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High Formation of Secondary Organic Aerosol from the Photo-oxidati...

By: S. N. Pandis; N. M. Donahue; L. Hildebrandt

Description: Center for Atmospheric Particle Studies, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA. Toluene and other aromatics have long been viewed as the dominant anthropogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) precursors, but the SOA mass yields from toluene reported in previous studies vary widely. Experiments conducted in the Carnegie Mellon University environmental chamber to study SOA formation from the photo-oxidation of toluene show...

Davidson, C. I., Phalen, R. F., and Solomon, P. A.: Airborne particulate matter and human health: A review, Aerosol Sci. Tech., 39, 737–749, 2005.; Aiken, A. C., DeCarlo, P. F., Kroll, J. H., Worsnop, D. R., Huffman, J. A., Docherty, K., Ulbrich, I. M., Mohr, C., Kimmel, J. R., Sueper, D., Sun, Y., Zhang, Q., Trimborn, A. M., Northway, M. J., Ziemann, P. J., Canagaratna, M. R., Alfarra, M. R., Prevot, A. S. H., Dommen, J., Duplissy, J., Metzger, A., Baltensperger, U., an...

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Comparison of Several Wood Smoke Markers and Source Apportionment ...

By: S. Szidat; A. S. H. Prévôt; M. R. Alfarra; A. Caseiro; U. Baltensperger; A. Kasper-giebl; H. Puxbaum; S. Weimer; M. N. Wehrli; J. Sandradewi; M. Ruff; E. Weingartner; V. A. Lanz; N. Perron; L. Wacker

Description: Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen, Switzerland. Residential wood combustion has only recently been recognized as a major contributor to air pollution in Switzerland and in other European countries. A source apportionment method using the aethalometer light absorption parameters was applied to five winter campaigns at three sites in Switzerland: a village with high wood combustion activity in winter, an urban back...

Abas, M. R. B., Oros, D. R., and Simoneit, B. R. T.: Biomass burning as the main source of organic aerosol particulate matter in Malaysia during haze episodes, Chemosphere, 55, 1089–1095, 2004.; Alfarra, M. R., Coe, H., Allan, J. D., Bower, K. N., Boudries, H., Canagaratna, M. R., Jimenez, J. L., Jayne, J. T., Garforth, A. A., Li, S.-M., and Worsnop, D. R.: Characterization of urban and rural organic particulate in the Lower Fraser Valley using two Aerodyne aerosol mass ...

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Highly Resolved Global Distribution of Tropospheric No2 Using Gome...

By: M. Wenig; U. Platt; T. Wagner; S. Beirle

Description: Institut für Umweltphysik, Universität Heidelberg, Germany. The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME, since 1995) allows the retrieval of global total column densities of atmospheric trace gases, including NO2. Tropospheric vertical column densities (VCDs) are derived by estimating the stratospheric fraction from measurements over the remote ocean. Mean maps of tropospheric NO2 VCDs derived from GOME clearly allow to detect region...

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On Retrieval of Lidar Extinction Profiles Using Two-stream and Ram...

By: C. Ritter; I. S. Stachlewska

Description: Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Telegrafenberg A43, 14473 Potsdam, Germany. The Two-Stream technique employes simultaneous measurements performed by two elastic backscatter lidars aiming at each other to sample into the same atmosphere. It allows for a direct retrieval of the extinction coefficient profile from the ratio of the two involved lidar signals. During a few Alfred-Wegener-Institute's (AWI) campaigns dedicated to the A...

Ackermann, J.: The extinction to backscatter ratio of tropospheric aerosol: A numerical study, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 15, 1043–1050, 1998.; Ansmann, A., Riebesell, M., and Weitkamp, C.: Measurements of aerosol profiles with Raman lidar, Opt. Lett., 15, 746–748, 1990.; Ansmann, A., Wandinger, U., Riebesell, M., Weitkamp, C., and Michaelis, W.: Independent measurements of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter Li...

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Effect of Surface Reaction on the Cloud Nucleating Properties of M...

By: P. Laj; H. Venzac; A. Schwarzenboeck; S. Crumeyrolle; A. Matsuki; L. Gomes

Description: Laboratoire de Météorologie Physique, Université Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand, France. In order to gain insights into the characteristics of the mineral dust fraction which actually serves as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) including the related cloud processing, this study proceeded to directly collect CCN and compare their mixing states with that of the clear-sky aerosol particles. To pursue this goal, the French ATR-42 research aircraft equipped b...

