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Nitric Acid Trihydrate Nucleation and Denitrification in the Arcti...

By: S. Borrmann; H. Vömel; W. Frey; I. Engel; K. A. Walker; R. Müller; H. Schlager; M. C. Pitts; R. Kivi; G. Günther; T. Peter; C. R. Hoyle; G. Stiller; S. Molleker; J.-u. Grooß; B. P. Luo

Description: Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung – Stratosphäre (IEK-7), Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany. Nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) particles in the polar stratosphere have been shown to be responsible for vertical redistribution of reactive nitrogen (NOy). Recent observations by Cloud–Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) aboard the CALIPSO satellite have been explained in terms of heterogeneous nucleation of NAT on foreign nuclei,...

Baumgardner, D., Dye, J. E., Gandrud, B. W., and Knollenberg, R. G.: Interpretation of measurements made the Forward Scattering} Spectrometer Probe (FSSP300) during the Airborne Artic Stratospheric {Expedition, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 8035–8046, 1992.; Bernath, P. F., McElroy, C. T., Abrams, M. C., Boone, C. D., Butler, M., Camy-Peyret, C., Carleer, M., Clerbaux, C., Coheur, P.-F., Colin, R., DeCola, P., DeMazière, M., Drummond, J. R., Dufour, D., Evans, W. F. J., Fast, H....

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Spatial and Temporal Variation of Anthropogenic Black Carbon Emiss...

By: S. D. Xie; Y. Qin

Description: College of environmental sciences & engineering, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, Peking University, Beijing, China. Multi-year inventories of anthropogenic black carbon emissions, including both fuel consumption and biomass burning, at a high spatial resolution of 0.25° × 0.25° have been constructed in China using GIS methodology for the period 1980–2009, based on official statistical data and...

Andreae, M. O. and Merlet, P.: Emission of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 15, 955–966, 2001.; Aunan, K., Fang, J. H., Hu, T., Seip, H. M., and Vennemo, H.: Climate change and air quality – measures with co-benefits in China, Environ. Sci. Technol., 40, 4822–4829, 2006.; Bo, Y., Cai, H., and Xie, S. D.: Spatial and temporal variation of historical anthropogenic NMVOCs emission inventories in China, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 7297–7316, ...

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Observation and Analysis of Speciated Atmospheric Mercury in Shang...

By: X. Wang; X. W. Fu; C.-j. Lin; H. Zhang; X. B. Feng

Description: State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002, China. This study reports the concentrations and potential sources of speciated atmospheric mercury at the Shangri-La Atmosphere Watch Regional Station (SAWRS), a pristine high-altitude site (3580 m a.s.l.) in Tibetan Plateau, China. Total gaseous mercury (TGM, defined as the sum of gaseous elemental mercury, GEM, and gaseous oxidiz...

AMAP/UNEP: Technical Background Report for the Global Mercury Assessment 2013, in: Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme, Oslo, Norway/UNEP Chemicals Branch Geneva, Switzerland, 2013.; Carpi, A. and Lindberg, S. E.: Application of a Teflon (TM) dynamic flux chamber for quantifying soil mercury flux: tests and results over background soil, Atmos. Environ., 32, 873–882, 1998.; Dorling, S. R., Davies, T. D., and Pierce, C. E.: Cluster-Analysis – a Technique for Estimat...

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A Scheme for Calculating Soil Moisture Content by Using Routine We...

By: Y. X. Ma; H. L. Liu; S. G. Wang; Z. J. Zhou; Y. Q. Wang; J. Y. Wang; K. Z. Shang

Description: Gansu Key Laboratory of Arid Climatic Change and Reducing Disaster, College of Atmospheric Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, P.R. China. Soil moisture content is one of the most important parameters as input conditions in forecasting model systems of dust storm, but it can not be directly obtained from daily routine weather report. In this paper, a scheme is developed to calculate the surface soil moisture content in China by using both preci...

Peng, S. F.: Soil moisture content analysis on the area of Hui-he river and Shi-guan river: Study of energy and water cycle on the area of Hui-he river, Meteorological press, Beijing, 182–186, 1999.; Baier, W. and Robertson, G. W.: A new versatile soil moisture budget, Canadian J. Plant Sci., 46, 299–315, 1966.; Campbell, G. S.: A simple method for determining unsaturated conductivity from moisture retention data, Soil Sci., 117–311, 1974.; Chen, B., Ding, Y. G., and Liu...

