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Lagrangian Mixing in an Axisymmetric Hurricane Model : Volume 9, I...

By: G. Dangelmayr; M. Kirby; J. Persing; M.T. Montgomery; B. Rutherford

Description: Department of Mathematics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1874, USA. This paper discusses the extension of established Lagrangian mixing measures to make them applicable to data extracted from a 2-D axisymmetric hurricane simulation. Because of the non-steady and unbounded characteristics of the simulation, the previous measures are extended to a moving frame approach to create time-dependent mixing rates that are dependent upon the in...

Atonsen Jr., T. M.,Fan, Z., Ott, E., and Garcia-Lopez, E.: The role of chaotic orbits in the determination of power spectra of passive scalars, Phys. Fluids, 8, 3094–3104, 1996.; Braun, S. A.: A cloud-resolving simulation of Hurricane Bob (1991): Storm structure and eyewall buoyancy, Mon. Weather Rev., 130, 1573–1592, 2002.; Cram, T. A., Persing, J., Montgomery, M. T., and Braun, S. A.: A Lagrangian trajectory view on transport and mixing processes between the eye, eyewa...

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Volatile Particles Formation During Partemis: a Modelling Study : ...

By: A. Petzold; A. Sorokin; P. Mirabel; X. Vancassel; C. Wilson

Description: Centre de Géochimie de la Surface, Université Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg, France. A modelling study of the formation of volatile particles in a combustor exhaust has been carried out in the frame of the PartEmis European project. A kinetic model has been used in order to investigate nucleation efficiency of the H2O-H2SO4 binary mixture in the sampling system. A value for the fraction e of t...

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Comparison of Ambient Aerosol Extinction Coefficients Obtained fro...

By: T. Wagner; J. Henzing; E. Weingartner; U. Baltensperger; M. Moerman; J. Mikkilä; M. Ehn; K. Clémer; U. Frieß; S. Yilmaz; S. Beirle; R. Shaiganfar; T. Petäjä; A. Apituley; M. Van Roozendael; H. Irie; P. Zieger; G. De Leeuw; K. Wilson

Description: Paul Scherrer Institut, Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, 5232 Villigen, Switzerland. In the field, aerosol in-situ measurements are often performed under dry conditions (relative humidity RH<30–40%). Since ambient aerosol particles experience hygroscopic growth at enhanced RH, also their microphysical and optical properties – especially the aerosol light scattering – are strongly dependent on RH. The knowledge of this RH effect is of crucial importa...

Ackermann, J.: The extinction-to-backscatter ratio of tropospheric aerosols: a numerical study, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 15, 1043–1050, 1998.; Clarke, A. D., Howell, S., Quinn, P. K., Bates, T. S., Ogren J. A., Andrews, E., Jefferson, A., Massling, A., Mayol-Bracero, O., Maring, H., Savoie, D., and Cass, G.: INDOEX aerosol: A comparison and summary of chemical, microphysical, and optical properties observed from land, ship, and aircraft, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 8033, doi:8...

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Space-based Evaluation of Interactions Between Pollution Plumes an...

By: T. J. Garrett; A. Stohl; K. Tietze; J. Riedi

Description: Univ. of Utah, Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences, Utah, USA. This study explores the indirect effects of anthropogenic and biomass burning aerosols on Arctic clouds by co-locating a combination of MODIS and POLDER cloud products with output from the FLEXPART tracer transport model. During the activities of the International Polar Year for the Spring and Summer of 2008, we find a high sensitivity of Arctic cloud radiative properties to both anthropogenic and...

Ackerman, A. S., Kirkpatrick, M. P., Stevens, D. E., and Toon, O. B.: The impact of humidity above stratiform clouds on indirect aerosol climate forcing, Nature, 432, 1014–1017, doi:10.1038/nature03174, 2004.; Albrecht, B.: Aerosols, cloud microphysics and fractional cloudiness, Science, 245, 1227–1230, doi:10.1126/science.245.4923.1227, 1989.; Andreae, M. O., Ro...

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Traffic Restrictions in Beijing During the Sino-african Summit 200...

