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Drivers of Long-term Variability in Co2 Net Ecosystem Exchange in ...

By: K. J. Dinsmore; M. Anderson; M. A. Sutton; M. Coyle; J. Drewer; U. Skiba; C. Helfter; C. Campbell; M. F. Billett; E. Nemitz

Description: Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (Edinburgh), Penicuik, Scotland, UK. Land–atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) in peatlands exhibits marked seasonal and inter-annual variability, which subsequently affects the carbon sink strength of catchments across multiple temporal scales. Long-term studies are needed to fully capture the natural variability and therefore identify the key hydrometeorological drivers in the net ecosystem excha...

Aubinet, M., Grelle, A., Ibrom, A., Rannik, U., Moncrieff, J., Foken, T., Kowalski, A. S., Martin, P. H., Berbigier, P., Bernhofer, C., Clement, R., Elbers, J., Granier, A., Grunwald, T., Morgenstern, K., Pilegaard, K., Rebmann, C., Snijders, W., Valentini, R., and Vesala, T.: Estimates of the annual net carbon and water exchange of forests: the euroflux methodology, Adv. Ecol. Res., 30, 113–175, 2000.; Aurela, M., Laurila, T., and Tuovinen, J. P.: Seasonal CO2

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Reconstruction of Super-resolution Fields of Ocean PCo2 and Air–se...

By: A. Paulmier; V. Garçon; J. Sudre; H. Yahia; I. Dadou; B. Dewitte; I. Hernández-carrasco; C. Garbe; S. Illig

Description: LEGOS, Laboratoire d'Etudes en Géophysique et Océanographie Spatiales (CNES-CNRS-IRD-UPS), 31401 Toulouse, France. The knowledge of Green House Gases GHGs fluxes at the air–sea interface at high resolution is crucial to accurately quantify the role of the ocean in the absorption and emission of GHGs. In this paper we present a novel method to reconstruct maps of surface ocean partial pressure of CO2, pCO2, and air–sea C...

Abraham, E. and Bowen, M.: Chaotic stirring by a mesoscale surface-ocean flow, Chaos, 12, 373–381, 2002.; Arneodo, A., Argoul, F., Bacry, E., Elezgaray, J., and Muzy, J. F.: Ondelettes, Multifractales et Turbulence, Diderot Editeur, Paris, France, 1995.; Abraham, E., Law, C., Boyd, P., Lavender, S., Maldonado, M., and Bowie, A.: Importance of stirring in the development of an iron-fertilized phytoplankton bloom, Nature, 407, 727–730, 2000.; Bakker, D. C. E., Pfeil, B., S...

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Map-based Prediction of Organic Carbon in Headwaters Streams Impro...

By: L. Nyberg; I. Buffam; J. Fölster; C. Von Brömssen; J. Temnerud; J.-o. Andersson; K. Bishop

Description: Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden. In spite of the great abundance and ecological importance of headwater streams, managers are usually limited by a lack of information about water chemistry in these headwaters. In this study we test whether river outlet chemistry can be used as an additional source of information to improve the prediction of the chemistry of upstream headwat...

Ågren, A. M., Buffam, I., Cooper, D. M., Tiwari, T., Evans, C. D., and Laudon, H.: Can the heterogeneity in stream dissolved organic carbon be explained by contributing landscape elements?, Biogeosciences, 11, 1199–1213, doi:10.5194/bg-11-1199-2014, 2014.; Akaike, H.: A new look at the statistical model identification, IEEE T. Autom. Contr., 19, 716–723, doi:10.1109/T...

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A Latitudinally-banded Phytoplankton Response to 21St Century Clim...

By: A. Cabré; I. Marinov; S. Leung

Description: School of Oceanography, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA. Changes in Southern Ocean (SO) phytoplankton distributions with future warming have the potential to significantly alter nutrient and carbon cycles as well as higher trophic level productivity both locally and throughout the global ocean. Here we investigate the response of SO phytoplankton productivity and biomass to 21st century climate change across the CMIP5 Earth System Model suit...

