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Flood Forecasting Using Medium-range Probabilistic Weather Predict...

By: G. Franchello; J. Thielen; B. T. Gouweleeuw; A. P. J. De Roo; R. Buizza

Description: NASA/GSFC, Mail Code 614.3, Greenbelt, MD 20770, USA. Following the developments in short- and medium-range weather forecasting over the last decade, operational flood forecasting also appears to show a shift from a so-called single solution or 'best guess' deterministic approach towards a probabilistic approach based on ensemble techniques. While this probabilistic approach is now more or less common practice and well established in the meteorological ...

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A Soil Moisture and Temperature Network for Smos Validation in Wes...

By: J. P. Walker; N. Skou; K. H. Jensen; S. Bircher; L. Rasmussen

Description: Technical University of Denmark, DTU Space, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark. The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity Mission (SMOS) acquires surface soil moisture data globally, and thus product validation for a range of climate and environmental conditions across continents is a crucial step. For this purpose, a soil moisture and temperature network of Decagon ECH2O 5TE capacitance sensors was established in the Skjern River Catchment, Denmark. The objectives of thi...

Al Bitar, A., Leroux, D., Kerr, Y., Merlin, O., Richaume, P., Sahoo, A., and Wood, E. F.: Evaluation of SMOS Soil Moisture products over continental US using the SCAN/SNOTEL network, IEEE T. Geosci. Remote Sens., in review, 2011.; Bardossy, A. and Lehmann, W.: Spatial distribution of soil moisture in a small catchment, Part 1: geostatistical analysis, J. Hydrol., 206, 1–15, 1998.; Bengoa, B., Zapata, M., Cabeza, C., and Rodriguez, M.: SMOS Level 2 processor and Auxiliary...

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Quantifying Heterogeneous Transport of a Tracer and a Degradable C...

By: M. J. Van Der Ploeg; S. E. A. T. M. Van Der Zee; D. Schotanus

Description: Soil physics, ecohydrology and groundwater management, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands. To examine the persistence of preferential flow paths in a field soil, and to compare the leaching of a degradable contaminant with the leaching of a non-degradable tracer, we did two field experiments, using a multicompartment sampler. The first experiment was done during the snowmelt period in early spring, characterized by high infiltration f...

Bausmith, D. and Neufeld, R.: Soil biodegradation of propylene glycol based aircraft deicing fluids, Water Environ. Res., 71, 459–464, 1999.; Allaire, S., Roulier, S., and Cessna, A.: Quantifying preferential flow in soils: a review of different techniques, J. Hydrol., 378, 179–204, 2009.; Beven, K., Henderson, D., and Reeves, A.: Dispersion parameters for undisturbed partially saturated soil, J. Hydrol., 143, 19–43, 1993.; Bloem, E., Hogervorst, F., and de Rooij, G.: A ...

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Determination of Virtual Water Content of Rice and Spatial Charact...

By: Z. F. Yang; X. A. Yin; Y. Zhi; L. J. Zhang

Description: State Key Laboratory of Water Environmental Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China. China is a water-stressed country, and agriculture consumes the bulk of its water resources. Assessing the virtual water content (VWC) of crops is one important way to develop efficient water management measures to alleviate water resources conflicts among different sectors. In this research, the VWC of rice, as a major crop in ...

Li, H. L., Zhang, W. F., Zhang, F. S., Du, F., and Li, L. K.: Chemical fertilizer use and efficiency change of main grain crops in China, Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer, 16, 1136–1143, 2010 (in Chinese).; Liu, J. G., Wiberg, D., Zehnder, A. J. B., and Yang, H.: Modelling the role of irrigation in winter wheat yield, crop water productivity, and production in China, Irrigation Science, 26, 21–33, 2007.; Mekonnen, M. M. and Hoekstra, A. Y.: The green, blue and g...

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Corrigendum to Calibration of Aerodynamic Roughness Over the Tibet...

By: M. Mancini; J. H. Lee; Z. Su; J. Timmermans

Description: Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, Milano, Italy. No abstract available.

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Eagle 2006 – Multi-purpose, Multi-angle and Multi-sensor In-situ, ...

By: C. Van Der Tol; R. J. J. Dost; W. J. Timmermans; R. Bianchi; A. House; I. Hajnsek; R. Rothe; J. A. Gómez; R. Haarbrink; J. A. Sobrino; E. Claassen; A. Stolk; Z. Vekerdy; L. Jia; E. Moors; O. Hartogensis; P. Van Laake; S. Salama; H. K. Baltink; M. Menenti; Z. Su; V. Magliulo; F. C. Bosveld; H. Van Der Kwast; J. Timmermans; A. Gillespie; M. Esposito

Description: International Institute for Geo-information Sciences and Earth Observation, Department of Water Resources, P.O. Box 6, 7500 AA, Enschede, The Netherlands. EAGLE2006 – an intensive field campaign for the advances in land surface hydrometeorological processes – was carried out in the Netherlands from 8 to 18 June 2006, involving 16 institutions with in total 67 people from 16 different countries. In addition to the acquisition of multi-angle and multi-sens...