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Laboratory Studies of Collection Efficiency of Sub-micrometer Aero...

By: D. J. Cziczo; K. Ardon-dryer; Y.-w. Huang

Description: Dept. of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA. An experimental setup has been constructed to measure the Collection Efficiency (CE) of sub-micrometer aerosol particles by cloud droplets. Water droplets of a dilute aqueous ammonium sulfate solution with a radius of ~20 Μm fall freely into a chamber and collide with sub-micrometer Polystyrene Latex Sphere (PSL) particles of variable size and concentrat...

Andronache, C., Grönholm, T., Laakso, L., Phillips, V., and Venäläinen, A.: Scavenging of ultrafine particles by rainfall at a boreal site: observations and model estimations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 4739–4754, doi:10.5194/acp-6-4739-2006, 2006.; Barlow, A. and Latham, K. J.: A laboratory study of the scavenging of sub-micron aerosol by charged raindrops, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 109, 763–770, 1983.; Beard, K.: Experim...

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Estimating the Climate Significance of Halogen-driven Ozone Loss i...

By: D. E. Kinnison; J.-f. Lamarque; J. J. Orlando; S. Schauffler; S. Tilmes; D. R. Blake; G. Brasseur; E. L. Atlas; A. M. Thompson; A. J. Conley; G. Sousa Santos; C. Ordóñez; A. S. Mahajan; S. P. Sander; A. Saiz-lopez; J. M. C. Plane

Description: Laboratory for Atmospheric and Climate Science, CSIC, Toledo, Spain. We have integrated observations of tropospheric ozone, very short-lived (VSL) halocarbons and reactive iodine and bromine species from a wide variety of tropical data sources with the global CAM-Chem chemistry-climate model and offline radiative transfer calculations to compute the contribution of halogen chemistry to ozone loss and associated radiative impact in the tropical marine...

Allan, B. J., McFiggans, G., Plane, J. M. C., and Coe, H.: Observations of iodine monoxide in the remote marine boundary layer, J. Geophys. Res., 105(D11), 14363–14369, 2000.; Bell, N., Hsu, L., Jacob, D. J., Schultz, M. G., Blake, D. R., Butler, J. H., King, D. B., Lobert, J. M., and Maier-Reimer, E.: Methyl iodide: atmospheric budget and use as a tracer of marine convection in global models, J. Geophys. Res., 107(D17), 4340,

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Influence of Meteorology on Pm10 Trends and Variability in Switzer...

By: C. Hüglin; S. Henne; J. Keller; I. Barmpadimos; A. S. H. Prévôt

Description: Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen, Switzerland. Measurements of airborne particles with aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10) and meteorological observations are available from 13 stations distributed throughout Switzerland and representing different site types. The effect of all available meteorological variables on PM10 concentrations was estimated using Generalized Additive Models. Data from each season were treated separ...

Andreani-Aksoyoglou, S. and Keller, J.: Estimates of monoterpene and isoprene emission from the forests in Switzerland, J. Atmos. Chem., 20, 71–87, 1995.; Andreani-Aksoyoglou, S., Prévôt, A. S. H., Baltensperger, U., Keller, J., and Dommen, J.: Modelling of formation and distribution of secondary aerosols in the Milan area (Italy), J. Geophys. Res., 109, D05306, doi:10.1029/2003JD004231, 2004.; Andreani-Aksoyoglou, S., Keller, J., Prévôt, A. S. H., Baltensperger, U., and...

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Satellite Observations of Aerosol Transport from East Asia to the ...

By: T. L. Anderson; L. Jaeglé; M. Di Pierro

Description: Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA. Vertical profiles of aerosols obtained with the CALIOP lidar onboard CALIPSO are used in conjunction with the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and NOAA's HYSPLIT trajectory model to document three aerosol export events from East Asia to the Arctic that occurred in the year 2007. During each of these events CALIOP sampled the pollution plumes multiple times over per...

