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Characterizing Ozone Production in the Mexico City Metropolitan Ar...

By: R. Volkamer; B. De Foy; M. Zavala; W. Lei; L. T. Molina

Description: Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MA, USA. An episodic simulation is conducted to characterize midday (12:00–17:00 CDT) ozone (O3) photochemical production and to investigate its sensitivity to emission changes of ozone precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during an O3-South meteorological episode using the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions...

Arriaga-Colina, J. L., West, J. J., Sosa, G., Escalona, S. S., Ord\'uÑez, R. M., and Cervantes, A. D. M.: Measurements of VOCs in Mexico City (1992–2001) and evaluation of VOCs and CO in the emissions inventory, Atmos. Environ., 38, 2523–2533, 2004.; CAM (Comisión Ambiental Metropolitana): Inventario de Emisiones 2002 de la Zona Metropolitana del Valle de México, México, 2004.; Baumgardner, D., Raga, G. B., Kok, G., Ogren, J., Rosas, I., Báez, A., and Novakov, T.: On the...

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Global Modeling of Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Aromat...

By: J. H. Seinfeld; D. J. Jacob; N. L. Ng; J. H. Kroll; C. L. Heald; T.-m. Fu; D. K. Henze

Description: Department of Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, USA. Formation of SOA from the aromatic species toluene, xylene, and, for the first time, benzene, is added to a global chemical transport model. A simple mechanism is presented that accounts for competition between low and high-yield pathways of SOA formation, wherein secondary gas-phase products react further with either nitric oxide (NO) or hydroperoxy radica...

Andreae, M O. and Merlet, P.: Emission of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 15, 955–966, 2001.; Atkinson, R., Baulch, D L., Cox, R A., Hampson, R F., Kerr, J A., Rossi, M J., and Troe, J.: Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: Supplement VI - IUPAC subcommittee on gas kinetic data evaluation for atmospheric chemistry, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 26, 1329–1499, 1997.; Benkovitz, C M., Scholtz, M T., Pacyna, ...

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One Year of Raman Lidar Observations of Free Tropospheric Aerosol ...

By: S. Piketh; K. Korhonen; H. Lihavainen; A. Pfüller; V. Vakkari; P. Tiitta; K. E. J. Lehtinen; T. Mielonen; M. Josipovic; L. Laakso; P. G. Van Zyl; K. Chiloane; J. P. Beukes; H. Baars; M. Komppula; E. Giannakaki; R. Engelmann

Description: Finnish Meteorological Institute, P.O. Box 1627, 70211, Kuopio, Finland. Raman lidar data obtained over a one year period has been analyzed in relation to aerosol layers in the free troposphere over the Highveld in South Africa. In total, 375 layers were observed above the boundary layer during the period 30 January 2010–31 January 2011. The seasonal behavior of aerosol layer geometrical characteristics, as well as intensive and extensive optical pro...

Müller, D., Ansmann, A., Wagner, F., Franke, K., and Althausen, D.: European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: Microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 4248, doi:10.1029/2001jd001110, 2002.; Müller, D., Franke, K., Ansmann, A., Althausen, D., and Wagner, F.: Indo-Asian pollution during INDOEX: Microphysical particle properties ...

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Reduced Efficacy of Marine Cloud Brightening Geoengineering Due to...

By: A.-i. Partanen; P. M. Forster; A. K. L. Jenkins; R. G. Stevens; H. Korhonen; G. S. Stuart; D. V. Spracklen; J. R. Pierce

Description: Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada. The intentional enhancement of cloud albedo via controlled sea-spray injection from ships (Marine Cloud Brightening) has been proposed as a possible method to control anthropogenic global warming; however, there remains significant uncertainty in the efficacy of this method due to, amongst other factors, uncertainties in aerosol and cloud microphysics. A major assumption us...

Abdul-Razzak, H. and Ghan, S. J.: A parameterization of aerosol activation: 2. multiple aerosol types, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 6837–6844, doi:10.1029/1999JD901161, 2000.; Albrecht, B.: Aerosols, cloud microphysics, and fractional cloudiness, Science, 245, 1227–1230, 1989.; Alterskjær, K. and Kristjánsson, J. E.: The sign of the radiative forcing from marine cloud brightening depends on both particle size and injection amo...

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Contributions of Dust and Biomass-burning to Aerosols at a Colorad...

By: E. Andrews; J. A. Ogren; I. B. McCubbin; A. G. Hallar; R. Petersen; J. Michalsky

Description: Storm Peak Laboratory, Desert Research Institute, Steamboat Springs, CO, USA. Visible Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) data were collected at Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL), a mountain top facility in northwest Colorado, from 1999–2011 and in 2013. From 2011–2014, in situ measurements of aerosol light scattering were also obtained. Using these datasets together, the seasonal impact of dust and biomass burning is considered ...

Akimoto, H.: Global air quality and pollution, Science, 302, 1716–1718, 2003.; Anderson, T. L. and Ogren, J. A.: Determining aerosol radiative properties using the TSI 3563 intergrating nephelometer, Aerosol Sci. Tech., 29, 57–69, 1998.; Anderson, T. L., Covert, D. S., Marshall, S. F., Laucks, M. L., Charlson, R. J., Waggoner, A. P., Ogren, J. A., Caldow, R., Holm, R. L., Quant, F. R., Sem, G. J., Wiedensohler, A., Ahlquist, N. A., and Bates, T. S.: Performance character...

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Improved Ozone Profile Retrievals from Gome Data with Degradation ...

By: K. Chance; T. P. Kurosu; X. Liu

Description: Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA, USA. We present a simple method to perform degradation correction to Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) reflectance spectra by comparing the average reflectance for 60° N–60° S with that at the beginning of GOME observations (July–December 1995) after removing the dependences on solar zenith angle and seasonal variation. The results indicate positive...

Meijer, Y. J., Swart, D. P. J., Baier, F., et al.: Evaluation of Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) ozone profiles from nine different algorithms, J. Geophys. Res., 111 (D21), D21306, doi:10.1029/2005JD006778, 2006.; Mishchenko, M. I., Lacis, A. A. and Travis, L. D.: Errors induced by the neglect of polarization in radiance calculations for Rayleigh scattering atmospheres, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 51, 491-510, 1994.; Müller, M. D., Kaifel, A. K., Web...

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Biomass Burning Aerosol Properties Over the Northern Great Plains ...

By: X. Dong; B. Xi; T. Logan

Description: University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND, USA. Biomass burning aerosols can have a large impact on atmospheric processes as well as human health. During the 2012 warm season, a large outbreak of wildfires originating from the intermountain and Pacific states provided many opportunities to observe the physical and chemical properties of biomass smoke aerosols. Six biomass burning smoke plumes (26 June–15 September) have been observed by the new...

Abel, S. J., Haywood, J. M., Highwood, E. J., Li, J., and Buseck, P. R.: Evolution of biomass burning aerosol properties from an agricultural fire in southern Africa, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1783, doi:10.1029/2003GL017342, 2003.; Adler, G., Flores, J. M., Abo Riziq, A., Borrmann, S., and Rudich, Y.: Chemical, physical, and optical evolution of biomass burning aerosols: a case study, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 1491–1503,

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Impacts of Climate Change on Air Pollution Levels in the Northern ...

By: K. M. Hansen; J. H. Christensen; J. Brandt; G. B. Hedegaard; M. Stendel; C. Geels; L. M. Frohn

Description: National Environmental Research Institute, University of Aarhus, Roskilde, Denmark. The response of a selected number of chemical species is inspected with respect to climate change. The coupled Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Model ECHAM4-OPYC3 is providing meteorological fields for the Chemical long-range Transport Model DEHM. Three selected decades (1990s, 2040s and 2090s) are inspected. The 1990s are used as a reference and validation period. I...