Beljaars, A. C. M. and Bosveld, F. C.: Cabauw data for the validation of land surface parametrization schemes, J. Climate, 10, 1172–1193, 1997.; Bosveld, F. C.: Derivation of fluxes from profiles over a moderately homogeneous forest, Bound. Lay. Meteorol., 85, 289–326, 1997.; Bosveld, F. C. and Bouten, W.: Evaluation of transpiration models with observations over a Douglas fir forest, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 108(4), 247–264, 2001.; Bosveld, F. C. and Bouten,...

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Financial Aspects of Water Management, P. Van Hofivegen and B. Sch...

By: S. Walker
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Simple Estimation of Fastest Preferential Contaminant Travel Times...

By: B. A. Ebel; J. R. Nimmo

Description: US Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Rd., Menlo Park, California 94025, USA. Simulating contaminant transport in unsaturated zones with sparse hydraulic property information is a difficult, yet common, problem. When contaminant transport may occur via preferential flow, simple modeling approaches can provide predictions of interest, such as the first arrival of contaminant, with minimal site characterization. The conceptual model for...

Amy, P. S., Haldeman, D. L., Ringelberg, D., Hall, D. H., and Russell, C. E.: Comparison of identification systems for classification of bacteria isolated from water and endolithic habitats within the deep subsurface, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 58, 3367–3373, 1992.; Baker, R. S. and Hillel, D.: Laboratory tests of a theory of fingering during infiltration into layered soils, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 54, 20–30, 1990.; Batzel, R. E.: Radioactivity associated with underground...

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Quantifying Water and Salt Fluxes in a Lowland Polder Catchment Do...

By: P. G. B. De Louw; Y. Van Der Velde; S. E. A. T. M. Van Der Zee

Description: Deltares, Department Soil and Groundwater, P.O. Box 85467, 3508 AL Utrecht, The Netherlands. Upward saline groundwater seepage is leading to surface water salinization of deep lying polders in the Netherlands. Identifying measures to reduce the salt content requires a thorough understanding and quantification of the dominant sources of water and salt on a daily basis. However, as in most balance studies, there are large uncertainties in the contribution ...

Becker, M. W., Georgian, T., Ambrose, H. Siniscalchi, J.,and Fredrick, K.: Estimating flow and flux of ground water discharge using water temperature and velocity, J. Hydrol., 296(1–4), 221–233, 2004.; Benke, K. K., Lowell, K. E., and Hamilton, A. J.: Parameter uncertainty, sensitivity analysis and prediction error in a water-balance hydrological model, Math. Comput. Modell., 47(11–12), 1134–1149, 2008.; Beven, K.: Prophecy, reality and uncertainty in distributed hydrolo...

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Evaluating the Effect of Partial Contributing Storage on Storage–d...

By: X. Chen; D. Wang

Description: Department of Civil, Environmental, and Construction Engineering, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Blvd., Orlando, FL 32816, USA. Hydrograph recession during dry periods has been used to construct water storage–discharge relationship, and to quantify storage dynamics and evaporation when streamflow data is available. However, variable hydrologic connectivity among hillslope-riparian-stream zones may affect the lumped storage–discharg...

Blyth, K. and Rodda, J. C.: A stream length study, Water Resour. Res., 9, 1454–1461, 1973.; Ajami, H., Troch, P. A., Maddock, T., Meixner, T., and Eastoe, C.: Quantifying mountain block recharge by means of catchment-scale storage–discharge relationships, Water Resour. Res., 47, W04504, doi:10.1029/2010WR009598, 2011.; Biswal, B. and Marani, M.: Geomorphological origin of recession curves, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L24403...

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Improving the Rainfall Rate Estimation in the Midstream of the Hei...

By: R. Chu; T. Zhang; X. Li; G. Zhao; Z. Wu; J. Shen

Description: Laboratory for Climate Environment and Disasters of Western China, Cold and Arid Regions Enviromental and Engineering Research Institute, CAS, Lanzhou, 730000, Gansu, China. During the intensive observation period of the Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (WATER), a total of 1074 raindrop size distribution were measured by the Parsivel disdrometer, a latest state of the art optical laser instrument. Because of the limited observatio...