Alexander, B., Savarino, J., Lee, C. C. W., Park, R. J., Jacob, D. J., Thiemens, M. H., Li, Q. B., and Yantosca, R. M.: Sulfate formation in sea-salt aerosols: Constraints from oxygen isotopes, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D10307, doi:10.1029/2004JD005659, 2005.; Barriopedro, D., Garcia-Herrera, R., Lupo, A., and Hernandez, E.: A climatology of Northern Hemisphere Blocking, J. Climate, 19, 1042–1063, 2005.; Bey, I., Jacob, D. J., Yantosca, R. M., Logan, J. A., Field, B. D., Fi...

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Improving Pm2.5 Retrievals in the San Joaquin Valley Using A-train...

By: R. B. Chatfield; B. Scarnato; M. Legg; A. W. Strawa; R. Esswein

Description: NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, USA. This paper demonstrates the use of a combination of multi-platform satellite observations and statistical data analysis to dramatically improve the correlation between satellite observed aerosol optical depth (AOD) and ground-level retrieved PM2.5. The target area is California's San Joaquin Valley which has a history of poor particulate air quality and where such correlations have no...

American Ecotech Technical Report: Beta-attenuation mass monitor, 2006.; Abdou, W. A., Diner, D. J., Martonchik, J. V., Bruegge, C. J., Kahn, R. A., Gaitley, B. J., Crean, K. A., Remer, L. A., and Holben, B. N.: Comparison of coincident Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer aerosol optical depths over land and ocean scenes containing Aerosol Robotic Network sites, J. Geophys. Res., 110, 11967–11976, 2005.; Al-Saadi, J., Sz...

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Analysis of a Summer Smog Episode in the Berlin-brandenburg Region...

By: B. Langmann; S. E. Bauer

Description: Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany. An analysis of a pollution episode in an urban atmosphere, using a complex model system is presented. The nested atmosphere-chemistry model system simulates the atmospheric conditions during a one week measurement campaign, called FLUMOB, in July 1994 in Berlin-Brandenburg, Germany. The analysis shows that naturally emitted hydrocarbons played the dominant role in the ozone formation in ...

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On the Seasonal Dependence of Tropical Lower-stratospheric Tempera...

By: P. Lin; S. Solomon; Q. Fu

Description: Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA. This study examines the seasonality of tropical lower-stratospheric temperature trends using the Microwave Sounding Unit lower-stratospheric channel (T4) for 1979–2007. We present evidence that this seasonality is a response to changes in the Brewer–Dobson circulation (BDC) driven by extratropical wave forcing. We show how the tropical T4...

Andrews, D. G., Holton, J. R., and Leovy, C. B.: Middle Atmosphere Dynamics, Academic Press, Orlando, United States, 489 pp., 1987.; Butchart, N., Scaife, A. A., Bourqui, M., de Grandpre, J., Hare, S. H. E., Kettleborough, J., Langematz, U., Manzini, E., Sassi, F., Shibata, K., Shindell, D., and Sigmond M.: Simulations of anthropogenic change in the strength of the Brewer–Dobson circulation, Clim. Dynam., 27, 727–741, doi:10.1007/s00382-006-0162-4, 2006.; Chae, H. C. and...

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Transport Pathways of Co in the African Upper Troposphere During t...

By: P. Ricaud; B. Josse; J.-l. Attié; S. Massart; C. Mari; E. Le Flochmoën; B. Barret; J.-p. Cammas; V.-h. Peuch; N. Bousserez; A. Piacentini; V. Thouret; B. Sauvage; N. J. Livesey

Description: Université de Toulouse, Laboratoire d'Aérologie, Toulouse, France. The transport pathways of carbon monoxide (CO) in the African Upper Troposphere (UT) during the West African Monsoon (WAM) is investigated through the assimilation of CO observations by the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) in the MOCAGE Chemistry Transport Model (CTM). The assimilation setup, based on a 3-D First Guess at Assimilation Time (3-D-FGAT) variational method is described. Com...

Barret, B., Turquety, S., Hurtmans, D., Clerbaux, C., Hadji-Lazaro, J., Bey, I., Auvray, M., and P.-F. Coheur: Global carbon monoxide vertical distributions from spaceborne high-resolution FTIR nadir measurements, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 2901–2914, 2005.; Bechtold, P., Bazile, E., Guichard, F., Mascart, P., and Richard, E.: A mass flux convection scheme for regional and global models, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 127, 869–886, 2001.; Bernath, P. F., McElroy, C. T., Abrams, M....