Albrecht, B. A.: Aerosols, cloud microphysics, and fractional cloudiness, Science, 245, 1227–1229, 1989.; Archuleta, C. M., DeMott, P. J., and Kreidenweis, S. M.: Ice nucleation by surrogates for atmospheric mineral dust and mineral dust/sulfate particles at cirrus temperatures, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 2617–2634, 2005.; Artaxo, P. Martins, J. V., Yamasoe, M. A., Procopio, A. S., Pauliquevis, T. M., Andreae, M. O., Guyon, P., Gatti, L. V., and Leal, A. M. C.: Physical and ...

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Discernible Rhythm in the Spatio/Temporal Distributions of Transat...

By: A. B. Kostinski; Y. Lehahn; Y. Ben-ami; O. Altaratz; I. Koren

Description: Department of Environmental Sciences and Energy Research, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel. The differences in North African dust emission regions and transport routes, between the boreal winter and summer are thoroughly documented. Here we re-examine the spatial and temporal characteristics of dust transport over the tropical and subtropical North Atlantic Ocean, using 10 years of satellite data, in order to determine better the different ...

Ben-Ami, Y., Koren, I., Rudich, Y., Artaxo, P., Martin, S. T., and Andreae, M. O.: Transport of North African dust from the Bodérlé depression to the Amazon Basin: a case study, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 7533–7544, doi:10.5194/acp-10-7533-2010, 2010.; Bou Karam, D., Flamant, C., Knippertz, P., Reitebuch, O., Pelon, J., Chong, M., and Dabas, A.: Dust emissions over the Sahel associated with the West African monsoon inte...

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Validation of Ife-1.6 Sciamachy Limb Ozone Profiles : Volume 5, Is...

By: A. J. M. Piters; C. Von Savigny; E. J. Brinksma; A. J. Segers

Description: Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute (KNMI), P.O. Box 201, 3730 AE De Bilt, The Netherlands. The IFE-1.6 scientific data set of SCIAMACHY limb ozone profiles is validated for the period August–December 2002. The data set provides ozone profiles over an altitude range of 15–45 km. The main uncertainty in the profiles is the imprecise knowledge of the pointing of the instrument, leading to retrieved profiles that are shifted in altitude directio...

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Lightning-produced No2 Observed by Two Ground-based Uv-visible Spe...

By: F. Goutail; C. A. McLinden; S. M. L. Melo; K. Strong; A. Fraser

Description: Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Ground-based measurements of ozone and NO2 slant columns by the SAOZ (Système d'Analyse par Observations Zénithales) and UT-GBS (University of Toronto Ground-Based Spectrometer) instruments during the MANTRA 2004 field campaign are presented herein. During the afternoon of 28 August, a thunderstorm passed over the instruments, which were installed at Vanscoy, Saskatchewan...

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On the Possible Causes of Recent Increases in Northern Hemispheric...

By: I. Wohltmann; M. Rex; J. P. Burrows; S. Dhomse; M. Weber

Description: Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany. Global total ozone measurements from various satellite instruments such as SBUV, TOMS, and GOME show an increase in zonal mean total ozone at northern hemispheric (NH) mid to high latitudes since the mid-nineties. This increase could be expected from the peaking and start of decline in the effective stratospheric halogen loading, but the rather rapid increase observed in NH ...

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The Isotope Composition of Water Vapour: a Powerful Tool to Study ...

By: A. Zahn; C. Bechtel

Description: Institut für Umweltphysik, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany. A one-dimensional chemistry model is applied to study the stable hydrogen (D) and stable oxygen isotope (17O, 18O) composition of water vapour in stratosphere and mesosphere. The stable isotope ratios of tropospheric H2O are determined by "physical'' fractionation effects, i.e. phase changes, diffusion processes, and mixing of air masses...

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Single Particle Characterization Using a Light Scattering Module C...

By: J. T. Jayne; M. Canagaratna; T. B. Onasch; X.-y. Yu; P. Davidovits; J. Kimmel; M. L. Alexander; E. S. Cross; D. R. Worsnop

Description: Chemistry Department, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts, USA. We present the first single particle results obtained with an Aerodyne time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer coupled with a light scattering module (LS-ToF-AMS). The instrument was deployed at the T1 ground site approximately 40 km northeast of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area as part of the MILAGRO field study in March of 2006. The LS-ToF-AMS acquires both ensemble average and...

