World Library  


 
  • Cover Image

On the Quantification of Atmospheric Carbonate Carbon by Thermal/O...

By: M. Viana; A. Karanasiou; X. Querol; A. Alastuey; K. Eleftheriadis; C. Reche; F. Cavalli; E. Diapouli

Description: Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Barcelona, Spain. The objective of this work was to study the possibility of identifying and quantifying atmospheric carbonate carbon (CC) by thermal-optical analysis. Three different temperature protocols, two modified NIOSH-like protocols (RT-QUARTZ-840 and RT-QUARTZ-700), and the EUSAAR_2 protocol were tested on filter samples containing known amounts of CC with the semi-continuou...

Athanassiadou, M., Flocas, H., Harrison, M. R. J., Hort, M. C., Witham, C. S., and Millington, S.: The dust event of 17 April 2005 over Athens, Greece, Weather, 61, 125–131, 2006.; Bae, M. S., Schauer, J. J., DeMinter, J. T., Turner, J. R., Smith, D., and Cary, R. A.: Validation of a Semi-Continuous Instrument for Elemental Carbon and Organic Carbon Using a Thermal-Optical Method, Atmos. Environ. 38, 2885–2893, 2004.; Birch, M. E. and Cary, R. A.: Elemental carbon-based ...

Read More
  • Cover Image

An Automatic Collector to Monitor Insoluble Atmospheric Deposition...

By: S. Chevaillier; E. Bon Nguyen; J. Vincent; B. Laurent; P. Raimbault; G. Bergametti; M. Fornier; P. Roullet; N. Ouboulmane; R. Losno; S. Triquet

Description: Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques (LISA), UMR7583 CNRS, Université Paris 7 Denis Diderot, Université Paris-Est Créteil, Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace, France. Deposition is one of the key processes controlling the mass budget of the atmospheric mineral dust concentration. However, dust deposition remains poorly constrained in transport models simulating the atmospheric dust cycle. This is mainly due to the limited number of relev...

Ball, D. F.: Loss-on-ignition as an estimate of organic soils matter and carbon in-non calcareous soils, J. Soil Sci., 15, 84–92, 1964.; Avila, A., Alarcon, M., Castillo, S., Escudero, M., García Orellana, J., Masque, P., and Querol, X.: Variation of soluble and insoluble calcium in red rains related to dust sources and transport patterns from North Africa to northeastern Spain, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D05210, doi:10.1029/200...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Collocating Satellite-based Radar and Radiometer Measurements – Me...

By: S. A. Buehler; C. Jiménez; B. Rydberg; G. Holl

Description: Department of Space Science, LuleÅ University of Technology, Kiruna, Sweden. Collocations between two satellite sensors are occasions where both sensors observe the same place at roughly the same time. We study collocations between the Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) onboard NOAA-18 and the Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) onboard the CloudSat CPR. First, a simple method is presented to obtain those collocations and this method is compared with a more comp...

Aoki, T.: A Method for Matching the HIRS/2 and AVHRR Pictures of TIROS-N Satellites, Tech. rep., Meteorological Satellite Center, technical Note No. 2, 1980.; Austin, R. T., Heymsfield, A. J., and Stephens, G. L.: Retrievals of ice cloud microphysical parameters using the CloudSat millimeter-wave radar and temperature, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D00A23, doi:10.1029/2008JD010049, 2008.; Bennartz, R.: Optimal Convolution of AM...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Validation of Spectral Sky Radiance Derived from All-sky Camera Im...

By: G. Seckmeyer; S. Riechelmann; K. Tohsing; M. Schrempf

Description: Institut für Meteorologie und Klimatologie, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Herrenhäuser Straße 2, Hanover 30419, Germany. Spectral sky radiance (380–760 nm) is derived from measurements with a Hemispherical Sky Imager (HSI) system. The HSI consists of a commercial compact CCD (charge coupled device) camera equipped with a fish-eye lens and provides hemispherical sky images in three reference bands such as red, green and blue. To obtain the spectral ...

Blumthaler, M., Grübner, J., Huber, M., and Ambach, W.: Measuring spectral and spatial variations of UVA and UVB sky radiance, J. Geophys. Res., 23, 547–550, 1996.; Ansko, I., Eerme, K., Lätt, S., Noorma, M., and Veismann, U.: Study of suitability of AvaSpec array spectrometer for solar UV field measurements, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 3247–3253, doi:10.5194/acp-8-3247-2008, 2008.; Bener, P.: Der Einfluß der Bewölkung auf...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Performance of a Geostationary Mission, Geocarb, to Measure Co2, C...

By: The Geocarb Team; D.M. O'Brien; I. N. Polonsky; C. W. O'Dell; J. B. Kumer

Description: Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere, Colorado State University, USA. GeoCARB is a proposed instrument to measure column averaged concentrations of CO2, CH4 and CO from geostationary orbit using reflected sunlight in near-infrared absorption bands of the gases. The scanning options, spectral channels and noise characteristics of geoCARB and two descope options are described. The accuracy of concentrations from ...

Baum, B. A., Heymsfield, A. J., Yang, P., and Bedka, S. T.: Bulk scattering properties for the remote sensing of ice clouds, Part 1: Microphysical data and models, J. Appl. Meteorol., 44, 1885–1895, doi:10.1175/JAM2308.1, 2005a.; Baum, B. A., Yang, P., Heymsfield, A. J., Platnick, S., King, M. D., Hu, Y.-X., and Bedka, S. T.: Bulk scattering properties for the remote sensing of ice clouds, Part 2: Narrowband models, J. Appl...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Sensitivity Study on Polarized Aerosol Retrievals of Parasol in Be...

By: T. Yu; L. Fang; S. P. Wang; X. F. Gu; J. Gao

Description: State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Jointly Sponsored by the Institute of Remote Sensing Applications of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China. Sensitivity study on the PARASOL aerosol retrieval algorithm over land is presented for aerosol mixtures composed of fine mode pollution particles combined with coarse mode desert dust. First an assessment of the PARASOL aerosol products during the period of 2005–200...

Charlson, R. J., Schwartz, S. E., Hales, J. M., Cess, R. D., Coakley Jr., J. A., Hansen, J. E., and Hofmann, D. J.: Climate Forcing by Anthropogenic Aerosols, Science, 255, 504324, 423–430, 1992.; Deschamps, P. Y., Bréon, F. M., Leroy, M., Podaire, A., Bricaud, A., Buriez, J. C., and Seze, G.: The POLDER mission: Instrument characteristics and scientific objectives, IEEE T. Geosci. Remote Sens., 32, 598–615, 1994.; Deuzé, J. L., Bréon, F. M., Devaux, C., Goloub, P., Herm...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Assessing the Potential of Passive Microwave Radiometers for Conti...

By: O. Maier; U. Löhnert

Description: Institute for Geophysics and Meteorology, University of Cologne, Zülpicher Straße 49a, 50674 Köln, Germany. The motivation of this study is to verify theoretical expectations placed on ground-based radiometer techniques and to confirm whether they are suitable for supporting key missions of national weather services, such as timely and accurate weather advisories and warnings. We evaluate reliability and accuracy of atmospheric temperatur...

Cadeddu, M. P., Payne, V. H., Clough, S. A., Cady-Pereira, K., and Liljegren, J. C.: Effect of the Oxygen Line-Parameter Modeling on Temperature and Humidity Retrievals From Ground-Based Microwave Radiometers, IEEE T. Geosci. Remote, 45(7), 2216–2222, 2007.; Calpini, B., Ruffieux, D., Bettems, J.-M., Hug, C., Huguenin, P., Isaak, H.-P., Kaufmann, P., Maier, O., and Steiner, P.: Ground-based remote sensing profiling and numerical weather prediction model to manage nuclear...

Read More
  • Cover Image

A Gps Network for Tropospheric Tomography in the Framework of the ...

By: M. Reverdy; V. Ducrocq; H. Brenot; C. Champollion; A. Walpersdorf; F. Masson; P. Collard; P. Giroux; E. Doerflinger; J. Van Baelen

Description: ISTerre, CNRS – UMR5275, Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble, France. The Mediterranean hydrometeorological observatory Cévennes-Vivarais (OHM-CV) coordinates hydrometeorological observations (radars, rain gauges, water level stations) on a regional scale in South-Eastern France. In the framework of OHM-CV, temporary GPS measurements have been carried out for 2 months in autumn 2002, when the heaviest rainfall are expected. These measurements inc...

Champollion, C., Masson, F., Bouin, M.-N., Walpersdorf, A., Doerflinger, E., Bock, O., and Van Baelen, J.: GPS water vapour tomography: preliminary results from the ESCOMPTE field experiment, Atmos. Res., 74, 253–274, doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2004.04.003, 2005.; Chen, G. and Herring, T. A.: Effects of atmospheric azimuthal asymmetry on the analysis of space geodetic data, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 20489–20502,

Read More
  • Cover Image

Real-time Analysis of Δ13C- and Δd-ch4 in Ambient Air with Laser S...

By: C. Van Der Veen; M. Rothe; L. Emmenegger; M. S. Brennwald; M. E. Popa; J. Mohn; E. Harris; T. Röckmann; C. Zellweger; D. Lowry; W. A. Brand; H. Fischer; S. Eyer; E. G. Nisbet; R. Fisher; B. Tuzson

Description: Empa, Laboratory for Air Pollution & Environmental Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland. In situ and simultaneous measurement of the three most abundant isotopologues of methane using mid-infrared laser absorption spectroscopy is demonstrated. A field-deployable, autonomous platform is realized by coupling a compact quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer (QCLAS) to a preconcentration unit, called TRace gas EXtractor (TREX). This unit enhances ...

Beck, V., Chen, H., Gerbig, C., Bergamaschi, P., Bruhwiler, L., Houweling, S., Röckmann, T., Kolle, O., Steinbach, J., Koch, T., Sapart, C. J., Van Der Veen, C., Frankenberg, C., Andreae, M. O., Artaxo, P., Longo, K. M., and Wofsy, S. C.: Methane airborne measurements and comparison to global models during BARCA, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 117, D15310, doi:10.1029/2011JD017345, 2012.; Bergamaschi, P., Schupp, M., and Harri...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Total Column Co2 Measurements at Darwin, Australia – Site Descript...

By: G. W. Bryant; D. M. Matross; D. W. T. Griffith; P. O. Wennberg; G. Keppel-aleks; A. V. Bright; N. M. Deutscher; Y. Yavin; R. A. Washenfelder; R. Jiménez; D. Wunch; J.-f. Blavier; S. C. Wofsy; G. C. Toon; S. Park; B. C. Daube; N. T. Allen

Description: School of Chemistry, University of Wollongong, Northfields Ave, Wollongong, NSW, 2522, Australia. An automated Fourier Transform Spectroscopic (FTS) solar observatory was established in Darwin, Australia in August 2005. The laboratory is part of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network, and measures atmospheric column abundances of CO2 and O2 and other gases. Measured CO2 columns were calibrated against integrated aircra...

WMO/GAW Glossary of QA/QC-Related Terminology, WMO (2007), http://gaw.empa.ch/glossary.html, May 2010.; Andrews, A. E., Boering, K. A., Daube, B. C., Wofsy, S. C., Hintsa, E. J., Weinstock, E. M., and Bui, T. P.: Empirical age spectra for the lower tropical stratosphere from in situ observations of CO2: Implications for stratospheric transport, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 104, 26581–26595, 1999.; Andrews, A. E., Boerin...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Intercomparison of Polar Ozone Profiles by Iasi/Metop Sounder with...

By: P.-f. Coheur; J. Hadji-lazaro; M. George; C. Clerbaux; V. Guidard; F. Rabier; J.-n. Thépaut; J. Kuttippurath; D. Hurtmans; M. Kovilakam; J. Gazeaux; P. Campbell; T. Deshler

Description: UPMC Univ. Paris 06; Université Versailles St-Quentin; CNRS/INSU, UMR8190, LATMOS-IPSL, Paris, France. Validation of ozone profiles measured from a nadir looking satellite instrument over Antarctica is a challenging task due to differences in their vertical sensitivity with ozonesonde measurements. In this paper, ozone observations provided by the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) instrument onboard the polar-orbiting satellite MetOp ar...

Anton, M. D., Loyola, D., Clerbaux, C., López, M., Vilaplana, J. M., Bañón, M., Hadji-Lazaro, J., Valks, P., Hao, N., Zimmer, W., Coheur, P.-F., Hurtmans, D., and Alados-Arboledas, L.: Validation of the Metop-A total ozone data from GOME-2 and IASI using reference ground-based measurements at the Iberian Peninsula, Remote Sens. Environ., 115, 1380–1386, 2011.; August, T., Klaes, D., Schlüssel, P., Hultberg, T., Crapeau, M., Arriaga, A., O'Carroll, A., Coppens, D., Munro,...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Continuous Measurements of Methane Mixing Ratios from Ice Cores : ...

By: J. Chappellaz; V. Gkinis; A. Schilt; S. Schüpbach; X. Faïn; C. Stowasser; C. Buizert; M. Baumgartner; M. Bigler; T. Blunier; P. Sperlich

Description: Centre for Ice and Climate, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. This work presents a new, field-deployable technique for continuous, high-resolution measurements of methane mixing ratios from ice cores. The technique is based on a continuous flow analysis system, where ice core samples cut along the long axis of an ice core are melted continuously. The past atmospheric air contained in the ice ...

Allan, D.: Statistics of atomic frequency standards, Proc. IEEE, 54, 221–230, 1966.; Battle, M., Bender, M., Sowers, T., Tans, P., Butler, J., Elkins, J., Ellis, J., Conway, T., Zhang, N., Lang, P., and Clarke, A.: Atmospheric gas concentrations over the past century measured in air from firn at the South Pole, Nature, 383, 231–235, doi:10.1038/383231a0, 1996.; Andersen, K., Azuma, N., Barnola, J., Bigler, M., Biscaye, P., C...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (Mapss) : Volume 5, ...

By: G. Leptoukh; C. Ichoku; M. Petrenko

Description: Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, USA. Global and local properties of atmospheric aerosols have been extensively observed and measured using both spaceborne and ground-based instruments, especially during the last decade. Unique properties retrieved by the different instruments contribute to an unprecedented availability of the most complete set of complimentary aerosol measurements ever acquir...

Acker, J. and Leptoukh, G.: Online Analysis Enhances Use of NASA Earth Science Data, EOS, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 88, 14, 2007.; Berrick, S., Leptoukh, G., Farley, J., and Rui, H.: Giovanni: A Web services workflow-based data visualization and analysis system, IEEE T. Geosci. Remote, 47, 106–113, 2009.; Chu, D. A., Kaufman, Y. J., Ichoku, C., Remer, L. A., Tanre, D., and Holben, B. N.: Validation of MODIS aerosol optical depth retrieval over land, Geophys. Res. Lett.,...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Atmospheric Co2, Δ(O2/N2) and Δ13Co2 Measurements at Jungfraujoch,...

By: S. Van Der Laan; M. F. Schibig; C. Uglietti; H. A. J. Meijer; M. C. Leuenberger; J. M. Richter; R. E. M. Neubert; I. T. Van Der Laan-luijkx; W. A. Brand; A. Jordan; M. Rothe

Description: Climate and Environmental Physics, Physics Institute and Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland. We present results from an intercomparison program of CO2, Δ(O2/N2) and Δ13CO2 measurements from atmospheric flask samples. Flask samples are collected on a bi-weekly basis at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch in Switzerland for three European lab...

