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The Climate Dependence of the Terrestrial Carbon Cycle, Including ...

By: S. Emmott; M. J. Smith; D. W. Purves; V. Lyutsarev; M. C. Vanderwel

Description: Computational Science Laboratory, Microsoft Research Cambridge, 21 Station Road, Cambridge, CB1 2FB, UK. The feedback between climate and the terrestrial carbon cycle will be a key determinant of the dynamics of the Earth System (the thin layer that contains and supports life) over the coming decades and centuries. However, Earth System Model projections of the terrestrial carbon-balance vary widely over these timescales. This is largely due to differenc...

Adair, E. C., Parton, W. J., del Grosso, S. J., Silver, W. L., Harmon, M. E., Hall, S. A., Burke, I. C., and Hart, S. C.: Simple three-pool model accurately describes patterns of long term litter decomposition in diverse climates, Global Change Biol., 14, 2636–2660, 2008.; Adams, B., White, A., and Lenton, T. M.: An analysis of some diverse approaches to modelling terrestrial net primary productivity, Ecol. Mod., 177, 351–391, 2004.; Aerts, R.: Climate, leaf litter chemi...

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Magazin Für Das Neueste Aus Der Physik Und Naturgeschichte

By: Voigt, Johann Heinrich, 1751-1823, Ed

Description: Edited 1781-1785 by [G.C.] Lichtenberg; 1786-1799 by [J.H.] Voigt

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Biomass Burning Emissions Estimated with a Global Fire Assimilatio...

By: A. Benedetti; L. Jones; M. O. Andreae; A. Heil; G. R. Van Der Werf; J.-j. Morcrette; J. W. Kaiser; M. Suttie; N. Chubarova; M. G. Schultz; M. Razinger

Description: European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts, Reading, UK. The Global Fire Assimilation System (GFASv1.0) calculates biomass burning emissions by assimilating Fire Radiative Power (FRP) observations from the MODIS instruments onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites. It corrects for gaps in the observations, which are mostly due to cloud cover, and filters spurious FRP observations of volcanoes, gas flares and other industrial activity. The comb...

Andreae, M. O. and Merlet, P.: Emission of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 15, 955–966, 2001.; Akagi, S. K., Yokelson, R. J., Wiedinmyer, C., Alvarado, M. J., Reid, J. S., Karl, T., Crounse, J. D., and Wennberg, P. O.: Emission factors for open and domestic biomass burning for use in atmospheric models, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 4039–4072, doi:10.5194/acp-11-4039-2011, 2011.; Andr...

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Mapping Landscape Scale Variations of Forest Structure, Biomass, a...

By: G. Lopez Gonzalez; N. Higuchi; O. L. Phillips; B. Zutta; L. Arroyo; J. Peacock; A. Monteagudo; L. O. Anderson; A. M. Araujo; R. Vásquez Martínez; W. Laurance; W. Buermann; R. Salomão; H. A. Ramírez; T. Baker; A. Prieto; T. Killeen; Y. Malhi; D. Neill; S. Almeida; S. Saatchi; H. Ter Steege; N. Silva; N. Pitman

Description: Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA. Landscape and environmental variables such as topography, geomorphology, soil types, and climate are important factors affecting forest composition, structure, productivity, and biomass. Here, we combine a network of forest inventories with recently developed global data products from satellite observations in modeling the potential distributions of fo...

Chambers, J. Q., Higuchi, N., Teixeira, L. M., Santos, J. D., Laurance, S. G., and Trumbore, S. E.: Response of tree biomass and wood litter to disturbance in a Central Amazon forest, Oecologia, 141, 596–614, 2004.; Hansen,~M C., DeFries,~R., Townshend,~J., Sohlberg,~R., Dimiceli,~C., and Carroll,~M.: Towards an operational MODIS continuous field of percent tree cover algorithm: examples using AVHRR and MODIS data, Remote Sens. Environ., 83, 303–319, 2002.; IBGE (Institu...

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Settling Particle Fluxes Across the Continental Margin of the Gulf...

By: A. Sanchez-vidal; A. Calafat; D. Zúñiga; M. Canals; N. Delsaut; C. Pasqual; P. Puig; A. Palanques; X. Durrieu De Madron; S. Heussner

Description: GRC Geociències Marines, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain. Settling particles were collected using sediment traps deployed along three transects in the Lacaze-Duthiers and Cap de Creus canyons and the adjacent southern open slope from October 2005 to October 2006. The settling material was analysed to obtain total mass fluxes and main constituent contents (organic matter, opal, calcium carbonate, and siliciclastics). Cascades of dense sh...

Bethoux, J. P. and Gentili, B.: Functioning of the Mediterranean Sea: past and present changes related to freshwater input and climate changes, J. Marine Syst., 20, 33–47, doi:10.1016/S0924-7963(98)00069-4, 1999.; Bethoux, J. P., Durieu de Madron, X., Nyffeler, F., and Tailliez, D.: Deep water in the western Mediterranean: peculiar 1999 and 2000 characteristics, shelf formation hypothesis, variability since 1970 and geochemical inferences, J. Marine Syst., 33-34, 117-131...

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Sources of Nitrous Oxide Emitted from European Forest Soils : Volu...

By: K. Butterbach-bahl; P. Ambus; S. Zechmeister-boltenstern

Description: Risø National Laboratory, Biosystems Department (BIO-309), 4000 Roskilde, Denmark. Forest ecosystems may provide strong sources of nitrous oxide (N2O), which is important for atmospheric chemical and radiative properties. Nonetheless, our understanding of controls on forest N2O emissions is insufficient to narrow current flux estimates, which still are associated with great uncertainties. In this study, we have investigated the qua...

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A New 3-d Modelling Method to Extract Subtransect Dimensions from ...

By: L. Fillinger; T. Funke

Description: Alfred-Wegener-Institut Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung, Am Alten Hafen 26, 27568 Bremerhaven, Germany. Underwater video transects have become a common tool for quantitative analysis of the seafloor. However a major difficulty remains in the accurate determination of the area surveyed as underwater navigation can be unreliable and image scaling does not always compensate for distortions due to perspective and topography. Depending on the...

Althaus, F., Williams, A., Schlacher, T. A., Kloser, R. J., Green, M. A., Barker, B. A., Bax, N. J., Brodie, P., and Schlacher-Hoenlinger, M. A.: Impacts of bottom trawling on deep-coral ecosystems of seamounts are long-lasting, Mar. Ecol.-Prog. Ser., 397, 279–294, doi:10.3354/meps08248, 2009.; Amado-Filho, G. M., Pereira-Filho, G. H., Bahia, R. G., Abrantes, D. P., Veras, P. C., and Matheus, Z.: Occurrence and distribution...

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Nitrogen Isotopes in Bulk Marine Sediment: Linking Seafloor Observ...

By: E. D. Galbraith; J.-e. Tesdal; M. Kienast

Description: Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. The stable isotopes of nitrogen offer a unique perspective on changes in the nitrogen cycle, past and present. However, the presence of multiple forms of nitrogen in marine sediments can complicate the interpretation of bulk nitrogen isotope measurements. Although the large-scale global patterns of seafloor δ15N have been shown to match process-based expec...

Agnihotri, R., Bhattacharya, S. K., Sarin, M. M., and Somayajulu, B. L. K.: Changes in surface productivity and subsurface denitrification during the Holocene: a multiproxy study from the eastern Arabian Sea, Holocene, 13, 701–713, doi:10.1191/0959683603hl656rp, 2003.; Agnihotri, R., Altabet, M. A., and Herbert, T. D.: Influence of marine denitrification on atmospheric N2O variability during the Holocene,...

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An Estimate of the Terrestrial Carbon Budget of Russia Using Inven...

By: M. K. Van Der Molen; D. Schepaschenko; P. Ciais; A. Shvidenko; E.-d. Schulze; L. Belelli Marchesini; T. Chen; A. J. Dolman; T. C. Maximov; N. Tchebakova; S. Maksyutov

Description: Department of Earth Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. We determine the net land to atmosphere flux of carbon in Russia, including Ukraine, Belarus and Kazakhstan, using inventory-based, eddy covariance, and inversion methods. Our high boundary estimate is −342 Tg C yr−1 from the eddy covariance method, and this is close to the upper bounds of the inventory-based Land Ecosystem Assessme...

Ciais, P., Canadell, J. G., Luyssaert, S., Chevallier, F., Shvidenko, A., Poussi, Z., Jonas, M., Peylin, P., King, A. W., Schulze, E.-D., Piao, S. L., Rodenbeck, C., Peters, W., and Breon, F. M.: Can we reconcile atmospheric estimates of Northern terrestrial carbon sink with land-based accounting? Curr. Opin. Environ. Sustain., 2, 225–230, doi:10.1016/j.cosust.2010.06.008, 2010.; Cuevas-Gonzalez, M., Gerard, F., ...

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An Assessment of the Vertical Diffusive Flux of Iron and Other Nut...

By: S. C. Painter; E. P. Achterberg; J. Klar; N. Rogan; S. Steigenberger; S. A. Henson; M. C. Stinchcombe; A. Forryan; A. R. Baker; C. M. Moore

Description: National Oceanography Centre, European Way, Southampton, SO14 3ZH, UK. In this study we report diapycnal diffusive fluxes of dissolved iron (dFe), dissolved aluminium (dAl) and the major macronutrients to the surface waters of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre. Turbulent diffusivities at the base of the summer mixed layer ranged from 0.01 to 0.5 (median 0.07) cm2 s−1 and daily macronutrient fluxes into the surface mixed layer typical...

Achterberg, E. P., Moore, C. M., Henson, S. A., Steigenberger, S., Stohl, A., Eckhardt, S., Avendano, L. C., Cassidy, M., Hembury, D., Klar, J. K., Lucas, M. I., Macey, A. I., Marsay, C. M., and Ryan-Keogh, T. J.: Natural iron fertilization by the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 1–6, doi:10.1002/grl.50221, 2013.; Bacon, S., Reverdin, G., Rigor, I. G., and Snaith, H. M.: A freshwater jet on the e...

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Storage and Stability of Organic Carbon in Soils as Related to Dep...

By: E.-d. Schulze; G. Guggenberger; K. Kaiser; T. Persson; M. Schrumpf; I. Kögel-knabner

Description: Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Hans-Knöll-Straße 10, 07745 Jena, Germany. Conceptual models suggest that stability of organic carbon (OC) in soil depends on the source of plant litter, occlusion within aggregates, incorporation in organo-mineral complexes, and location within the soil profile. Density fractionation is a useful tool to study the relevance of OC stabilization in aggregates and in association with minerals, but it has rarely bee...

Alvarez, R. and Alvarez, C. R.: Soil organic matter pools and their associations with carbon mineralization kinetics, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 64, 184–189, 2000.; Alvarez, C. R., Alvarez, R., Grigera, S., and Lavado, R. S.: Associations between organic matter fractions and the active soil microbial biomass, Soil Biol. Biochem., 30, 767–773, 1998.; Baisden, W. T. and Parfitt, R. L.: Bomb 14C enrichment indicates decadal C pool in deep soil?, Biogeochemistry, 85, ...

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Modelling Survival and Connectivity of Mnemiopsis Leidyi in the So...

By: J. Van Der Molen; S. Pitois; V. Langenberg; L. Vansteenbrugge; L. Van Walraven; H. W. Van Der Veer; J. Van Beek; S. Augustine; J. Robbens; K. Hostens

Description: The Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS), Lowestoft, UK. Three different models were applied to study the reproduction, survival and dispersal of Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Scheldt estuaries and the southern North Sea: a high-resolution particle tracking model with passive particles, a low-resolution particle tracking model with a reproduction model coupled to a biogeochemical model, and a dynamic energy budget (DEB) mode...

Baker, L. D. and Reeve, M. R.: Laboratory Culture of the Lobate Ctenophore Mnemiopsis mccradyi with Notes on Feeding and Fecundity, Mar. Biol., 26, 57–62, 1974.; Antajan, E., Bastian, T., Raud, T., Brylinski, J.-M., Hoffman, S., Breton, G., Cornille, V., Delegrange, A., and Vincent, D.: The invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi A. Agassiz, 1865 along the English Channel and the North Sea French coasts: another introduction pathway in northern European water...

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Halocline Water Modification and Along Slope Advection at the Lapt...

By: I. Polyakov; S. Torres-valdes; A. Novikhin; D. Bauch; A. Mix; J. McKay; I. Dmitrenko

Description: GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Wischhofstr. 1–3, 24148 Kiel, Germany. A general pattern in water mass distribution and potential shelf-basin exchanges is revealed at the Laptev Sea continental slope based on hydrochemical and stable oxygen isotope data from summers 2005–2009. Despite considerable interannual variations, a frontal system can be inferred between shelf, continental slope and central Eurasian Basin waters in the upper 100 ...

Anderson, L. G., Andersson, P. S., Björk, G., Peter Jones, E., Jutterström, S., and Wåhlström, I.: Source and formation of the upper halocline of the Arctic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 118, 410–421, doi:10.1029/2012JC008291, 2013.; Bareiss, J. and Görgen, K.: Spatial and temporal variability of sea ice in the Laptev Sea: Analyses and review of satellite passive-microwave data and model results, 1979 to 2002, Global P...

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Characterization of Active and Total Fungal Communities in the Atm...

By: A. M. Womack; B. J. M. Bohannan; S. R. Saleska; K. T. Wiedemann; R. C. Mueller; F. Y. Ishida; P. E. Artaxo; J. L. Green

Description: Institute of Ecology and Evolution, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR USA. Fungi are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and may play an important role in atmospheric processes. We investigated the composition and diversity of fungal communities over the Amazon rainforest canopy and compared these communities to fungal communities found in terrestrial environments. We characterized the total fungal community and the metabolically active portion of the comm...

R Core Team: R: a Language and Environment for Statistical Computing, available at: http://www.r-project.org (last access: 2 January 2015), 2014.; Rajala, T., Peltoniemi, M., Hantula, J., Mäkipää, R., and Pennanen, T.: RNA reveals a succession of active fungi during the decay of Norway spruce logs, Fungal Ecol., 4, 437–448, doi:10.1016/j.funeco.2011.05.005, 2011.; Richard, C.,...

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Effect of Uv Radiation and Temperature on the Emission of Methane ...

By: F. Keppler; R. Holzinger; H. Van Weelden; T. Röckmann; I. Vigano

Description: Institute for Marine and Atmospheric research Utrecht (IMAU), Princetonplein 5, 3584CC Utrecht, The Netherlands. The recently reported finding that plant matter and living plants produce significant amounts of the important greenhouse gas methane under aerobic conditions has led to an intense scientific and public controversy. Whereas some studies question the up-scaling method that was used to estimate the global source strength, others have suggested t...

Bergamaschi, P., Dentener, F., Grassi, G., Leip, A., Somogyi, Z., Federici, S., Seufert, G., and Raes, F.: Methane emissions from terrestrial plants, European Commission, Luxemburg, EUR 22240 EN, ISBN 22292-22279-02007-22242, 2006.; Bergamaschi, P., Frankenberg, C., Meirink, J. F., Krol, M., Dentener, F., Wagner, T., Platt, U., Kaplan, J. O., Korner, S., Heimann, M., Dlugokencky, E. J., and Goede, A.: Satellite chartography of atmospheric methane from sciamachyon board e...

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Atmosphere–ocean Interactions in the Greenland Sea During Solar Cy...

By: P. E. Binns

Description: Broomlee Mains, West Linton, Edinburgh EH46 7BT, UK. Relationships between solar activity and climate in the North Atlantic region have long been reported and, more recently, mechanisms have been proposed to explain these. Normally such relationships are tested over decadal time scales. Here, daily sea surface temperature fields bridging the period of exceptionally low solar activity between solar cycles 23 and 24 have been analysed. The day-to-d...