By: Z. J. Wu; J. Heintzenberg; J. T. Mao; B. Wehner; M. Hu; Y. F. Cheng

Description: Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research, 04318 Leipzig, Germany. Based on the long-term in-situ observations of aerosol particle number size distributions and meteorological parameters, the traffic restriction measures during the Sino-African Summit (4–6 November 2006) in Beijing, China have been found to be remarkably efficient in reducing the number concentration of aerosol particles, in particular Aitken and accumulation mode particles, and in im...

Birmili, W., Stratmann, F., and Wiedensohler, A.: Design of a DMA-based size spectrometer for a large particle size range and stable operation, J. Aerosol Sci., 30, 549–553, 1999.; Birmili, W., Nowak, A., Schwirn, K., Lehmann, K., Massling, A., and Wiedensohler, A.: A new method to accurately relate dry and humidified number size distributions of atmospheric aerosols, J. Aerosol Sci., 1, 15–16, 2004.; Bohren, C. F. and Huffman, D. R.: Absorption and scattering of light b...

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The Importance of Meteorological Scales to Forecast Air Pollution ...

By: J. J. Diéguez; G. Pérez-landa; C. Monter; J. L. Palau; M. M. Millán

Description: Fundación Centro de Estudios Ambientales del Mediterráneo (CEAM), València, Spain. Some of the meteorological approaches commonly considered in urban air pollution models do not take into account the importance of the smaller scales in the meteorology of complex-terrain coastal sites. The aim of this work is to estimate the impact of using the proper meteorological scales when simulating the behaviour of the pollutant concentrations emitted in the lower...

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Impact of Modelled Particle Characteristics on Emissions Inferred ...

By: P. J. Rayner; M. G. Lawrence; T. Butler; S. M. Burrows

Description: Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany. Model-simulated transport of atmospheric trace components can be combined with observed concentrations to obtain estimates of ground-based sources using various inversion techniques. These approaches have been applied in the past primarily to obtain source estimates for long-lived trace gases such as CO2. We consider the application of similar techniques to source estimation for atmos...

Bickel, D.: Robust estimators of the mode and skewness of continuous data, Comput. Stat. Data An., 39, 153–163, 2002.; Bourgeois, Q. and Bey, I.: Pollution transport efficiency toward the Arctic: sensitivity to aerosol scavenging and source regions, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D08213, 2011.; Burrows, S. M.: Sources and concentrations of biological particles in the global atmosphere, and their significance as ice nuclei, PhD thesis, Max Planck Graduate Center mit der Johannes ...

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Cirrus Cloud Occurrence as Function of Ambient Relative Humidity: ...

By: J. Ovarlez; M. Seifert; B. Kärcher; A. Minikin; H. C. Hansson; R. Krejci; U. Schumann; W. Haag; J. F. Gayet; A. Petzold; F. Auriol; J. Ström; R. Busen

Description: ITM, Air Pollution Laboratory, Stockholm University, Sweden. The occurrence frequency of cirrus clouds as function of ambient relative humidity over ice, based on in-situ observations performed during the INCA experiment, show a clear difference between the campaign carried out at Southern Hemisphere (SH) midlatitudes and the campaign carried out at Northern Hemisphere (NH) midlatitudes. At a given relative humidity above ice saturation, clou...

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Chemical Climatology of the Southeastern United States, 1999–2013...

By: C. L. Blanchard; E. Edgerton; K. Baumann; S. Shaw; J. Jansen; E. Knipping; G. M. Hidy; S. Tanenbaum; J. Walters; I. Tombach

Description: Envair, Albany, CA and Placitas, NM, USA. A series of experiments (the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study-SOAS) took place in central Alabama in June–July 2013 as part of the broader Southern Atmosphere Study (SAS). These projects were aimed at studying oxidant photochemistry and formation and impacts of aerosols at a detailed process level in a location where high biogenic organic vapor emissions interact with anthropogenic emissions, and the at...

Atmospheric Research and Analysis (ARA): Home; Public Data Archive, available at: http://www.atmospheric-research.com/studies/SEARCH/index.html (last access: 5 March 2014), 2013.; Banta, R., Senff, C. Nielsen-Gammon, J., Darby, L., Ryerson, T., White, A., Trainer, M., McNider, R., Valente, J., Mayer, S., Alvarez, R., Hardesty, M., Parrish, D., and Fehsenfeld, F.: Daytime buildup and nighttime trans...

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The Two-way Nested Global Chemistry-transport Zoom Model Tm5: Algo...

By: A. Segers; M. Krol; P. Bergamaschi; W. Peters; F. Dentener; M. Van Den Broek; P. Van Velthoven; B. Bregman; S. Houweling

Description: Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht, The Netherlands. This paper describes the global chemistry Transport Model, version 5 (TM5) which allows two-way nested zooming. The model is used for global studies which require high resolution regionally but can work on a coarser resolution globally. The zoom algorithm introduces refinement in both space and time in some predefined regions. Boundary conditions of the zoom region are provided by a ...

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Lifted Temperature Minimum During the Atmospheric Evening Transiti...

By: J. Reuder; D. Pino; E. R. Pardyjak; D. Martínez; S. W. Hoch; J. Cuxart; E. Blay-carreras

Description: Department of Applied Physics, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, BarcelonaTech, Barcelona, Spain. Observations of lifted temperature minimum (LTM) profiles in the nocturnal boundary layer were first reported in 1932. It was defined by the existence of a temperature minimum some centimetres above the ground. During the following decades, several research studies analysed this phenomenon verifying its existence and postulating different hypotheses abou...

Arya, S. P.: Introduction to Micrometeorology, Academic Press, San Diego, USA. 420 pp., 2001.; Bhat, G. S.: Near-surface temperature inversion over the Arabian Sea due to natural aerosols, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L02802, doi:10.1029/2005GL024157, 2006.; Campbell, G. C.: Measurement of air temperature fluctuations with thermocouples, Atmospheric Sciences Laboratory, White Sands Missile Range, ECOM-5273, 10 pp., 1969.; Campbell, G. S. and Norman, J. (Eds.): An Introductio...

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An Improved Criterion for New Particle Formation in Diverse Atmosp...

By: I. Riipinen; P. H. McMurry; A. V. McCormick; S.-l. Sihto; C. Kuang; M. Kulmala

Description: Department of Chemical Engineering & Materials Science, University of Minnesota, 151 Amundson Hall, 421 Washington Avenue SE, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 55455, USA. A dimensionless theory for new particle formation (NPF) was developed, using an aerosol population balance model incorporating recent developments in nucleation rates and measured particle growth rates. Based on this theoretical analysis, it was shown that a dimensionless parameter LΓ...

Charlson, R. J., Schwartz, S. E., Hales, J. M., Cess, R. D., Coakley, J. A., Hansen, J. E., and Hofmann, D. J.: Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols, Science, 255, 423–430, 1992.; Chin, M., Kahn, R. A., Remer, L. A., Yu, H., Rind, D., Feingold, G., Quinn, P. K., Schwartz, S. E., Streets, D. G., Decola, P., and Halthore, R.: Atmospheric Aerosol Properties and Climate Impacts, in: US Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Product 2.3, 2009.; Fiedler, ...

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Quality Assurance of the Brewer Spectral Uv Measurements in Finlan...

By: A. Heikkilä; A. Arola; E. Kyrö; A. Lindfors; A. Tanskanen; K. Lakkala; O. Meinander; J. Kaurola; J. Gröbner; T. Koskela; G. Hülsen

Description: Finnish Meteorological Institute, Arctic Research Centre, Sodanlylä, Finland. The quality assurance of the two Brewer spectrophotometers of the Finnish Meteorological Institute is discussed in this paper. The complete data processing chain from raw signal to high quality spectra is presented. The quality assurance includes daily maintenance, laboratory characterizations, calculation of long-term spectral responsivity, data processing and quality assessm...

Aaltonen, V., Lihavainen, H., Kerminen, V.-M., Ginzburg, M., Kulmala, M., and Viisanen, Y.: Three years of AOD measurements at three bipolar sites, in: NOSA 2006 Aerosol symposium, combined with the X Finnish National Aerosol Symposium, Finnish-Czech Aerosol Symposium, and BACCI workshop, Helsinki 8.–10.11.2006, Report Series in Aerosol Science, 83, 17–20, 2006.; Arola, A., Kaurola, J., Koskinen, L., Tanskanen, A., Tikkanen, T., Taalas, P., Herman, J., Krotkov, N., and F...