AMAP: AMAP Assessment 2006: Acidifying Pollutants, Arctic Haze, and Acidification in the Arctic, Scientific report, AMAP, 2006.; Brandt, J.: Modelling Transport, Dispersion and Deposition of Passive Tracers from Accidental Releases, Ph. D. thesis, University of Copenhagen, National Environmental Research Institute and Risø National Laboratory, 1998.; Brandt, J., Bastrup-Birk, A., Christensen, J. H., Mikkelsen, T., Thykier-Nielsen, S., and Zlatev, Z.: Testing the importan...

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On the Possible Causes of Recent Increases in NH Total Ozone from ...

By: I. Wohltmann; J. P. Burrows; M. Rex; S. Dhomse; M. Weber

Description: Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany. Global total ozone measurements from various satellite instruments such as SBUV, TOMS, and GOME show an increase in zonal mean total ozone at NH mid to high latitudes since the mid-nineties. This increase could be expected from the peaking and start of decline in the effective stratospheric halogen loading, but the rather rapid increase observed in NH zonal mean total ozone ...

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Systematic Satellite Observations of the Impact of Aerosols from P...

By: T. A. Mather; R. G. Grainger; A. M. Sayer; S. K. Ebmeier; E. Carboni

Description: COMET, School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Park Street, Bristol, UK. The impact of volcanic emissions, especially from passive degassing and minor explosions, is a source of uncertainty in estimations of aerosol indirect effects. Observations of the impact of volcanic aerosol on clouds contribute to our understanding of both present-day atmospheric properties and of the pre-industrial baseline necessary to assess aerosol radiative forcing. W...

Ackerman, A. S., Toon, O. B., Taylor, J. P., Johnson, D. W., Hobbs, P. V., and Ferek, R. J.: Effects of Aerosols on Cloud Albedo: Evaluation of Twomey's Parameterization of Cloud Susceptibility Using Measurements of Ship Tracks, J. Atmos. Sci., 57, 2684–2695, 2.0.CO;2>doi:10.1175/1520-0469(2000)057<2684:EOAOCA>2.0.CO;2, 2000.; Ackerman, A. S., Kirkpatrick, M. P., Stevens, D. E., and Toon, O. B.: The imp...

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Long-term Chemical Characterization of Tropical and Marine Aerosol...

By: L. Poulain; K. Müller; D. Van Pinxteren; H. Herrmann; K. W. Fomba; M. Van Pinxteren

Description: TROPOS – Leibniz-Institut für Troposphärenforschung, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig, Germany. The first long-term aerosol sampling and chemical characterization results from measurements at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO) on the island of São Vicente are presented and are discussed with respect to air mass origin and seasonal trends. In total 671 samples were collected using a high volume PM10 sampler on quartz fiber filters fro...

Alastuey, A., Querol, X., Castillo, S., Escudero, M., Avila, A., Cuevas, E., Torres, C., Romero, P. M., Exposito, F., Garcia, O., Diaz, J. P., Van Dingenen, R., and Putaud, J. P.: Characterisation of TSP and PM2.5 at Izana and Sta. Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) during a Saharan dust episode (July 2002), Atmos. Environ., 39, 4715–4728, 2005.; Allan, J. D., Topping, D. O., Good, N., Irwin, M., Flynn, M., Williams, P. I., Coe, H., Baker, A. R., Martino...

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Aerosol Hygroscopicity Derived from Size-segregated Chemical Compo...

By: G. Spindler; C. S. Zhao; H. J. Liu; A. Wiedensohler; D. Van Pinxteren; N. Ma; K. Müller; H. Herrmann; B. Nekat

Description: Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China. Hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles is of significant importance in quantifying the aerosol radiative effect in the atmosphere. In this study, hygroscopic properties of ambient particles are investigated based on particle chemical composition at a suburban site in the North China Plain during the HaChi campaign (Haze in China) in summer ...

Asa-Awuku, A., Nenes, A., Gao, S., Flagan, R. C., and Seinfeld, J. H.: Water-soluble SOA from Alkene ozonolysis: composition and droplet activation kinetics inferences from analysis of CCN activity, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 1585–1597, doi:10.5194/acp-10-1585-2010, 2010.; Asa-Awuku, A., Moore, R. H., Nenes, A., Bahreini, R., Holloway, J. S., Brock, C. A., Middlebrook, A. M., Ryerson, T. B., Jimenez, J. L., DeCarlo, P. ...