Adachi, K. and Buseck, P. R.: Internally mixed soot, sulfates, and organic matter in aerosol particles from Mexico City, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 6469–6481, 2008.; Aiken, A. C., Salcedo, D., Cubison, M. J., Huffman, J. A., DeCarlo, P. F., Ulbrich, I. M., Docherty, K. S., Sueper, D., Kimmel, J. R., Worsnop, D. R., Trimborn, A., Northway, M., Stone, E. A., Schauer, J. J., Volkamer, R. M., Fortner, E., de Foy, B., Wang, J., Laskin, A., Shutthanandan, V., Zheng, J., Zhang, R.,...

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Impact of Biogenic Hydrocarbons on Tropospheric Chemistry: Results...

By: F. Brocheton; D. A. Hauglustaine; J. Lathière; G. A. Folberth

Description: Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l’Environnement (LSCE), Gif-sur-Yvette, France. We present a description and evaluation of LMDz-INCA, a global three-dimensional chemistry-climate model, pertaining to its recently developed NMHC version. In this substantially extended version of the model a comprehensive representation of the photochemistry of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) from biogenic, anthropogenic, and ...

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Observations of Meteor-head Echoes Using the Jicamarca 50 Mhz Rada...

By: J. L. Chau; R. F. Woodman

Description: Radio Observatorio de Jicamarca, Instituto Geofísico del Perú, Lima. We present results of recent observations of meteor-head echoes obtained with the high-power large-aperture Jicamarca 50 MHz radar (11.95° S, 76.87° W) in an interferometric mode. The large power-aperture of the system allows us to record more than 3000 meteors per hour in the small volume subtended by the 1° antenna beam, albeit when the cluttering equatorial electrojet (EE...

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Increasing and Decreasing Trends of the Atmospheric Deposition of...

By: P. Fernández; N. L. Rose; R. Fonts; U. Nickus; J. Catalan; L. Arellano; E. Stuchlík; H. Thies; J. O. Grimalt; L. Camarero

Description: Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDǼA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18, 08034, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. Bulk atmospheric deposition samples were collected between 2004 and 2007 at four high altitude European sites encompassing east (Skalnaté pleso), west (Lochnagar), central (Gossenköllesee) and south (Redòn) regions, and analysed for legacy and current-use organochlorine compounds (OCs). Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) generally show...

Agrell, C., Larsson, P., Okla, L., and Agrell, J.: PCB congeners in precipitation, wash out ratios and depositional fluxes within the Baltic Sea region, Europe, Atmos. Environ., 36, 371–383, 2002.; Arellano, L., Fernández, P., Tatosova, J., Stuchlik, E., and Grimalt, J. O.: Long-range transported atmospheric pollutants in snowpacks accumulated at different altitudes in the Tatra Mountains (Slovakia), Environ. Sci. Technol., 45, 9268–9275, 2011.; Aulagnier, F. and Poissan...

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Sensitivity of the Recent Methane Budget to Lmdz Sub-grid-scale Ph...

By: M. Saunois; R. Locatelli; C. Cressot; F. Chevallier; P. Bousquet

Description: Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE), Gif sur Yvette, France. With the densification of surface observing networks and the development of remote sensing of greenhouse gases from space, estimations of methane (CH4) sources and sinks by inverse modeling are gaining additional constraining data but facing new challenges. The chemical transport model (CTM) linking the flux space to methane mixing ratio space must be able...

Bergamaschi, P., Krol, M., Dentener, F., Vermeulen, A., Meinhardt, F., Graul, R., Ramonet, M., Peters, W., and Dlugokencky, E. J.: Inverse modelling of national and European CH4 emissions using the atmospheric zoom model TM5, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 2431–2460, doi:10.5194/acp-5-2431-2005, 2005.; Bergamaschi, P., Frankenberg, C., Meirink, J. F., Krol, M., Dentener, F., Wagner, T., Platt, U., Kaplan, J. O., Kö...

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Co-located Column and in Situ Measurements of Co2 in the Tropics C...