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Wrf-chem Model Predictions of the Regional Impacts of N2O5 Heterog...

By: J. Allan; G. McFiggans; W. Morgan; B. Ouyang; S. Archer-nicholls; C. Percival; H. Coe; S. Utembe; R. Jones; P. Di Carlo; R. A. Zaveri; D. Lowe; E. Aruffo; M. Le Breton

Description: School of Earth, Atmospheric & Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK. Chemical modelling studies have been conducted over north-western Europe in summer conditions, showing that night-time dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) heterogeneous reactive uptake is important regionally in modulating particulate nitrate and has a modest influence on oxidative chemistry. Results from WRF-Chem model simulatio...

Abdul-Razzak, H. and S. J. Ghan: A parameterisation of aerosol activation: 3. Sectional representation, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 4026, doi:10.1029/2001JD000483, 2002.; Allan, B. J., McFiggans, G., Plane, J. M. C., Coe, H., and McFadyen, G. G.: The nitrate radical in the remote marine boundary layer, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 24191–24204, doi:10.1029/2000JD900314, 2000.; Antti...

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Reduced Efficacy of Marine Cloud Brightening Geoengineering Due to...

By: A.-i. Partanen; P. M. Forster; A. K. L. Jenkins; R. G. Stevens; H. Korhonen; G. S. Stuart; D. V. Spracklen; J. R. Pierce

Description: Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada. The intentional enhancement of cloud albedo via controlled sea-spray injection from ships (Marine Cloud Brightening) has been proposed as a possible method to control anthropogenic global warming; however, there remains significant uncertainty in the efficacy of this method due to, amongst other factors, uncertainties in aerosol and cloud microphysics. A major assumption us...

Abdul-Razzak, H. and Ghan, S. J.: A parameterization of aerosol activation: 2. multiple aerosol types, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 6837–6844, doi:10.1029/1999JD901161, 2000.; Albrecht, B.: Aerosols, cloud microphysics, and fractional cloudiness, Science, 245, 1227–1230, 1989.; Alterskjær, K. and Kristjánsson, J. E.: The sign of the radiative forcing from marine cloud brightening depends on both particle size and injection amo...

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Observations of Total Rono2 Over the Boreal Forest: NoX Sinks and ...

By: W. H. Brune; P. J. Wooldridge; K.-e. Min; R. C. Cohen; E. Apel; P. O. Wennberg; A. Wisthaler; A. J. Weinheimer; D. R. Blake; G. S. Diskin; J. L. Jimenez; C. A. Cantrell; E. C. Browne; M. J. Cubison

Description: Department of Chemistry, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA. In contrast with the textbook view of remote chemistry where HNO3 formation is the primary sink of nitrogen oxides, recent theoretical analyses show that formation of RONO2 (ΣANs) from isoprene and other terpene precursors is the primary net chemical loss of nitrogen oxides over the remote continents where the concentration of nitrogen oxides is low. Thi...

Apel, E. C., Hills, A. J., Lueb, R., Zindel, S., Eisele, S., and Riemer, D. D.: A fast-GC/MS system to measure \chem{C_2} to \chem{C_4} carbonyls and methanol aboard aircraft, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 8794, doi:10.1029/2002JD003199, 2003.; Arey, J., Aschmann, S. M., Kwok, E. S. C., and Atkinson, R.: Alkyl nitrate, hydroxyalkyl nitrate, and hydroxycarbonyl formation from the NOx-air photooxidations of C5-C8 n-alk...

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On the Importance of Cascading Moisture Recycling in South America...

By: J. Heinke; H. M. J. Barbosa; R. J. Van Der Ent; C.-f. Schleussner; J. F. Donges; G. Sampaio; D. C. Zemp; A. Rammig

Description: Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), Telegraphenberg A 31, 14473 Potsdam, Germany. Continental moisture recycling is a crucial process of the South American climate system. Evapotranspiration from the Amazon river basin contributes to precipitation regionally and in the La Plata river basin. Here we present an in-depth analysis of South American moisture recycling. We quantify the importance of cascading moisture recycling, which de...