Atlas, D., Ulbrich, C. W., and Meneghini, R.: The multi-parameter remote measurement of rainfall, Radio Sci., 19, 3–22, 1984.; Andsager, K., Beard, K. V., and Laird, N. F.: Laboratory measurements of axis ratios for large drops, J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 2673–2683, 1999.; Battan, L. J.: Radar Observation of the Atmosphere, Univ. Chicago Press, p. 324, 1973.; Beard, K. V. and Chuang, C.: A new model for the equilibrium shape of raindrops, J. Atmos. Sci., 44, 1509–1524, 1987.; B...

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Water Balance Modelling in a Semi-arid Environment with Limited In...

By: D. Deus; P. Krause; R. Gloaguen

Description: Remote Sensing Group, Institut für Geologie, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Bernhard-von-Cotta Strasse 2, 09596 Freiberg, Germany. Accurate and up to date information on the status and trends of water balance is needed to develop strategies for conservation and the sustainable management of water resources. The purpose of this research is to estimate water balance in a semi-arid environment with limited in-situ data by using a remote sensing approach. We focu...

Adler, R. F., Huffman, G. J., Chang, A., Ferraro, R., Xie, P., Janowiak, J., Rudolf, B., Schneider, U., Curtis, S., Bolvin, D., Gruber, A., Susskind, J., Arkin, P., and Nelkin, E.: The version 2 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) monthly precipitation analysis (1979–Present), J. Hydrometeorol., 4, 1147–1166, 2003.; Allen, R. G., Pereira, L. S., Raes, D., and Smith, M.: Crop Evapotranspiration: Guidelines for Computing Crop Water Requirements, FAO Irrigation ...

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Precipitation Observation Using Microwave Backhaul Links in the Al...

By: W. Qiu; J. Seltmann; D. Nienaber; A. Gmeiner; T. Eibert; S. Hipp; U. Siart; C. Chwala; J. Fritz; M. Pohl; H. Kunstmann

Description: Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research (IMK-IFU), Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany. Measuring rain rates over complex terrain is afflicted with large uncertainties, because rain gauges are influenced by orography and weather radars are mostly not able to look into mountain valleys. We apply a new method to estimate near surface rain rates exploiting attenuation data from commercial microwave...

Atlas, D.: Advances in radar meteorology, Adv. Geophys., 10, p. 385, 1964.; Andrieu, H., Creutin, J. D., Delrieu, G., and Faure, D.: Use of a weather radar for the hydrology of a mountainous area. Part I: Radar measurement interpretation, J. Hydrol., 193, 1–25, 1997.; Atlas, D. and Ulbrich, C. W.: Path- and area-integrated rainfall measurement by microwave attenuation in the 1–3 cm band, J. Appl. Meteorol., 16, 1322–1331, 1977.; Bartels, H., Weigl, E., Reich, T., Lang, P...

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Patterns of Water Infiltration and Soil Degradation Over a 120-yr ...

By: A. Bargués Tobella; U. Ilstedt; J. Kinyangi; G. Nyberg

Description: Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 901 83 Umeå, Sweden. Soil degradation is commonly reported in the tropics where forest is converted to agriculture. Much of the native forest in the highlands of western Kenya has been converted to agricultural land in order to feed the growing population, and more land is being cleared. In tropical Africa, this land use change results in progressive soil degradatio...

Arvidsson, J.: Influence of soil texture and organic matter content on bulk density, air content, compression index and crop yield in field and laboratory compression experiments, Soil Till. Res., 49, 159–170, 1998.; Awiti, A. O., Walsh, M. G., and Kinyamario, J.: Dynamics of topsoil carbon and nitrogen along a tropical forest-cropland chronosequence: Evidence from stable isotope analysis and spectroscopy, Agr. Ecosyst. Environ., 127, 265–272,

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Technical Note: Reducing the Spin-up Time of Integrated Surface Wa...

By: M. F. McCabe; J. P. Evans; S. Stisen; H. Ajami

Description: School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. One of the main challenges in the application of coupled or integrated hydrologic models is specifying a catchment's initial conditions in terms of soil moisture and depth-to-water table (DTWT) distributions. One approach to reducing uncertainty in model initialization is to run the model recursively using either a single year or multiple years of forcing dat...

Ajami, H., McCabe, M. F., Evans, J. P., and Stisen, S.: Assessing the impact of model spin-up on surface water–groundwater interactions using an integrated hydrologic model, Water Resour. Res., 50, 2636–2656, doi:10.1002/2013WR014258, 2014.; Ashby, S. F. and Falgout, R. D.: A parallel multigrid preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm for groundwater flow simulations, Nucl. Sci. Eng., 124, 145–159, 1996.; Berthet, L.,...

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Hydrologic Landscape Classification Evaluates Streamflow Vulnerabi...