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Present and Future Nitrogen Deposition to National Parks in the Un...

By: R. A. Ellis; T. Blett; C. D. Holmes; L. H. Pardo; E. Porter; J. A. Lynch; B. A. Schichtel; M. Payer; D. J. Jacob; L. Zhang

Description: School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA. National parks in the United States are protected areas wherein the natural habitat is to be conserved for future generations. Deposition of anthropogenic nitrogen (N) transported from areas of human activity (fuel combustion, agriculture) may affect these natural habitats if it exceeds an ecosystem-dependent critical load (CL). We quantify and interpret the deposition ...

Aber, J. D., Goodale, C. L., Ollinger, S. V., Smith, M. L., Magill, A. H., Martin, M. E., Hallett, R. A., and Stoddard, J. L.: Is nitrogen deposition altering the nitrogen status of northeastern forests?, Bioscience, 53, 375–389, 2003.; Baron, J. S.: Hindcasting nitrogen deposition to determine an ecological critical load, Ecol. Appl., 16, 433–439, 2006.; Baron, J. S., Driscoll, C. T., Stoddard, J. L., and Richer, E. E.: Empirical critical loads of atmospheric nitrogen d...

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Positive Sampling Artifact of Carbonaceous Aerosols and Its Influe...

By: M. Zheng; K. B. He; J. H. Tan; F. K. Duan; Y. L. Ma; Y. Cheng

Description: Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, China. Accurate measurement of carbonaceous aerosols is challenging, due to the sampling artifact and the problems of the split of OC/EC. Two approaches have been used to account for the positive artifact: backup quartz approach in which a backup quartz filter is placed either behind a front quartz filter (QBQ) or in a parallel port behind a Teflon filter (QBT), and...

Mader, B. T., Flagan, R. C., and Seinfeld, J. H.: Sampling atmospheric carbonaceous aerosols using a particle trap impactor/denuder sampler, Environ. Sci. Technol., 35, 4857–4867, 2001.; Mader, B. T., Schauer, J. J., Seinfeld, J. H., Flagan, R. C., Yu, J. Z., Yang, H., Lim, Ho-Jin, Turpin, B. J., Deminter, J. T., Heidemann, G., Bae, M. S., Quinn, P., Bates, T., Eatough, D. J., Huebert, B. J., Bertram, T., and Howell, S.: Sampling methods used for the collection of partic...

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Technical Note: the Modular Earth Submodel System (Messy) – a New ...

By: J. Lelieveld; R. Sander; P. Jöckel

Description: Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, P.O. Box 3060, 55020 Mainz, Germany. Generally, the typical approach towards Earth System Modeling has been to couple existing models of different domains (land, ocean, atmosphere, ...) offline, using output files of one model to provide input for the other. However, for a detailed study of the interactions and feedbacks between chemical, physical, and biological processes, it is necessary to perform the coupling onl...

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Seasonal Variation of Peroxyacetylnitrate (Pan) in Coastal Antarct...

By: B. J. Bandy; S. J.-b. Bauguitte; R. A. Salmon; W. T. Sturges; G. P. Mills; K. A. Read

Description: School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK. An automated gas chromatograph with sample pre-concentration for the measurement of peroxyacetylnitrate (PAN) was constructed with a minimum detection limit below 1 pptv. This instrument was deployed at the British Antarctic Survey's Halley Research Station, Antarctica (75.6° S, 26.6° W) as part of the CHABLIS (Chemistry of the Antarctic Boundary Layer and the Interface wi...

Atkinson, R., Baulch, D. L., Cox, R. A., Crowley, J. N., Hampson, R. F., Hynes, R. G., Jenkin, M. E., Rossi, M. J., and Troe, J.: Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: Part 1 – gas phase reactions of Ox, HOx, NOx and SOx species, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 4, 1461–1738, 2004; Atkinson, R., Baulch, D. L., Cox, R. A., Crowley, J. N., Hampson, R. F., Hynes, R. G., Jenkin, M. E., Rossi, M. J., and Troe, J. Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for a...