Battle, M., Bender, M. L., Tans, P. P., White, J. W. C., Ellis, J. T., Conway, T., and Francey, R. J.: Global carbon sinks and their variability inferred from atmospheric O2 and δ13C, Science, 287, 2467–2470, 2000.; Battle, M., Fletcher, S. E. M., Bender, M. L., Keeling, R. F., Manning, A. C., Gruber, N., Tans, P. P., Hendricks, M. B., Ho, D. T., Simonds, C., Mika, R., and Paplawsky, B.: Atmospheric potential oxygen: New observations and their impli...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Measurements of Air Pollution Emission Factors for Marine Transpor...

By: J. Mellqvist; F. Lagler; A. P. Csordás; J. B. Lööv; F. Cavalli; J.-p. Putaud; A. Borowiak; B. Horemans; G. Janssens-maenhout; R. Van Grieken; L. Bencs; J. Hjorth; H. Weststrate; B. Alföldy; N. Berg; J. Duyzer; J. Beecken

Description: European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Ispra (VA), Italy. The chemical composition of the plumes of seagoing ships was measured during a two week long measurement campaign in the port of Rotterdam, Hoek van Holland The Netherlands, in September 2009. Altogether, 497 ships were monitored and a statistical evaluation of emission factors (g kg−1 fuel) was provided. The concerned main atmospheric components were SO2, NO2

Agrawal, H., Malloy, Q. G. J., Welch, W. A., Miller, J. W., and Cocker, D. R.: In-use gaseous and particulate matter emissions from a modern ocean going container vessel, Atmos. Environ., 42, 5504–5510, 2008.; Berg, N., Mellqvist, J., Jalkanen, J.-P., and Balzani, J.: Ship emissions of SO2 and NO2: DOAS measurements from airborne platforms, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 5, 1085–1098, doi:10.5194/amt-5-1085-201...

Read More
  • Cover Image

The Collection 6 Modis Aerosol Products Over Land and Ocean : Volu...

By: L. A. Remer; S. Mattoo; L. A. Munchak; F. Patadia; R. C. Levy; N. C. Hsu; A. M. Sayer

Description: Climate and Radiation Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA. The twin Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors have been flying on Terra since 2000 and Aqua since 2002, creating an extensive data set of global Earth observations. Here, we introduce the Collection 6 (C6) algorithm to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) and aerosol size parameters from MODIS-observed spectral reflectance. While not a m...

McComiskey, A., Schwartz, S. E., Schmid, B., Guan, H., Lewis, E. R., Ricchiazzi, P., and Ogren, J. A.: Direct aerosol forcing: Calculation from observables and sensitivities to inputs, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 113, 9202, doi:10.1029/2007JD009170, 2008.; Meister, G., Franz, B. A., Kwiatkowska, E. J., and McClain, C. R.: Corrections to the Calibration of MODIS Aqua Ocean Color Bands Derived From SeaWiFS Data, IEEE T. Geosc...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Determination of Optical and Microphysical Properties of Thin Warm...

By: E. Agassi; I. Koren; E. Hirsch

Description: Department of Environmental Sciences, Weizmann Institute, Rehovot, 76100, Israel. Clouds play a critical role in the Earth's radiative budget as they modulate the atmosphere by reflecting shortwave solar radiation and absorbing long wave IR radiation emitted by the Earth's surface. Although extensively studied for decades, cloud modelling in global circulation models is far from adequate, mostly due to insufficient spatial resolution of the circulation ...

Agassi, E., Ronen, A., Shiloah, N., and Hirsch, E.: Discrimination between natural dense dust clouds with IR spectral measurements, Int. J. High Speed Elect. Syst., 18, 647–660, 2008.; Berk, A., Bernstein, L. S., and Robertson, D. C.: MODTRAN: A moderate resolution model for LOWTRAN 7, Tech. Rep. GLTR-89-0122, Geophysics Laboratory, Air Force System Command, Hanscom AFB, Massachusetts, 1989.; Deirmendjian, D.: Scattering and Polarization Properties of Water Clouds and Ha...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Using Xco2 Retrievals for Assessing the Long-term Consistency of N...

By: M. Palm; E. Mahieu; N. M. Deutscher; J. Notholt; M. Schneider; T. Blumenstock; S. Barthlott; D. Weaver; F. Hase; E. Christner; A. Wiegele; T. Warneke; N. Jones; U. Raffalski; S. Dohe; P. Heikkinen; E. Sepúlveda; D. W. T. Griffith; K. Strong; J. Mendonca; O. E. García; B. Lejeune; D. Smale; V. A. Velazco; R. Kivi; Y. González; J. Robinson

Description: Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research (IMK-ASF), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe, Germany. Within the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change), more than 20 FTIR (Fourier–Transform InfraRed) spectrometers, spread worldwide, provide long-term data records of many atmospheric trace gases. We present a method that uses measured and modelled XCO2 for assessing the consistency of these da...

Angelbratt, J., Mellqvist, J., Blumenstock, T., Borsdorff, T., Brohede, S., Duchatelet, P., Forster, F., Hase, F., Mahieu, E., Murtagh, D., Petersen, A. K., Schneider, M., Sussmann, R., and Urban, J.: A new method to detect long term trends of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) total columns measured within the NDACC ground-based high resolution solar FTIR network, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 6167–6183,

Read More
  • Cover Image

H2O and Δd Profiles Remotely-sensed from Ground in Different Spect...

By: J.-f. Blavier; F. Hase; G. C. Toon; T. Leblanc; M. Schneider

Description: Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), IMK-ASF, Karlsruhe, Germany. We present ground-based FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) water vapour analyses performed in four different spectral regions: 790–880, 1090–1330, 2650–3180, and 4560–4710 cm−1. All four regions allow the retrieval of lower, middle, and upper tropospheric water vapour amounts with a vertical resolution of about 3, 6, and 10 km, respectively. In addition the analyses at 1090–...

Craig, H.: Isotopic variations in meteoric waters, Science, 133, 1702–1703, 1961.; D'Eu, J.-F., Lemoine, B., and Rohart, F.: Infrared HCN Lineshapes as a Test of Galatry and Speed-dependent Voigt Profiles, J. Molec. Spectrosc., 212, 96–110, 2002.; Ehhalt, D. H.: Vertical profiles of \chem{HTO}, \chem{HDO}, and H2O in the Troposphere, Rep. NCAR-TN/STR-100, Natl. Cent. for Atmos. Res., Boulder, Colo., 1974.; Frankenberg, C., Yoshimura, K., Warneke, T., Aben, I.,...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Middle-atmospheric Zonal and Meridional Wind Profiles from Polar, ...

By: P. Eriksson; N. Kämpfer; A. Murk; R. Rüfenacht; S. A. Buehler

Description: Institute of Applied Physics, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland. WIRA is a ground-based microwave Doppler spectroradiometer specifically designed for the measurement of profiles of horizontal wind in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere region where no other continuously running measurement technique exists. A proof of principle has been delivered in a previous publication. A technical upgrade including a new high-frequency amplifier and side...

Angot, G., Keckhut, P., Hauchecorne, A., and Claud, C.: Contribution of stratospheric warmings to temperature trends in the middle atmosphere from the lidar series obtained at Haute-Provence Observatory (44 degrees N), J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 117, D21102, doi:10.1029/2012JD017631, 2012.; Baldwin, M. and Dunkerton, T.: Stratospheric harbingers of anomalous weather regimes, Science, 294, 581–584,

Read More
 
1
|
2
|
3
Records: 1 - 20 of 45 - Pages: 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.