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Effects of Column Density on I2 Spectroscopy and a Determination o...

By: J. P. Burrows; J. Gómez Martín; P. Spietz

Description: Institute of Environmental Physics (IUP), University of Bremen, Germany. The use of ro-vibronic spectra of I2 in the region of 543 nm to 578 nm as reference spectra for atmospheric Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy is studied. It is shown that the retrieval of atmospheric column densities with Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy set-ups at FWHM at and above 1 nm depends critically on the column density, under which the use...

Perner, D. and Platt, U.: Detection of nitrous acid in the atmosphere by differential optical absorption, Geophys. Res. Lett., 6, 917-920, 1979.; Alliwell, S. R. and Jones, R. L. : Measurement of atmospheric NO$_3$ 1. Improved removal of water vapour absorption features in the analysis for NO$_3$, Geophys. Res. Lett., 23, 2585-2588, 1996.; Bauer, D., Ingham, T., and Crowley , J. N. : Interactive comment on Absolute absorption cross section and photolysis rate of I$_2$ by...

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Flux Induced Growth of Atmospheric Nano-particles by Organic Vapor...

By: C. Kuang; J. Wang; R. L. McGraw

Description: Atmospheric Sciences Division, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000, USA. Atmospheric aerosols play critical roles in air quality, public health, and visibility. In addition, they strongly influence climate by scattering solar radiation and by changing the reflectivity and lifetime of clouds. One major but still poorly understood source of atmospheric aerosol is new particle formation, which consists of the formation of thermodynami...

Albrecht, B. A.: Aerosols, cloud microphysics, and fractional cloudiness, Science, 245, 1227–1230, 1989.; Anttila, T. and Kerminen, V. M.: Condensational growth of atmospheric nuclei by organic vapours, J. Aerosol Sci., 34, 41–61, 2003.; Frenkel, J.: Kinetic Theory of Liquids, Clarendon, Oxford, 1946.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J. and Pitts Jr, J. N.: Chemistry of the Upper and Lower Atmosphere – Theory, Experiments, and Applications, Academic, San Diego, 2000.; Friedlander, S...

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Satellite Climatology of Cloud Liquid Water Path Over the Southeas...

By: L. W. O'Neill; S. Wang; Q. Jiang

Description: Naval Research Laboratory/National Research Council, Monterey, CA, USA. Spatial and temporal variability of liquid water path (LWP) over the southeast Pacific is described using LWP observations made by four satellite microwave radiometers (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on EOS-Aqua (AMSR-E), Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Microwave Imager (TMI), and the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) F13 and F15 satellites) for the 7-yr period Jun...

Bergman, J. W. and Salby, M. L.: The role of cloud diurnal variations in the time-mean energy budget, J. Climate, 10, 1114–1124, 1997.; Bretherton, C. S., Klinker, E., Betts, A. K., and Coakley, J.: Comparison of ceilometer, satellite, and synoptic measurements of boundary layer cloudiness and the ECMWF diagnostic cloud parameterization scheme during ASTEX, J.\ Atmos. Sci., 52, 2736–2751, 1995.; de Szoeke, S. P., Wang, Y., Xie, S.-P., and Miyama, T.: Effect of shallow cu...

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Accommodation Coefficient of Hobr on Deliquescent Sodium Bromide A...

By: M. Ammann; R. Von Glasow; H. W. Gäggeler; M. Wachsmuth

Description: Paul Scherrer Institut, Laboratory for Radio- and Environmental Chemistry, Villigen, Switzerland. Uptake of HOBr on sea salt aerosol, sea salt brine or ice is believed to be a key process providing a source of photolabile bromine (Br2) and sustaining ozone depletion cycles in the Arctic troposphere. In the present study, uptake of HOBr on sodium bromide (NaBr) aerosol particles was investigated at an extremely low HOBr concentration of...

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Variability and Trends in Stratospheric No2 in Antarctic Summer, a...

