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Ice Particle Habit and Surface Roughness Derived from Parasol Pola...

By: B. A. Baum; L. C.-labonnote; B. Cole; P. Yang; J. Riedi

Description: Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Texas A{&}M University, College Station, Texas, USA. Ice clouds are an important element in the radiative balance of the Earth's climate system, but their microphysical and optical properties still are not well constrained, especially ice particle habit and the degree of particle surface roughness. In-situ observations have revealed common ice particle habits and evidence for surface roughness, but these observations ...

Baran, A. J.: A review of the light scattering properties of cirrus, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 110, 1239–1260, 2009.; Baran, A. J.: From the single-scattering properties of ice crystals to climate prediction: a way forward, Atmos. Res., 112, 45–69, 2012.; Baran, A. J. and C.-Labonnote, L.: On the reflection and polarization properties of ice cloud, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 100, 41–54, 2006.; Baran, A. J. and C.-Labonnote, L.: A self-consistent ...

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Bacteria in the Global Atmosphere – Part 2: Modeling of Emissions ...

By: P. Jöckel; H. Tost; A. Kerkweg; S. M. Burrows; M. G. Lawrence; T. Butler; U. Pöschl

Description: Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany. Bacteria are constantly being transported through the atmosphere, which may have implications for human health, agriculture, cloud formation, and the dispersal of bacterial species. We simulate the global transport of bacteria, represented as 1 μm and 3 μm diameter spherical solid particle tracers in a general circulation model. We investigate factors influencing residence time and distribution of the...

Amato, P., Demeer, F., Melaouhi, A., Fontanella, S., Martin-Biesse, A.-S., Sancelme, M., Laj, P., and Delort, A.-M.: A fate for organic acids, formaldehyde and methanol in cloud water: their biotransformation by micro-organisms, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 4159–4169, 2007.; Andreeva, I., Borodulin, A., Buryak, G., et al.: Biogenic Component of Atmospheric Aerosol in the South of West Siberia, Chem. Sust. Dev., 10, 523–537, 2002.; Andronache, C.: Estimated variability of below...

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Modelling the Cloud Condensation Nucleus Activity of Organic Acids...

By: H.-c. Hansson; G. Kiss; Z. Varga

Description: Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, 8200 Veszprém, Hungary. In this study vapour pressure osmometry was used to determine water activity in solutions of organic acids. The surface tension of the solutions was also monitored in parallel and then Köhler curves were calculated for nine organic acids (oxalic, malonic, succinic, glutaric, adipic acid, maleic acid, malic acid, citric acid and pinonic acid). ...

Bilde, M. and Svenningsson, B.: CCN activation of slightly soluble organics: the importance of small amounts of inorganic salt and particle phase, Tellus Series b-Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 56(2), 128–134, 2004.; Capel, P. D., Gunde, R., Zurcher, F., and Giger, W.: Carbon speciation and surface tension of fog, Environ. Sci. Technol., 24, 722–727, 1990.; Cruz, C. N. and Pandis, S. N.: A study of the ability of pure secondary organic aerosol to act as cloud condens...

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Glyoxal and Methylglyoxal in Atlantic Seawater and Marine Aerosol ...

By: M. Van Pinxteren; H. Herrmann

Description: Leibniz-Institut für Troposphärenforschung (TROPOS), Chemistry Department, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig, Germany. An analytical method for the determination of the alpha dicarbonyls glyoxal (GLY) and methylglyoxal (MGLY) from seawater and marine aerosol samples is presented. The method is based on derivatisation with o-(2,3,4,5,6-Pentafluorobenzyl)-hydroxylamine (PFBHA) reagent, solvent extraction and GC-MS (SIM) analysis. The method showed good precis...

Duce, R. and Hoffmann, E. J.: Chemical fractionation at the air/sea interface, Annu. Rev. Earth Planet Sci., 4, 187–228, 1976.; Carlson, D. J.: Dissolved organic materials in surface microlayers – temporal and spatial variability and relation to sea state, Limnol. Oceanogr., 28, 415–431, 1983.; Carlton, A. G., Turpin, B. J., Altieri, K. E., Seitzinger, S., Reff, A., Lim, H. J., and Ervens, B.: Atmospheric oxalic acid and SOA production from glyoxal: Results of aqueous ph...

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Worldwide Biogenic Soil NoX Emissions Inferred from Omi No2 Observ...

By: G. C. M. Vinken; R. V. Martin; K. F. Boersma; J. D. Maasakkers; M. Adon

Description: Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, the Netherlands. Biogenic NOx emissions from soils are a large natural source with substantial uncertainties in global bottom-up estimates (ranging from 4 to 15 Tg N yr−1). We reduce this range in emission estimates, and present a top-down soil NOx emission inventory for 2005 based on retrieved tropospheric NO2 columns from the ...