Blechschmidt, A.-M., Bakan, S., and Graßl, H.: Large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns during polar low events over the Nordic Seas, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D06115, doi:10.1029/2008JD010865, 2009.; Condron, A. and Renfrew, I. A.: The impact of polar mesoscale storms on northeast Atlantic Ocean circulation, Nat. Geosci., 6, 34–37, doi:10.1038/NGEO1661, 2012.; Everitt, B.:...

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The Philippine Journal of Science

By: Science and Technology Information Institute (Philippines)

Description: Vols. for June 1947 by: Dept. of Agriculture and Commerce; July/Aug. 1947-Dec. 1950 by: Institute of Science; Mar. 1951-June 1958 by: Institute of Science and Technology; Sept. 1958-Mar./June 1972 by: National Institute of Science and Technology; Sept./Dec. 1972-Jan./June 1982 by: National Science Development Board; July/Dec. 1983-Jan./Mar 1987 by: National Institute of Science and Technology and the National Science and Technology Authority; Apr./June-Oct./...

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Nitrate Source Identification in the Baltic Sea Using Its Isotopic...

By: C. Frey; B. Deutsch; C. Moros; M. Voss; F. Korth

Description: Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Seestr. 15, 18119 Rostock, Germany. Nitrate (NO3) is the major nutrient responsible for coastal eutrophication worldwide and its production is related to intensive food production and fossil-fuel combustion. In the Baltic Sea NO3 inputs have increased 4-fold over recent decades and now remain constantly high. NO3 source identificatio...

Altabet, M. A., Pilskaln, C., Thunell, R., Pride, C., Sigman, D., Chavez, F., and Francois, R.: The nitrogen isotope biogeochemistry of sinking particles from the margin of the Eastern North Pacific, Deep Sea Res. Pt. I Oceanogr. Res. Pap., 46, 655–679, 1999.; BACC: Assessment of climate change for the Baltic Sea Basin, edited by: Bolle, H.-J., Menenti, M., and Rasool, I., Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, 2008.; Böhlke, J. K., Mroczkowski, S. J., and Coplen, T. B.: Oxygen is...

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Net Ecosystem Carbon Exchange in Three Contrasting Mediterranean E...

By: J. A. Mateus; L. M. Aires; J. S. David; G. Pita; T. S. David; T. A. Paço; A. Rodrigues; V. Andrade; C. Pio; J. S. Pereira; J. Banza

Description: Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisboa, Portugal. Droughts reduce gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Reco), contributing to most of the inter-annual variability in terrestrial carbon sequestration. In seasonally dry climates (Mediterranean), droughts result from reductions in annual rainfall and changes in rain seasonality. We compared carbon fluxes measured by the eddy cov...

Anthoni, P. M., Freibauer, A., Kolle, O., and Schulze, E. D.: Winter wheat carbon exchange in Thuringia, Germany, Agric. Forest Meteorol., 121, 55–67, 2004.; Baldocchi, D. D.: Assessing the eddy covariance technique for evaluating carbon dioxide exchange rates of ecosystems: Past, present and future, Global Change Biol., 9, 479–492, 2003.; Baldocchi, D. and Xu, L.: Carbon exchange of deciduous broadleaved forests in temperate and Mediterranean regions, in: The carbon bal...

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Interannual Variation in Summer N2O Concentration in the Hypoxic R...

By: K. Lee; A. M. MacDonald; H. W. Bange; I.-n. Kim

Description: School of Environmental Science and Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784, Korea. We present evidence of temporal variation in nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations in the bottom waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM) hypoxic zone. The analysis is based on a conceptual model simulating N2O biogeochemical processes in conjunction with water-column O2 levels, derived from summer Texas–Louisiana shelf-wide hydrograph...

Bange, H. W.: It's not a gas, Nature, 408, 301–302, 2000.; Bange, H. W.: New directions: the importance of oceanic nitrous oxide emissions, Atmos. Environ., 40, 198–199, 2006.; Bange, H. W., Rapsomanikis, S., and Andreae, M. O.: Nitrous oxide in coastal waters, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 10, 197–207, 1996.; Bange, H. W., Freing, A., Kock, A., and Löscher, C. R.: Marine pathways to nitrous oxide, in Nitrous oxide and climate change, edited by: Smith, K., Earthscan, London, 3...

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