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Global Distribution of Upper Tropospheric Formic Acid from the Ace...

By: P. F. Bernath; G. C. Toon; G. González Abad; G. L. Manney; C. D. Boone; S. D. McLeod

Description: Department of Chemistry, University of York, York, UK. We present the first near global upper tropospheric distribution of formic acid (HCOOH) observed from the space using solar occultation measurements from the Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) on board the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) satellite. Using a new set of spectroscopic line parameters recently published for formic acid, we have retrieved the concentrations of HCOOH between 5 km ...

Andreae, M. O., Talbot, R. W., Andreae, T. W., and Harris, R. C.: Formic and Acetic Acid over the Central Amazon Region, Brazil, 1. Dry Season, J. Geophys. Res., 93, 1616–1624, 1988.; Andreae, M. O. and Merlet, P.: Emission of Trace Gases and Aerosols from Biomass Burning, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 15(4), 955–966, 2001.; Bernath, P. F.: Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE): Analytical Chemistry from Orbit, TRAC-Trend. Anal. Chem., 25, 647–654, 2006.; Atkinson, R., Baulch...

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Air-quality in the Mid-21St Century for the City of Paris Under Tw...

By: A. Colette; C. Honore; M. Valari; O. Sanchez; S. Rao; O. Perrussel; R. Vautard; K. Markakis; Z. Klimont

Description: Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, IPSL Laboratoire CEA/CNRS/UVSQ, UMR8539, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex, France. Ozone and PM2.5 concentrations over the city of Paris are modeled with the CHIMERE air-quality model at 4 km × 4 km horizontal resolution for two future emission scenarios. High-resolution (1 km × 1 km) emission projection until 2020 for the greater Paris region is developed by local experts (AIRPARIF) and i...

AIRPARIF: Evaluation Prospective des emissions et des concentrations des pollutants atmospheriques a l'horizon 2020 en Ile-De-France – Gain sur les emissions en 2015, available at: http://www.airparif.asso.fr/_pdf/publications/ppa-rapport-121119.pdf (last access: 7 May 2013), 2012.; Amann, M., Bertok, I., Borken-Kleefeld, J., Cofala, J., Heyes, C., Höglund-Isaksson, L., Klimont, Z., Nguyen, ...

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A Theoretical Model on the Formation Mechanism and Kinetics of Hig...

By: H. H. Wang; G. Y. Li; Y. P. Gao; T. C. an; Y. M. Ji

Description: State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Resources Utilization and Protection, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, China. The atmospheric reactions of halogenated formaldehydes with halogen atoms were investigated by high-accuracy molecular orbital calculation. Studies showed that halogen atoms could easily abstract hydrogen atom from halogenated formaldeh...

Bednarek, G., Breil, M., Hoffmann, A., Kohlmann, J. P., Mors, V., and Zellner, R.: Rate and mechanism of the atmospheric degradation of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a), Ber. Bunsen Phys. Chem., 100, 528–539, 1996.; Behr, P., Goldbach, K., and Heydtmann, H.: The reaction of fuorine atoms with formyl fluoride and the CFO self-reaction at 293 K, Int. J. Chem. Kinet., 25, 957–967, 1993.; Behr, P., Kaupert, C., Shafranovski, E., and Heydtmann, H.: Temperatur...

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Formation of Binary Ion Clusters from Polar Vapours: Effect of the...

By: F. Yu; A. B. Nadykto

Description: Atmospheric Sciences Research Center, State University of New York at Albany, 251 Fuller Road, Albany, NY 12203, USA. Formation of binary cluster ions from polar vapours is considered. The effect of vapour polarity on the size and composition of the critical clusters is investigated theoretically and a corrected version of classical Kelvin-Thomson theory of binary ion-induced nucleation is derived. The model predictions of the derived theory are ...

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High Resolution Vertical Distributions of No3 and N2O5 Through the...

By: W. M. Angevine; S. S. Brown; W. P. Dubé; A. R. Ravishankara; H. D. Osthoff; D. E. Wolfe

Description: NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80305, USA. The shallow mixing depth and vertical stratification of the lowest levels of the atmosphere at night has implications for the chemistry of nitrogen oxides emitted from the surface. Here we report vertical profiles of NO3, N2O5 and O3 measured from in-situ instruments on a movable carriage on a 300 m tower. The study offers high-resolut...

Aldener, M., Brown, S. S., Stark, H., et al.: Reactivity and loss mechanisms of NO3 and N2O$_5$ in a marine environment: results from in-situ measurements during NEAQS 2002, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D23S73, doi:10.1029/2006JD007252, 2006.; Aliwell, S. R. and Jones, R. L.: Measurements of tropospheric NO3 at midlatitude, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 5719–5727, 1998.; Allan, B. J., Plane, J. M. C., Coe, H., et al.: Observations of NO3 co...