Vinken, G. C. M., Boersma, K. F., Jacob, D. J., and Meijer, E. W.: Accounting for non-linear chemistry of ship plumes in the GEOS-Chem global chemistry transport model, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 11707–11722, doi:10.5194/acp-11-11707-2011, 2011.; Vinken, G. C. M., Boersma, K. F., van Donkelaar, A., and Zhang, L.: Constraints on ship NOx emissions in Europe using GEOS-Chem and OMI satellite NO2 obs...

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New-particle Formation, Growth and Climate-relevant Particle Produ...

By: E. A. Barnes; D. M. Westervelt; S. A. Atwood; W. R. Leaitch; J. R. Pierce

Description: Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA. Aerosol particle nucleation, or new-particle formation, is the dominant contributor to particle number in the atmosphere. However, these particles must grow through condensation of low-volatility vapors without coagulating with the larger, pre-existing particles in order to reach climate-relevant sizes (diameters larger than 50–100 nm), where the particle...

Crippa, P. and Pryor, S. C.: Spatial and temporal scales of new particle formation events in eastern North America, Atmos. Environ., [online], 2013.; Boy, M., Kulmala, M., Ruuskanen, T. M., Pihlatie, M., Reissell, A., Aalto, P. P., Keronen, P., Dal Maso, M., Hellen, H., Hakola, H., Jansson, R., Hanke, M., and Arnold, F.: Sulphuric acid closure and contribution to nucleation mode particle growth, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 863–878,

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Tula Industrial Complex (Mexico) Emissions of So2 and No2 During t...

By: C. Rivera; G. Sosa; B. De Foy; M. Johansson; H. Wöhrnschimmel; B. Galle

Description: Department of Radio and Space Science, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Gothenburg, Sweden. The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) has presented severe pollution problems for many years. There are several point and mobile emission sources inside and outside the MCMA which are known to affect air quality in the area. In particular, speculation has risen as to whether the Tula industrial complex, located 60 km northwest of the MCMA has any influe...

Bobrowski, N., Hönninger, G., Galle, B., and Platt, U.: Detection of bromine monoxide in a volcanic plume, Nature, 423, 273–276, 2003.; Bogumil, K., Orphal, J., Homann, T., Voigt, S., Spietz, P., Fleischmann, O. C., Vogel, A., Hartmann, M., Kromminga, H., Bovensmann, H., Frerick, J., and Burrows, J. P.: Measurements of molecular absorption spectra with the SCIAMACHY pre-flight model: instrument characterization and reference data for atmospheric remote-sensing in the 230...

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A Modelling Study of Air Quality Impact of Odd-even Day Traffic Re...

By: S. D. Xie; H. Cai

Description: College of Environmental Science and Engineering, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, Peking University, Beijing, China. Systematic air pollution control measures were designed and implemented to improve air quality for the 2008 Beijing Olympics. This study focuses on the evaluation of the air quality impacts of a short-term odd-even day traffic restriction scheme (TRS) implemented before, during and after the Ga...

Assael, M. J., Delaki, M., and Kakosimos, K. E.: Applying the OSPM model to the calculation of PM10 concentration levels in the historical centre of the city of Thessaloniki, Atmos. Environ., 42, 65–77, 2008.; Atkinson-Palombo, C. M., Miller, J. A., and Balling, R. C.: Quantifying the ozone weekend effect at various locations in Phoenix, Arizona, Atmos. Environ., 40, 7644–7658, 2006.; Beijing Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau: Beijing Environmental Bul...

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The Adsorption of Nitrogen Oxides on Crystalline Ice : Volume 2, I...

By: H. W. Gäggeler; P. Zimmermann; B. Eichler; T. Bartels; M. Ammann

Description: Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland. The partitioning of nitrogen oxides between ice and air is of importance to the ozone budget in the upper troposphere. In the present study, adsorption of nitrogen oxides on ice was investigated at atmospheric pressure using a chromatographic technique with radioactively labelled nitrogen oxides at low concentrations. The measured retentions solely depended on molecular adsorption an...

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Aerosol Model Selection and Uncertainty Modelling by Adaptive McMc...

By: J. Tamminen; M. Laine

Description: Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland. We apply Bayesian model selection techniques on the statistical inversion problem of the GOMOS instrument. The motif is to study which type of aerosol model best fits the data and to show how the uncertainty of the aerosol model can be included in the error estimates. The competing models consist of various formulations, each having different unknown parameter vectors. We have developed an Adaptive A...

Bertaux, J L., Kyrölä, E., and Wehr, T.: Stellar Occultation Technique for Atmospheric Ozone Monitoring: GOMOS on Envisat, Earth Observation Quarterly, 67, 17–20, 2000.; ESA 2007: GOMOS Product Handbook Issue 3.0, European Space Agency, prefixhttp://envisat.esa.int/dataproducts/, 2007.; Gamerman, D.: Markov Chain Monte Carlo – Stochastic simulation for Bayesian inference, Chapman & Hall, 1997.; Green, P J.: Reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo computation and Bayesia...

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Global Impact of Road Traffic Emissions on Tropospheric Ozone : Vo...

By: V. Grewe; R. Sausen; G.-j. Roelofs; S. Matthes

Description: Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre, DLR-Oberpfaffenhofen, Wessling, Germany. Road traffic is one of the major anthropogenic emission sectors for NOx, CO and NMHCs (non-methane hydrocarbons). We applied ECHAM4/CBM, a general circulation model coupled to a chemistry module, which includes higher hydrocarbons, to investigate the global impact of road traffic emissions on the atmosphere. Improving over previous global modelling studies, which con...

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Cloud Thermodynamic Phase and Particle Size Estimation Using the 0...

By: D. Jolivet; A. J. Feijt

Description: Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, PO Box 201, NL-3730 AE De Bilt, The Netherlands. A robust method to estimate the cloud microphysical properties from visible (0.67 Μm) and near infrared (1.6 Μm) measurements of reflected sunlight is presented. The method does not determine cloud particle phase and size separately. Instead it assigns a cloud particle type to every pixel that is most representative for the radiation measurements. The...

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The NoX Dependence of Bromine Chemistry in the Arctic Atmospheric ...

By: D. Pöhler; J. J. Orlando; L. G. Huey; J. Liao; K. A. Pratt; P. Weibring; S. General; A. Fried; P. B. Shepson; J. Zielcke; A. J. Weinheimer; D. J. Knapp; C. Cantrell; L. Mauldin; K. D. Custard; R. S. Hornbrook; K. Ullmann; F. Flocke; W. R. Simpson; S. R. Hall; D. D. Montzka; B. C. Sive; E. Apel; U. Platt; C. R. Thompson

Description: Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA. Arctic boundary layer nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO2 + NO) are naturally produced in and released from the sunlit snowpack and range between 10 to 100 pptv in the remote background surface layer air. These nitrogen oxides have significant effects on the partitioning and cycling of reactive radicals such as halogens and HOx (OH + HO2). However, li...

Abbatt, J. P. D.: Heterogeneous reaction of HOBr with HBr and HCl on ice surfaces at 228-K, Geophys. Res. Lett., 21, 665–668, doi:10.1029/94gl00775, 1994.; Abbatt, J. P. D., Thomas, J. L., Abrahamsson, K., Boxe, C., Granfors, A., Jones, A. E., King, M. D., Saiz-Lopez, A., Shepson, P. B., Sodeau, J., Toohey, D. W., Toubin, C., von Glasow, R., Wren, S. N., and Yang, X.: Halogen activation via interactions with environmental i...

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Observed and Simulated Global Distribution and Budget of Atmospher...

By: P. Tans; P. Jöckel; J. Pollmann; D. Taraborrelli; A. Pozzer; J. Hueber; D. Helmig; J. Lelieveld

Description: The Cyprus Institute, Energy, Environment and Water Research Center, P.O. Box 27456, 1645 Nicosia, Cyprus. The primary sources and atmospheric chemistry of C2−C5 alkanes have been incorporated into the atmospheric chemistry general circulation model EMAC. Model output is compared with new observations from the NOAA/ESRL GMD cooperative air sampling network. Based on the global coverage of the data, two different anthropogenic emi...

Andreae, M. O. and Merlet, P.: Emission of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning, Glob. Biogeochem. Cy., 15, 955–966, 2001.; Arnold, S. R., Chipperfield, M. P., and Blitz, M.: A three-dimensional model study of the effect of new temperature-dependent quantum yields for acetone photolysis, Geophys. Res. Lett., 110, D22305, doi:10.1029/2005JD005998, 2005.; Atkinson, R.: Atmospheric chemistry of {VOC}s and NOx, Atmos. Environ., 34, 2063–2101, 2000.; Bey, ...

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Corrigendum to Seasonal and Interannual Variations of Hcn Amounts ...

By: S. Lossow; G. P. Stiller; T. Von Clarmann; M. Höpfner; N. Glatthor; A. Linden; A. Wiegele; K. A. Walker; E. Eckert; S. Kellmann; B. Funke; U. Grabowski

Description: Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung, Karlsruhe, Germany. No abstract available.