By: A. K. Petersen; A. Jordan; C. Gerbig; M. Rothe; R. MacAtangay; C. Rödenbeck; O. Schrems; T. Warneke; J. Notholt

Description: Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany. The first ground-based remote sensing measurements of the column averaged volume mixing ratio of CO2 (XCO2) for the inner tropics have been obtained at Paramaribo, Suriname (5.8° N, 55.2° W). The remote sensing observations are complemented by surface air-samples collected at the site, analyzed for CO2 and 13CO2. The surface i...

Andres, R. J., Marland, G., and Bischof, S.: Global and latitudinal estimates of {δ}13C from fossil-fuel consumption and cement manufacture, Carbon Dioxide Information Center, Oak Ridge National Labaratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn., USA, 1999 (available on Internet via ftp://cdiac.ornl.gov/pub/db1013/).; Brown, L. R., Gunson, M. R., Toth, R. A., Irion, F. W., Rinsland, C. P., and Goldman, A.: The 1995 Atmospheric Trace Mole...

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The Composition of Nucleation and Aitken Modes Particles During Co...

By: K. E. J. Lehtinen; Y. J. Yoon; A. Laaksonen; J. Joutsensaari; P. Vaattovaara; C. D. O'Dowd; P. E. Huttunen

Description: University of Kuopio, Dept. of Physics, P.O. Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio, Finland. Newly-formed nanometer-sized particles have been observed at coastal and marine environments world wide. Organic species have so far not been detected in those newly-formed nucleation mode particles. In this study, we applied the ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer method to study the possible existence of an organic fraction in recently formed coastal nucl...

Aalto, P. P. and Kulmala, M.: Using a cloud condensation nuclei counter to study CCN properties and concentrations, Boreal Environ. Res., 5, 349–359, 2000.; Andreae, M. O. and Crutzen, P. J.: Atmospheric aerosols: Biogeochemical sources and role in atmospheric chemistry, Science, 276, 1052–1058, 1997.; Alfonso, L. and Raga, B.: The influence of organic compounds on the development of precipitation acidity in maritime clouds, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 4, 1097–1111, 2004.; Atkin...

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The Climate Penalty for Clean Fossil Fuel Combustion : Volume 11, ...

By: W. Junkermann; M. A. Sutton; B. Vogel

Description: Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IMK-IFU, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany. To cope with the world's growing demand for energy, a large number of coal-fired power plants are currently in operation or under construction. To prevent environmental damage from acidic sulphur and particulate emissions, many such installations are equipped with flue gas cleaning technology that reduces the emitted amounts of sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen diox...

Adams, P. J. and Seinfeld, J. H.: Disproportionate impact of particulate emissions on global cloud condensation nuclei concentrations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(5), 1239, doi:10.1029/2002GL016303, 2003.; Arneth, A., Unger, N., Kulmala, M., and Andreae, M. O.: Clean the Air, Heat the Planet?, Science, 326, 672–673, 2009.; Bala, G., Duffy, B., and Taylor, K. E.: Impact of geoengineering schemes on the global hydrological cyc...

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A New Data Set of Soil Mineralogy for Dust-cycle Modeling : Volume...

By: S. P. Harrison; Y. Balkanski; E. Journet

Description: School of Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1SS, UK. The mineralogy of airborne dust affects the impact of dust particles on direct and indirect radiative forcing, on atmospheric chemistry and on biogeochemical cycling. It is determined partly by the mineralogy of the dust-source regions and partly by size-dependent fractionation during erosion and transport. Here we present a data set that characterizes the clay and silt sized ...

Abtahi, A.: Soil genesis as affected by topography and time in highly calcareous parent materials under semiarid conditions in Iran, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 44, 329–336, 1980.; Andronova, V.: A study of the crystalline structure of vermiculite from the Tebinbulak deposit, Refract. Ind. Ceram+, 48, 91–95, 2007.; Balkanski, Y., Schulz, M., Claquin, T., and Guibert, S.: Reevaluation of Mineral aerosol radiative forcings suggests a better agreement with satellite and AERONET ...

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Using Neural Networks to Describe Tracer Correlations : Volume 3, ...

By: M .D. Müller; H. Y. Mussa; D. J. Lary

Description: Global Modelling and Assimilation Office, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, USA. Neural networks are ideally suited to describe the spatial and temporal dependence of tracer-tracer correlations. The neural network performs well even in regions where the correlations are less compact and normally a family of correlation curves would be required. For example, the CH4-N2O correlation can be well described using a neural...

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