Arblaster, J. M. and Meehl, G. A.: Contributions of external forcings to southern annular mode trends, J. Climate, 19, 2896–2905, doi:10.1175/jcli3774.1, 2006.; Arrigo, K. R., van Dijken, G. L., and Bushinsky, S.: Primary production in the Southern Ocean, 1997–2006, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 113, C08004, doi:10.1029/2007jc004551, 2008.; Assmann, K. M., Bentsen, M., Segschne...

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The Full Greenhouse Gas Balance of an Abandoned Peat Meadow : Volu...

By: A. J. Dolman; M. K. Van Der Molen; J. Van Huissteden; D. M. D. Hendriks

Description: Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Department of Hydrology and Geo-environmental Sciences, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Globally, peat lands are considered to be a sink of CO2, but a source when drained. Additionally, wet peat lands are thought to emit considerable amounts of CH4 and N2O. Hitherto, reliable and integrated estimates of emissions and emission factors f...

Aerts, R. and Toet, S.: Nutritional controls on carbon dioxide and methane emission from Carex-dominated peat soils, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 29, 1683–1690, 1997.; Aubinet, M., Grelle, A., Ibrom, A., et al.: Estimates of the annual net carbon and water exchange of forests: The EUROFLUX methodology, Adv. Ecological Res., 30(30), 113–175, 2000.; Best, E. P. H. and Jacobs, F. H. H.: The influence of raised water table levels on CO2 and CH4 produc...

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Mediterranean Climate Since the Middle Pleistocene: a 640 Ka Stab...

By: H. Baumgarten; A. Francke; B. Wagner; M. J. Leng; H. J. Sloane; H. Vogel; A. Milodowski; J. H. Lacey

Description: Centre for Environmental Geochemistry, School of Geography, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, UK. Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania) is an ancient lake with a unique biodiversity and a site of global significance for investigating the influence of climate, geological and tectonic events on the generation of endemic populations. Here, we present oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) isotope data on carbonate from the upper ...

Albrecht, C. and Wilke, T.: Ancient Lake Ohrid: biodiversity and evolution, Hydrobiologia, 615, 103–140, 2008.; Amataj, S., Anovski, T., Benischke, R., Eftimi, R., Gourcy, L. L., Kola, L., Leontiadis, I., Micevski, E., Stamos, A., and Zoto, J.: Tracer methods used to verify the hypothesis of Cvijić about the underground connection between Prespa and Ohrid Lake, Environ. Geol., 51, 749–753, 2007.; Andrews, J. E., Riding, R., and Dennis, P. F.: Stable isotopic compositions...

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Contribution of Riverine Nutrients to the Silicon Biogeochemistry ...

By: H. H. Dürr; J. Segschneider; C. Heinze; C. Y. Bernard; E. Maier-reimer

Description: Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Allégaten 70, 5007 Bergen, Norway. Continental shelf seas are known to support a large fraction of the global primary production. Yet, continental shelf areas are mostly ignored or neglected in global biogeochemical models. A number of processes that control the transfer of dissolved nutrients from rivers to the open ocean remain poorly understood. This applies...

Amiotte-Suchet, P. A., Probst, J. L., and Ludwig, W.: Worldwide distribution of continental rock lithology: implications for the atmospheric/soil CO2 uptake by continental weathering and alkalinity river transport to the oceans, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 17, 1038–1051, 2003.; Aumont, O., Maier-Reimer, E., Blain, S., and Monfray, P.: An ecosystem model of the global ocean including Fe, Si, P colimitations, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 17, 23 pp., 2003.; Bidle, K. D. a...

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Bioavailability of Sinking Organic Matter in the Blanes Canyon and...

By: S. Bianchelli; A. Calafat; A. Pusceddu; P. Lopez-fernandez; A. Sanchez-vidal; R. Danovaro

Description: GRC Geociències Marines, Dept. d'Estratigrafia, Paleontologia i Geociències Marines, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain. Submarine canyons are sites of intense energy and material exchange between the shelf and the deep adjacent basins. To test the hypothesis that active submarine canyons represent preferential conduits of available food for the deep-sea benthos, two mooring lines were deployed at 1200 m depth from November 2008 to November...