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Impacts of Emission Reductions on Aerosol Radiative Effects : Volu...

By: K. Kupiainen; A.-p. Hyvärinen; A. Laaksonen; R. Karinkanta; H. Korhonen; J.-p. Pietikäinen; N. Karvosenoja; Z. Klimont; R. Makkonen; H. Lihavainen; V.-m. Kerminen

Description: Finnish Meteorological Institute, P.O. Box 503, 00101 Helsinki, Finland. The global aerosol–climate model ECHAM-HAMMOZ was used to investigate changes in the aerosol burden and aerosol radiative effects in the coming decades. Four different emissions scenarios were applied for 2030 (two of them applied also for 2020) and the results were compared against the reference year 2005. Two of the scenarios are based on current legislation reductions: one ...

Abdul-Razzak, H. and Ghan, S. J.: A parameterization of aerosol activation: 2. Multiple aerosol types, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 105, 6837–6844, doi:10.1029/1999JD901161, 2000.; Amann, M., Bertok, I., Borken-Kleefeld, J., Cofala, J., Heyes, C., Höglund-Isaksson, L., Klimont, Z., Nguyen, B., Posch, M., Rafaj, P., Sandler, R., Schöpp, W., Wagner, F., and Winiwarter, W.: Cost-effective control of air quality and greenhouse g...

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Oxalic Acid as a Heterogeneous Ice Nucleus in the Upper Tropospher...

By: T. Koop; T. Peter; C. Marcolli; B. P. Luo; P. K. Hudson; S. Fueglistaler; U. Lohmann; B. Zobrist; D. S. Thomson; A. Zardini; D. M. Murphy; D. J. Cziczo; T. Corti; U. K. Krieger

Description: Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. Heterogeneous ice freezing points of aqueous solutions containing various immersed solid dicarboxylic acids (oxalic, adipic, succinic, phthalic and fumaric) have been measured with a differential scanning calorimeter. The results show that only the dihydrate of oxalic acid (OAD) acts as a heterogeneous ice nucleus, with an increase in freezing temperature between 2-5 K dependi...

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A Modified Micrometeorological Gradient Method for Estimating O3 D...

By: J. W. Munger; X. M. Wang; L. Zhang; Z. Y. Wu

Description: Air Quality Research Division, Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, Toronto, Canada. Small pollutant concentration gradients between levels above a plant canopy result in large uncertainties in estimated air–surface exchange fluxes when using existing micrometeorological gradient methods, including the aerodynamic gradient method (AGM) and the modified Bowen ratio method (MBR). A modified micrometeorological gradient method (MGM) is propos...

Bache, D. H.: Momentum transfer to plant canopies: influence of structure and variable drag, Atmos. Environ., 20, 1369–1378, 1986.; Baldocchi, D.: A multi-layer model for estimating sulfur dioxide deposition to a deciduous oak forest canopy, Atmos. Environ., 22, 869–884, 1988.; Baldocchi, D., Falge, E., Gu, L., Olson, R., Hollinger, D., Running, S., Anthoni, P., Bernhofer, C., Davis, K., and Evans, R.: FLUXNET: A new tool to study the temporal and spatial variability of ...

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High Solubility of So2: Evidence in an Intensive Fog Event Measure...

By: Q. Zhang; X. Tie

Description: Beijing Weather Modification Office, Beijing, China. A field experiment was conducted in a heavy SO2 pollution area located in north China plain (NCP). During the experiment, SO2 and other air pollutants, liquid water content (LWC) of fog droplets, and basic meteorological parameters were measured. During the experiment, an intensive fog event occurred between 5 and 8 November 2009. During the fog period, the concentrations of SO

Ravishankara, A. R.: Heterogeneous and multiphase chemistry in the troposphere, Science, 276, 1058–1065, 1997.; Chin, M., Rood, R., Lin, S.-J., Müller, J.-F., and Thompson, A.: Atmospheric sulfur cycle simulated in the global model GOCART: Model description and global properties, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 24671–24687, doi:10.1029/2000JD900384, 2000.; IEA, Key world energy statistics, International Energy Agency, 2010.; Kawamoto, K., Hayasaka, T., Nakajima, T., Streets, D., ...

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A New Convective Cloud Field Model Based on Principles of Self-org...

By: H. F. Graf; F. J. Nober

Description: Department of Geography, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom. A new cumulus convection parameterisation is presented in this paper. The parameterisation uses an explicit spectral approach and determines, unlike other convection schemes, for each convection event a new cloud distribution function regarding to the given vertical temperature and humidity profiles. This is done by using a one-dimensional cloud model to create a spectrum of different cl...

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Selected Topics on Interactions Between Cirrus Clouds and Embedded...