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Corrigendum to Advances in Understanding and Parameterization of S...

By: M. Tjernström; I. A. Renfrew; S. Gerland; I. Fer; D. Marsan; J. C. Gascard; R. Pirazzini; B. Cheng; C. Lüpkes; J. Weiss; T. Nygård; J. Sedlar; D. Chechin; T. Vihma; D. Notz; G. Birnbaum

Description: Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland. No abstract available.

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The Semianalytical Cloud Retrieval Algorithm for Sciamachy II. the...

By: S. Noël; V. V. Rozanov; A. A. Kokhanovsky; W. Von Hoyningen-huene; K. Bramstedt; J. P. Burrows; H. Bovensmann; K. Gerilowski; M. Buchwitz

Description: Institute of Remote Sensing, University of Bremen, Germany. The Semianalytical CloUd Retrieval Algorithm (SACURA) is applied to the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) data. In particular, for the first time we derive simultaneously cloud optical thickness (COT), liquid water path (LWP), cloud top height (CTH), and cloud droplet radius (CDR) using SCIAMACHY measurements in the visible (442 nm, COT), in the ...

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Optical Closure Experiments for Biomass Smoke Aerosols : Volume 10...

By: S. M. Kreidenweis; E. J. T. Levin; K. A. Lewis; D. Obrist; W. C. Malm; H. Moosmüller; J. L. Collett Jr.; W.-m. Hao; W. P. Arnott; A. P. Sullivan; L. E. MacK; C. E. Wold; G. R. McMeeking

Description: Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA. The FLAME experiments were a series of laboratory studies of the chemical, physical, and optical properties of fresh smokes from the combustion of wildland fuels that are burned annually in the western and southeastern US. The burns were conducted in the combustion chamber of the USFS Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana. Here we discuss the retrieval of optical ...

Abo Riziq, A., Erlick, C., Dinar, E., and Rudich, Y.: Optical properties of absorbing and non-absorbing aerosols retrieved by cavity ring down (CRD) spectroscopy, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 1523–1536, 2007.; Anderson, T. L., Covert, D. S., Marshall, S. F., Laucks, M. L., Charlson, R. J., Waggoner, A. P., Ogren, J. A., Caldow, R., Holm, R. L., Quant, F. R., Sem, G. J., Wiedensohler, A., Ahlquist, N. A., and Bates, T. S.: Performance characteristics of a high-sensitivity, thre...

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Air Mass Origins Influencing Ttl Chemical Composition Over West Af...

By: F. Fierli; S. Borrmann; C. M. Volk; M. Streibel; C. Schiller; E. Real; K. S. Law; S. Viciani; F. Cairo; D. Kunkel; F. Ravegnani; H. Schlager; F. D'Amato; A. Ulanovsky

Description: UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Université Versailles St-Quentin, CNRS/INSU, UMR 8190, LATMOS-IPSL, Paris, France. Trace gas and aerosol data collected in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) between 12–18.5 km by the M55 Geophysica aircraft as part of the SCOUT-AMMA campaign over West Africa during the summer monsoon in August 2006 have been analysed in terms of their air mass origins. Analysis of domain filling back trajectories arriving over West Africa, ...

Saunois, M., Reeves, C. E., Mari, C. H., Murphy, J. G., Stewart, D. J., Mills, G. P., Oram, D. E., and Purvis, R. M.: Factors controlling the distribution of ozone in the West African lower troposphere during the AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis) wet season campaign, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 6135–6155, doi:10.5194/acp-9-6135-2009, 2009.; Sauvage, B., Thouret, V., Thompson, A. M., Witte, J. C., Cammas, J. P., Nedelec, P., and Athier, G.: Enhanced view of the...

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Dynamical Modes Associated with the Antarctic Ozone Hole : Volume ...

By: B. C. Weare

Description: Atmospheric Science Program, Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA. Generalized Maximum Covariance Analysis (GMCA) has been developed and applied to diagnosing the dynamical modes associated with variations in the Antarctic spring ozone hole. GMCA is used to identify the most important patterns of co-variability between interannual ozone mixing ratio variations in the Antarctic region an...

Grytsai, A V., Evtushevsky, O M., and Milinevsky, G P.: Anomalous quasi-stationary planetary waves over the Antarctic region in 1988 and 2002, Ann. Geophys. 26, 1101–1108, 2008.; Kistler, R., Kalnay, E., Collins, W., et al.: The NCEP-NCAR 50-year reanalysis: Monthly means CD-ROM and documentation, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 82, 247–267, 2001.; Le Sommer, J., Teitelbaum, H., and Zeitlin, V.: Global estimates of equatorial inertia-gravity wave activity in the stratosphere i...

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