Amblas, D., Canals, M., Urgeles, R., Lastras, G., Liquete, C., Hughes-Clarke, J., Casamor, J. L., and Calafat, A. M.: Morphogenetic mesoscale analysis of the northeastern Iberian margin, NW Mediterranean Basin, Mar. Geol., 234, 3–20, 2006.; Anderson, M. J.: A new method for non-parametric multivariate analysis of variance, Austral. Ecol., 26, 32–46, 2001.; Bianchelli, S., Gambi, C., Pusceddu, A., and Danovaro, R.: Trophic conditions of sediments in a deep sea canyon in t...

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Imprint of a Dissolved Cobalt Basaltic Source on the Kerguelen Pla...

By: M. Boye; P. Laan; A. R. Bowie; C. Jeandel; Y.-h. Park; D. M. Nelson; J. Bown

Description: Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer (UMS 3113), Laboratoire des Sciences de l'Environnement MARin (UMR 6539), Technopôle Brest Iroise, 29280 Plouzané, France. Processes of cobalt (Co) entrainment from shelf sediments over the Kerguelen Plateau were studied during the KEOPS (Kerguelen Ocean Plateau compared Study) in order to explain the exceptionally high dissolved cobalt concentrations that have been measured in the surface waters abov...

van Beek, P., Bourquin, M., Reyss, J. L., Souhaut, M., Charette, M. A., and Jeandel, C.: Radium isotopes to investigate the water mass pathways on the Kerguelen Plateau (Southern Ocean), Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 55, 622–637, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2007.12.025, 2008.; Blain, S., Queguiner, B., and Trull, T.: The natural iron fertilization experiment KEOPS (KErguelen Ocean and Plateau compared Study): an overview, Deep-Sea ...

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Modeling the Impact of Iron and Phosphorus Limitations on Nitrogen...

By: R. R. Hood; V. J. Coles

Description: Horn Point Laboratory, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, P.O. Box 775, 2020 Horns Point Road, Cambridge, MD, 21613 USA. The overarching goal of this study is to simulate subsurface N* (sensu, Gruber and Sarmiento, 1997) anomaly patterns in the North Atlantic Ocean and determine the basin wide rates of N2 fixation that are required to do so. We present results from an Atlantic implementation of a coupled physical-biogeoch...

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Optical Properties and Bioavailability of Dissolved Organic Matter...

By: P. J. Mann; W. V. Sobczak; K. E. Frey; R. M. Holmes

Description: Graduate School of Geography, Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts 01610, USA. The Kolyma River in Northeast Siberia is among the six largest arctic rivers and drains a region underlain by vast deposits of Holocene-aged peat and Pleistocene-aged loess known as yedoma, most of which is currently stored in ice-rich permafrost throughout the region. These peat and yedoma deposits are important sources of dissolved organic matter (DOM) to inland...

Battin, T. J., Kaplan, L. A., Findlay, S., Hopkinson, C. S., Marti, E., Packman, A. I., Newbold, J. D., and Sabater, F.: Biophysical controls on organic carbon fluxes in fluvial networks, Nat. Geosci., 1, 95–100, 2009a.; Battin, T. J., Luyssaert, S., Kaplan, L. A., Aufdenkampe, A. K., Richter, A., and Tranvik, L. J.: The boundless carbon cycle, Nat. Geosci., 2, 598–600, 2009b.; Blough, N. V. and Del Vecchio, R.: Chromophoric DOM in the coastal environment, in: Biogeochem...

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Methane Related Changes in Prokaryotic Activity Along Geochemical ...

By: E. Ben-dov; A. Kushmaro; O. Sivan; I. Bar or; W. Eckert

Description: Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Be'er-Sheva, P.O. Box 653, 8410501, Israel. Microbial methane oxidation process (methanotrophy) is the primary control on the emission of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) to the atmosphere. In terrestrial environments, aerobic methanotrophic bacteria are mainly responsible for oxidizing the methane. In marine sediments the coupling of the anaerobic oxi...

Adler, M., Eckert, W., and Sivan, O.: Quantifying rates of methanogenesis and methanotrophy in Lake Kinneret sediments (Israel) using pore-water profiles, Limnol. Oceanogr., 56, 1525–1535, 2011.; Beal, E. J., House, C. H., and Orphan, V. J.: Manganese- and iron-dependent marine methane oxidation, Science, 325, 184–187, 2009.; Ben-Dov, E., Shapiro, O. H., Siboni, N., and Kushmaro, A.: Advantage of using inosine at the 3' termini of 16S rRNA gene universal primers for the ...