By: K. Gierens

Description: Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre, Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany. Persistent contrails and natural cirrus clouds often coexist in the upper troposphere and contrails can be embedded within cirrus clouds. The present paper deals with some questions regarding the interaction of cirrus clouds and embedded contrails. I have selected only questions that can be answered by analytical means. I find that (1) the emission...

Field, P. and Heymsfield, A.: Aggregation and scaling of ice crystal size distributions, J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 544–560, 2003.; Gierens, K.: On the transition between heterogeneous and homogeneous freezing, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 3, 437–446, doi:10.5194/acp-3-437-2003, 2003.; Heymsfield, A. and Iaquinta, J.: Cirrus crystal terminal velocities, J. Atmos. Sci., 57, 916–938, 2000.; Heymsfield, A. and McFarquhar, G.: Mid-latitud...

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Ozone and Carbon Monoxide Over India During the Summer Monsoon: Re...

By: A. Pozzer; A. Rauthe-schöch; C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer; A. K. Baker; J. Lelieveld; N. Ojha; J. Yoon

Description: Atmospheric Chemistry Department, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany. We compare in situ measurements of ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO) profiles from the CARIBIC program with the results from the regional chemistry transport model (WRF-Chem) to investigate the role of local/regional emissions and long-range transport over southern India during the summer monsoon of 2008. WRF-Chem successfully reproduces the general featur...

Ackermann, I. J., Hass, H., Memmesheimer, M., Ebel, A., Binkowski, F. S., and Shankar, U.: Modal aerosol dynamics model for Europe: development and first applications, Atmos. Environ., 32, 2981–2999, doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(98)00006-5, 1998.; Akimoto, H.: Global air quality and pollution, Science, 302, 1716–1719, doi:10.1126/science.1092666, 2003.; Asatar, G. ...

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Relating Observations of Contrail Persistence to Numerical Weather...

By: P. Minnis; R. Palikonda; D. P. Duda

Description: National Institute of Aerospace, Hampton, Virginia, USA. The potential for using high-resolution meteorological data from two operational numerical weather analyses (NWA) to diagnose and predict persistent contrail formation is evaluated using two independent contrail observation databases. Contrail occurrence statistics derived from surface and satellite observations between April 2004 and June 2005 are matched to the humidity, vertical velocity, wind ...

Appleman, H.: The formation of exhaust condensation trails by jet aircraft, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 34, 14–20, 1953.; Benjamin, S. G., Dévényi, D., Weygandt, S. S., Brundage, K. J., Brown, J. M., Grell, G. A., Kim, D., Schwartz, B. E., Smirnova, T. G., Smith, T. L., and Manikin, G. S.: An hourly assimilation–forecast cycle: The RUC, Mon. Weather Rev., 132, 495–518, 2004.; Brooks, D. R. and Mims III, F. M.: Development of an inexpensive handheld LED-based Sun photometer...

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Variability of Organic and Elemental Carbon, Water Soluble Organic...

By: J. C. Chow; Y. S. Li; S. C. Lee; K. F. Ho; J. J. Cao; K. Fung; J. G. Watson

Description: Research Center for Urban Environmental Technology & Management, Department of Civil & Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China. To determine the levels and variations of carbonaceous aerosol in Hong Kong, PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected by high volume (Hi-vol) samplers at three monitoring stations (representing middle-scale roadside, urban-, and regional-scale environments) during winter (...

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Dependence of Cloud Properties Derived from Spectrally Resolved Vi...

By: S. Beirle; U. Platt; T. Deutschmann; T. Wagner; M. Grzegorski

Description: MPI for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany. Cloud climate feedback constitutes the most important uncertainty in climate modelling, and currently even its sign is still unknown. In the recently published report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC), 6 out of 20 climate models showed a positive and 14 a negative cloud radiative feedback in a doubled CO2 scenario. The radiative budget of clouds has also been investigated by experimenta...

Bergman, J. W. and Salby, M. L.: Diurnal variations of cloud cover and their relationship to climatological conditions, J. Climate, 9, 2802–2820, 1996.; Bony, S., Lau, K.-M., and Sud, Y. C.: Sea surface temperature and large-scale circulation influences on tropical greenhouse effect and cloud radiative forcing, J. Climate, 2055–2077, 1997a.; Bony, S., Sud, Y., Lau, K.-M., Susskind, J., and Saha, S.: Comparison and assessment of NASA/DAO and NCEP-NCAR reanalyses over trop...

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Validation of Stratospheric Water Vapour Measurements from the Air...

By: A. Haefele; D. G. Feist; N. Kämpfer; J. Urban; C. Schiller; M. Milz; C. Kiemle; N. Sitnikov; S. C. Müller

Description: University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland. We present the validation of a water vapour dataset obtained by the Airborne Microwave Stratospheric Observing System AMSOS, a passive microwave radiometer operating at 183 GHz. Vertical profiles are retrieved from spectra by an optimal estimation method. The useful vertical range lies in the upper troposphere up to the mesosphere with an altitude resolution of 8 to 16 km and a horizontal resolution of about 57 km. ...

Buehler, S A., Eriksson, P., Kuhn, T., von Engeln, A., and Verdes, C.: ARTS, the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Simulator, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 91, 65–93, \doi10.1016/j.jqsrt.2004.05.051, 2005.; Chiou, E., McCormick, M., and Chu, W.: Global water vapor distributions in the stratosphere and upper troposphere derived from 5.5 years of SAGE II observations (1986–1991), J. Geophys. Res., 102, 105–118, \doi10.1029/97JD01371, 1997.; Connor, B J., Parrish, A.,...

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Dust–air Pollution Dynamics Over the Eastern Mediterranean : Volum...

By: Z. Levin; S. Metzger; M. Abdelkader; J. Lelieveld; M. Astitha

Description: Energy, Environment and Water Research Center, The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia, 2121, Cyprus. Interactions of desert dust and air pollution over the Eastern Mediterranean (EM) have been studied, focusing on two distinct dust transport events on 22 and 28 September 2011. The atmospheric chemistry–climate model EMAC has been used at about 50 km grid spacing, applying an online dust emission scheme and calcium as a proxy for dust reactivity. EMAC includes a d...

Alpert, P. and Ganor, E.: A jet stream associated heavy dust storm in the western Mediterranean, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 7339, doi:10.1029/92JD01642, 1993.; Ardon-Dryer, K. and Levin, Z.: Ground-based measurements of immersion freezing in the eastern Mediterranean, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5217–5231, doi:10.5194/acp-14-5217-2014, 2014.; Astitha, M., Kallos, G., Spyrou, C.,...

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Black Carbon Concentrations and Mixing State in the Finnish Arctic...

By: H. Lihavainen; A.-p. Hyvärinen; J. Svensson; T. Raatikainen; D. Brus; E. Asmi

Description: Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland. Atmospheric aerosol composition was measured using a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) in the Finnish Arctic during winter 2011–2012. The Sammaltunturi measurement site at the Pallas GAW (Global Atmosphere Watch) station receives air masses from different source regions including the Arctic Ocean and continental Europe. SP2 is a unique instrument that can give detailed information about mass distr...

Anderson, T. L., Covert, D. S., Wheeler, J. D., Harris, J. M., Perry, K. D., Trost, B. E., Jaffe, D. J., and Ogren, J. A.: Aerosol backscatter fraction and single scattering albedo: Measured values and uncertainties at a coastal station in the Pacific Northwest, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 26793–26807, 1999.; Baumgardner, D., Kok, G. L., and Raga, G. B.: On the diurnal variability of particle properties related to light absorbing carbon in Mexico City, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, ...

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Atmospheric Oxidation of Isoprene and 1,3-butadiene: Influence of ...

By: J. H. Offenberg; J. D. Krug; T. E. Kleindienst; M. Lewandowski; M. Jaoui

Description: US Environmental Protection Agency, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA. The effects of acidic seed aerosols on the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) have been examined in a number of previous studies, several of which have observed strong linear correlations between the aerosol acidity (measured as nmol H+ m−3 air sample volume) and the percent change in secondary organic carbon (...

Acquavella, J. F.: Butadiene epidemiology: a summary of results and outstanding issues, Toxicology, 113, 148–156, 1996.; Angove, D. E., Fookes, C. J. R., Hynes, R. G., Walters, C. K., and Azzi, M.: The characterisation of secondary organic aerosol formed during the photodecomposition of 1,3-butadiene in air containing nitric oxide, Atmos. Environ., 40, 4597–4607, 2006.; Dollard, G. J., Dore, C. J., and Jenkin, M. E.: Ambient concentrations of 1,3-butadiene in the UK, Che...

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Tempo-spatial Variation of Emission Inventories of Speciated Volat...

By: S. D. Xie; H. Cai

Description: College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, Peking University, Beijing, China. Emission inventories of sixty-nine speciated non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) from on-road vehicles in China were estimated for the period of 1980–2005, using seven NMVOC emission profiles, which were summarized based on local and international measurements from published literat...

Atkinson, R.: Atmospheric chemistry of VOCs and NOx, Atmos. Environ., 34, 2063–2101, 2000.; Barletta, B., Meinardi, S., Rowland, F. S., Chan, C. Y., Wang, X. M., Zou, S. C., Chan, L. Y., and Blake, D. R.: Volatile organic compounds in 43 Chinese cities, Atmos. Environ., 39, 5979–5990, 2005.; Batterman, S. A., Yu, Y. D., Jia, C. R., and Godwin, C.: Non-methane hydrocarbon emissions from vehicle fuel caps, Atmos. Environ., 39, 1855–1867, 2005.; Cai, H. and Xie, ...

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