By: H. K. Roscoe; P. A. Cook

Description: British Antarctic Survey, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0ET, UK. NO2 measurements during 1990–2007, obtained from a zenith-sky spectrometer in the Antarctic, are analysed to determine the long-term changes. The changes in midsummer should be indicative of any changes in the Brewer-Dobson circulation. An atmospheric photochemical box model and a radiative transfer model are used to improve the accuracy of determination of the vertical columns fr...

Dobson, G. M. B.: Origin and distribution of polyatomic molecules in the atmosphere, Proc. R. Soc. Lon. Ser.-A, 236, 187–193, 1956.; Chipperfield, M. P.: Multiannual simulations with a three-dimensional chemical transport model, J. Geophys. Res., 104, D1, 1781–1805, 1999.; Brewer, A. W.: Evidence for a world circulation provided by the measurements of helium and water vapour distribution in the stratosphere, Q. J. Roy Meteor. Soc., 75, 351–363, 1949.; Denis, L., Roscoe, ...

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Polar Stratospheric Cloud Observations by Mipas on Envisat: Detect...

By: J. J. Remedios; L. R. Poole; M. Müller; L. J. Kramer; M. D. Fromm; G. Baumgarten; R. Spang; P. Konopka

Description: ICG I, Research Centre Jülich, Germany. The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on ENVISAT has made extensive measurements of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) in the northern hemisphere winter 2002/2003. A PSC detection method based on a ratio of radiances (the cloud index) has been implemented for MIPAS and is validated in this study with respect to ground-based lidar and space borne occultation measurements. A very good ...

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Understanding the Impact of Recent Advances in Isoprene Photooxida...

By: C. G. Nolte; W. P. L. Carter; F. Paulot; W. T. Hutzell; Y. Xie; P. O. Wennberg; R. W. Pinder; D. J. Luecken; R. C. Cohen

Description: US EPA Office of Research & Development, Durham, North Carolina, USA. The CMAQ model in combination with observations for INTEX-NA/ICARTT 2004 are used to evaluate recent advances in isoprene oxidation chemistry and provide constraints on isoprene nitrate yields, isoprene nitrate lifetimes, and NOx recycling rates. We incorporate recent advances in isoprene oxidation chemistry into the SAPRC-07 chemical mechanism within the US EPA Commun...

Appel, K. W., Foley, K. M., Bash, J. O., Pinder, R. W., Dennis, R. L., Allen, D. J., and Pickering, K.: A multi-resolution assessment of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model v4.7 wet deposition estimates for 2002–2006, Geosci. Model Dev., 4, 357–371, doi:10.5194/gmd-4-357-2011, 2011.; Archibald, A. T., Cooke, M. C., Utembe, S. R., Shallcross, D. E., Derwent,  R. G., and Jenkin, M. E.: Impacts of mechanisti...

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Evidence for Ice Particles in the Tropical Stratosphere from In-si...

By: A. Bansemer; A. J. Heymsfield; S. Borrmann; N. M. Sitnikov; J. Curtius; F. Ravegnani; R. Weigel; M. De Reus; A. Kürten; C. Schiller; A. Ulanovsky; V. Mitev; W. Frey; D. Kunkel

Description: Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Particle Chemistry Department, Mainz, Germany. In-situ ice crystal size distribution measurements are presented within the tropical troposphere and lower stratosphere. The measurements were performed using a combination of a Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe (FSSP-100) and a Cloud Imaging Probe (CIP), which were installed on the Russian high altitude research aircraft M55 Geophysica during the SCOUT-O3 ...

Baker, B. and Lawson, R. P.: Improvement in determination of ice water content from two-dimensional particle imagery, Part~I: image to mass relationships, J. Appl. Meteorol. Clim., 45, 1282–1290, 2006.; Baumgardner, D, Dye, J. E., Gandrud, B. W., and Knollenberg, R. G.: Interpretation of measurements made by the forward scattering spectrometer probe (FSSP-300) during the airborne arctic stratospheric expedition, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 8035–8046, 1992.; Borrmann, S., Solom...

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