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Divergence of Above- and Belowground C and N Pool Within Predomina...

By: J. H. C. Cornelissen; W. K. Cornwell; S. Q. Gao; M. Dong; X. H. Ye; X. Pan

Description: State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China. The coupling of carbon cycle and nutrient cycle drives food web structure and biogeochemistry of an ecosystem. However, across precipitation gradients, there may be a shift in C pool and N pool from above- to belowground because of shifting plant stoichiometry and allocation. Based on previous evidence, biomass...

Aerts, R. and Chapin, F. S.: The mineral nutrition of wild plants revisited: a re-evaluation of processes and patterns, Adv. Ecol. Res., 30, 1–67, 2000.; Ackerly, D. D. and Cornwell, W. K.: A trait-based approach to community assembly: partitioning of species trait values into within- and among-community components, Ecol. Lett., 10, 135–145, 2007.; Albert, C. H., Thuiller, W., Yoccoz, N. G., Soudant, A., Boucher, F., Saccone, P., and Lavorel, S.: Intraspecific functional...

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Climate-related Changes in Peatland Carbon Accumulation During the...

By: D. J. Charman; F. De Vleeschouwer; S. Brewer; G. Le Roux; G. T. Swindles; V. Hohl; R. Moschen; L. Ukonmaanaho; I. C. Prentice; F. M. Chambers; T. M. Nieminen; Y. Huang; R. K. Booth; S. P. Harrison; F. J. G. Mitchell; S. T. Jackson; M. Väliranta; Y. M. C. Corish; Ü. Sillasoo; Z. C. Yu; J. A. Christen; E.-s. Tuittila; M. Van Der Linden; M. Blaauw; D. H. Vitt; S. Van Bellen; A. Gallego-sala; A. Korhola; M. Garneau; Y. Zhao; E. Karofeld; D. W. Beilman; J. Alm; N. R. Phadtare; J. E. Nichols; I. E. Bauer; G. M. MacDonald; B. Van Geel; D. Mauquoy; N. Rausch; P. D. M. Hughes; J. Loisel

Description: Department of Geography, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, EX4 4RJ, UK. Peatlands are a major terrestrial carbon store and a persistent natural carbon sink during the Holocene, but there is considerable uncertainty over the fate of peatland carbon in a changing climate. It is generally assumed that higher temperatures will increase peat decay, causing a positive feedback to climate warming and contributing to the global po...

Abe-Ouchi A. and Harrison, S. P.: Constraining the carbon-cycle feedback using palaeodata: the PalaeoCarbon Modelling Intercomparison Project, EOS 90, p. 140, 2009.; Ahn, J., Brook, E. J., Mitchell, L., Rosen, J., McConnell, J. R., Taylor, K., Etheridge, D., and Rubino, M.: Atmospheric CO2 over the last 1000 yr: a high-resolution record from the west antarctic ice sheet (WAIS) divide ice core, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 26, GB2027, doi:

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Monthly Measured Primary and New Productivities in the Ulleung Bas...

By: E. J. Choy; K. R. Kim; H. J. Park; S. H. Lee; J. H. Kwak; C. K. Kang; H. D. Jeong

Description: POSTECH Ocean Science {&} Technology Institute, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, 790–784, Korea. The Ulleung Basin (UB), located in the southwestern part of the East/Japan Sea (EJS), is considered having an unusually high productivity for a~deep basin. Recently changes have been reported in physical, chemical, and in biological properties. Here we measured the primary and new productivities in the UB using a 13C-...

Ashjian, C. J., Arnone, R., Davis, C. S., Jones, B., Kahru, M., Lee, C. M., and Mitchell, B. G.: Biological structure and seasonality in the Japan/East Sea, Oceanography, 19, 122–133, 2006.; Chang, K.-I., Teague, W. J., Lyu, S. J., Perkins, H. T., Lee, D. K., Watts, D. R., Kim, Y. B., Mitchell, D. A., Lee, C. M., and Kim, K.: Circulation and currents in the southwestern East/Japan Sea: overview and review, