Wallcraft, A. J., and Metzger, E. J.: Concurrent simulation of the eddying general circulation and tides in a global ocean model, Ocean Model., 32, 175–187, doi:

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Atmospheric Forcing by Aladin/Mfstep and Mfstep Oriented Tunings :...

By: M. Belluš; F. Farda; M. Derková; R. Brožková

Description: Czech Hydrometeorological Institute, Prague, Czech Republic. ALADIN/MFSTEP is a configuration of the numerical weather prediction (NWP) model ALADIN run in a dedicated real-time mode for the purposes of the MFSTEP Project. A special attention was paid to the quality of atmospheric fluxes used for the forcing of fine-scale oceanographic models. This paper describes the novelties applied in ALADIN/MFSTEP initiated by the MFSTEP demands, leading also to im...

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Consistency of the Current Global Ocean Observing Systems from an ...

By: J.-b. Sallée; D. Chambers; P.-y. Le Traon; S. Speich; F. Gaillard; M. Hamon; K. Von Schuckmann; C. Cabanes

Description: Mediterranean Institute of Oceanography (MIO), Université de Toulon, Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, IRD, MIO UM 110, La Garde, France. Variations in the world's ocean heat storage and its associated volume changes are a key factor to gauge global warming and to assess the earth's energy and sea level budget. Estimating global ocean heat content (GOHC) and global steric sea level (GSSL) with temperature/salinity data from the Argo network reveals a posit...

Paulson, A., Zhong, S., and Wahr, J.: Inference of mantle viscosity from GRACE and relative sea level data, Geophys. J. Int., 171, 497–508, doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2007.03556.x, 2007.; Palmer, M. D., McNeall, D. J., and Dunstone, N. J.: Importance of the deep ocean for estimating decadal changes in Earth's radiation balance, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L13707, doi:1...

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Operational Sar-based Sea Ice Drift Monitoring Over the Baltic Sea...

By: J. Karvonen

Description: Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Helsinki, Finland. An algorithm for computing ice drift from pairs of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images covering a common area has been developed at FMI. The algorithm has been developed based on the C-band SAR data over the Baltic Sea. It is based on phase correlation in two scales (coarse and fine) with some additional constraints. The algorithm has been running operationally in the Baltic Sea...

Astola, J., Haavisto, P., and Neuvo, Y.: Vector median filters, Proc. IEEE, 78, 4, 678–689, 1990.; Aiazzi, B., Alparone, L., Baronti, S., and Borri, G.: Pyramid-based multiresolution adaptive filters for additive and multiplicative image noise, IEEE Trans. Circ. Sys.-II, 45, 8, 1092–1097, 1998.; Canny, J.: A computational approach to edge detection, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., 8, 6, 679–698, 1986.; Karvonen, J., Simila, M., and Makynen, M.: Open water detect...

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Transit and Residence Times in the Adriatic Sea Surface as Derived...

By: S. Hariri; P.-m. Poulain

Description: Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS), Trieste, Italy. Statistics of transit and residence times in the Adriatic Sea surface, a semi-enclosed basin of the Mediterranean, are estimated from drifter data and Lagrangian numerical simulations. The results obtained from the drifters are generally underestimated given their short operating lifetimes (half life of ∼40 days) compared to the transit and residence times. This bias ca...

Buffoni, G., Falco, P., Griffa A., and Zambianchi, E.: Dispersion processes and residence times in a semi-enclosed basin with recirculating gyres: An application to the Tyrrhenian Sea, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 18699–18713, doi:10.1029/96JC03862, 1997.; Castellari, S., Griffa, A., Ozgokmen, T., and Poulain, P.-M.: Prediction of particle trajectories in the Adriatic Sea using Lagrangian data assimilation, J. Mar. Syst., 29, 33–...

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Stochastic Heterogeneity Mapping Around a Mediterranean Salt Lens ...

By: R. Carbonell; E. A. Vsemirnova; C. A. Hurich; G. G. Buffett; D. Klaeschen; R. W. Hobbs; V. Sallarès; B. Biescas

Description: Institut de Ciències de la Terra Jaume Almera, C. Lluís Solé i Sabarís s/n, 08028 Barcelona, Spain. We present the first application of stochastic heterogeneity mapping based on the band-limited von Kármán function to a seismic reflection stack of a Mediterranean water eddy (meddy), a large salt lens of Mediterranean water. This process extracts two stochastic parameters directly from the reflectivity field of the seismic data: the Hurst number, which r...

Armi, L. D., Hebert, D., Oakey, N., Price, J. F., Richardson, P. L., Rossby, H. T., and Ruddick, B.: Two years in the life of a Mediterranean salt lens, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 19, 354–370, 1989.; Bashmachnikov, I., Machín, F., Mendonça, A., and Martins, A.: In situ and remote sensing signature of meddies east of the mid-Atlantic ridge, J. Geophys. Res., 114, C05018, doi:10.1029/2008JC005032, 2009.; Batchelor, G. K.: Small-scale variation of convected quantities like tempera...

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