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Formation and Transport of Photooxidants Over Europe During the Ju...

By: J. W. Kaminski; J. Struzewska

Description: Institute of Environmental Engineering Systems, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland. The European heat wave of July 2006 was caused by advection of very hot and dry air from North Africa. Air masses were transported on the western edge of the high pressure system, centred over Eastern Europe, resulting in exceptionally high air temperatures over large areas of the continent. In the first two weeks of July 2006 a severe heat wave affected Cent...

Filleul, L., Cassadou, S., MéDina, S., Fabres, P., Lefranc, A., Eilstein, D., Tertre, A. L., Pascal, L., Chardon, B., Blanchard, M., Declercq, C., Jusot, J.-F., Prouvost, H., and Ledrans, M.: The relation between temperature, ozone, and mortality in the nine French cities during the heat wave of 2003, Environ Health Perspect, 114, 1344–1347, 2006.; Fisher, P. H., Brunekreef, B., and Lebret, E.: Air pollution related deaths during the 2003 heat wave in the Netherlands, At...

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Importance of Aerosols for Annual Lightning Production at Global S...

By: S. Venevsky

Description: Center for Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Haidan, Beijing, 100084, China. Lightning production is described using thermodynamic hypotheses mainly according to convective activity in the atmosphere. However, existing formal thermodynamic descriptions are unable to fully explain the profound difference in the flash rate between tropical Africa and South America and between land and ocean. Aerosols are shown to be regulators of lightning i...

Allen, D. J. and Pickering, K. E.: Evaluation of lightning flash rate parametrisations for use in a global chemical transport model, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 4711, doi:10.1029/2002JD002066, 2002.; Altaratz, O., Koren, I., Yair, Y., and Price, C.: Lightning response to smoke from Amazon fires, Geophys. Res. Let., 37, L07801, doi:10.1029/2010GL042679, 2010.; Avila, E. E., Bu...

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Airborne Measurements of New Particle Formation in the Free Tropos...

By: M. Ribeiro; A. Colomb; C. Rose; T. Bourianne; K. Sellegri; E. Freney; J.-m. Pichon; A. Schwarzenboeck; F. Burnet; R. Dupuy

Description: Laboratoire de Météorologie Physique CNRS UMR6016, Observatoire de Physique du Globe de Clermont-Ferrand, Université Blaise Pascal, Aubière, France. While atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) has been observed in various environments and was found to contribute significantly to the total aerosol particle concentration, the production of new particles over open seas is poorly documented in the literature. Nucleation events were detected and analysed o...

Asmi, E., Frey, A., Virkkula, A., Ehn, M., Manninen, H. E., Timonen, H., Tolonen-Kivimäki, O., Aurela, M., Hillamo, R., and Kulmala, M.: Hygroscopicity and chemical composition of Antarctic sub-micrometre aerosol particles and observations of new particle formation, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 4253–4271, doi:10.5194/acp-10-4253-2010, 2010.; Birmili, W., Berresheim, H., Plass-Dülmer, C., Elste, T., Gilge, S., Wiedensohler...

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Discrimination of Biomass Burning Smoke and Clouds in Maiac Algori...

By: A. Lyapustin; Y. Wang; S. Korkin; I. Laszlo; B. Quayle

Description: Laboratory for Atmospheres, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, USA. The multi-angle implementation of atmospheric correction (MAIAC) algorithm makes aerosol retrievals from MODIS data at 1 km resolution providing information about the fine scale aerosol variability. This information is required in different applications such as urban air quality analysis, aerosol source identification etc. The quality of high resolutio...

Bergstrom, R. W., Pilewskie, P., Russell, P. B., Redemann, J., Bond, T. C., Quinn, P. K., and Sierau, B.: Spectral absorption properties of atmospheric aerosols, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 5937–5943, doi:10.5194/acp-7-5937-2007, 2007.; Christopher, S. A., Gupta, P., Nair, U., Jones, T. A., Kondragunta, S., Wu, Y., Hand, J., and Zhang, X.: Satellite remote sensing and mesoscale modeling of the 2007 Florida/Georgia fires, I...

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