By: P. E. Morefield; S. G. Leibowitz; R. L. Comeleo; C. P. Weaver; P. J. Wigington Jr.; E. A. Sproles; J. L. Ebersole

Description: US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Corvallis, Oregon, USA. Classification can allow for evaluations of the hydrologic functions of landscapes and their responses to stressors. Here we demonstrate the use of a hydrologic landscape (HL) approach to evaluate vulnerability to potential future climate change at statewide and basin scales in the state of Oregon. The HL classification has five components: climate, seasonality...

Abatzoglou, J. T.: Influence of the PNA on declining mountain snowpack in the Western United States, Int. J. Climatol., 31, 1135–1142, doi:10.1002/joc.2137, 2011.; Arismendi, I., Safeeq, M., Johnson, S. L., Dunham, J. B., and Haggerty, R.: Increasing synchrony of high temperature and low flow in western North American streams: double trouble for coldwater biota?, Hydrobiologia, 712, 61–70, 2013.; Barnett, T. P., Adam, J. C.,...

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Calibration Analysis for Water Storage Variability of the Global H...

By: S. Werth; A. Güntner

Description: Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ, Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam, Germany. The aim of this study is to provide an improved global simulation of continental water storage variations by calibrating the WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model (WGHM) for 28 of the largest river basins worldwide. Five years (January 2003–December 2007) of satellite-based estimates of the total water storage changes from the GRACE mission were combined with river discharge data in a ...

Crowley, J. W., Mitrovica, J. X., Richard, C. B., Tamisiea, M. E., and Davis, J. L.: Land water storage within the Congo Basin inferred from GRACE satellite gravity data, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L19402, doi:10.1029/2006GL027070, 2006.; Dirmeyer, P. A., Gao, X., Zhao, M., Guo, Z., Oki, T., and Hanasaki, N.: GSWP-2: Multimodel Analysis and Implications for Our Perception of the Land Surface, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 87, 1381–1397, 2006.; Döll, P. and Lehner, B.: Validation ...

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Sustainability of Water Resources Management in the Indus Basin Un...

By: H. J. Fowler; S. M. Shah; N. Forsythe; D. R. Archer

Description: Water Resource Systems Research Laboratory, School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Newcastle University, UK. Pakistan is highly dependent on water resources originating in the mountain sources of the upper Indus for irrigated agriculture which is the mainstay of its economy. Hence any change in available resources through climate change or socio-economic factors could have a serious impact on food security and the environment. In terms of both rati...

Menon, S., Koch, D., Beig, G., Sahu, S., Fasullo, J., and Orlikowski, D.: Black carbon aerosols and the third polar ice cap, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 4559–4571, doi:10.5194/acp-10-4559-2010, 2010.; Milly, P. C. D., Betancourt, J., Falkenmark, M., Hirsch, R. M., Kundzewicz, Z. W., Lettenmaier, D. P., and Stouffer, R. J.: Stationarity Is Dead: Whither Water Management?, Science, 319(5863), 573–574, 2008.; Morris, G. L. and Fan., J.: Reservoir Sedimentation Handbook: design ...

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Comparison of Hydrological Model Structures Based on Recession and...

By: J. Seibert; M. Staudinger; K. Stahl; M. P. Clark; L. M. Tallaksen

Description: Department of Geography, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. Low flows are often poorly reproduced by commonly used hydrological models, which are traditionally designed to meet peak flow situations. Hence, there is a need to improve hydrological models for low flow prediction. This study assessed the impact of model structure on low flow simulations and recession behaviour using the Framework for Understanding Structural Errors (FUSE). FUSE iden...

Ambroise, B., Beven, K., and Freer, J.: Toward a generalization of the TOPMODEL concepts: Topographic indices of hydrological similarity, Water Resour. Res., 32, 2135–2145, 1996.; Beldring, S., Engeland, K., Roald, L. A., Sælthun, N. R., and Voksø, A.: Estimation of parameters in a distributed precipitation-runoff model for Norway, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 7, 304–316, doi:10.5194/hess-7-304-2003, 2003.; Beven, K. and...

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Nitrogen Dynamics in Runoff from Two Small Heathland Catchments Re...

By: Ø. Kaste; B. L. Skjelkvåle

Description: Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Southern Branch, Televeien 3, N-4879 Grimstad, Norway. Effects of contrasting climatic conditions and nitrogen (N) deposition levels on streamwater N dynamics are assessed at two small heathland catchments; Dalelva in northern Norway (69°N) and Øygard in southwestern Norway (58°N). The study comprises 11 years of data on climate, hydrology and N inputs/outputs from Dalelva and 8 years of corresponding data from Ø...

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