Arraut, J. M. and Satyamurty, P.: Precipitation and water vapor transport in the Southern Hemisphere with emphasis on the South American region, J. Appl. Meteorol. Clim., 48, 1902–1912, 2009.; Arraut, J. M., Nobre, C., Barbosa, H. M., Obregon, G., and Marengo, J.: Aerial rivers and lakes: looking at large-scale moisture transport and its relation to Amazonia and to subtropical rainfall in South America, J. Climate, 25, 543–556, 2012.; Bagley, J. E., Desai, A. R., Harding...

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Isoprene Oxidation by Nitrate Radical: Alkyl Nitrate and Secondary...

By: J. Fry; T. Brauers; A. Kiendler-scharr; F. Rohrer; R. Tillmann; R. C. Cohen; P. J. Wooldridge; W. P. Dubé; T. F. Mentel; R. Wegener; H.-p. Dorn; H. Fuchs; S. S. Brown; A. W. Rollins; A. Mensah

Description: Department of Chemistry, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. Alkyl nitrates and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) produced during the oxidation of isoprene by nitrate radicals has been observed in the SAPHIR chamber. We find the yield of nitrates is 70±8% from the isoprene+NO3 reaction, and the yield for secondary dinitrates produced in the reaction of primary isoprene nitrates with NO3 is 40±20%. We find an ef...

Day, D. A., Wooldridge, P. J., Dillon, M., Thornton, J. A., and Cohen, R. C.: A thermal dissociation laser-induced fluorescence instrument for in situ detection of NO2, peroxy nitrates, alkyl nitrates, and HNO3, J. Geophys. Res., 107(D6), 4046, doi:10.1029/2001JD000779, 2002.; DeCarlo, P. F., Kimmel, J. R., Trimborn, A., Northway, M. J., Jayne, J. T., Aiken, A. C., Gonin, M., Fuhrer, K., Horvath, T., Docherty, K. S., Worsnop, D. R., and Jimenez, J. ...

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Investigation of Molar Volume and Surfactant Characteristics of Wa...

By: C. J. Hennigan; R. J. Weber; A. Nenes; A. Asa-awuku; A. P. Sullivan

Description: School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA. In this study, we characterize the CCN activity of the water-soluble organics in biomass burning aerosol. The aerosol after collection upon filters is dissolved in water using sonication. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic components are fractionated from a portion of the original sample using solid phase extraction, and subsequently desalted. The surface tension...

Andreae, M. O. and Crutzen, P. J.: Atmospheric aerosols: Biogeochemical sources and role in atmospheric chemistry, Science, 276, 1052–1058, 1997.; Asa-Awuku, A., and Nenes, A.: Effect of solute dissolution kinetics on cloud droplet formation: Extended Köhler theory, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D22201, doi:10.1029/2005JD006934, 2007.; Asa-Awuku, A., Nenes, A., Gao, S., Flagan, R. C., and Seinfeld, J. H.: Alkene ozonolysis SOA: inferences on composition, CCN and growth kinetics...

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Anthropogenic Aerosols May Have Increased Upper Tropospheric Humid...

By: M. Kulmala; M. Bister

Description: Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. Recent simulations of deep convection with a spectral microphysics cloud model show that an increase in aerosol concentration can have a significant effect on the nature of convection with more ice precipitation and less warm rain in polluted air. The cloud lifetime and the area covered by cloud anvils of deep convection are also larger in polluted air. Therefore, it is pos...

Andreae, M. O.: Climatic effects of changing atmospheric aerosol levels, in: World Survey of Climatology, vol. 16, Future Climates of the World, edited by: Henderson-Sellers, A., Elsevier, New York, 341–392, 1995.; Bates, J. J. and Jackson, D. L.: Trends in upper-tropospheric humidity, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 1695–1698, 2001.; Dessler, A. E. and Sherwood, C.: Simulations of tropical upper tropospheric humidity, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 20155–20163, 2000.; Bates, J. J., Ja...

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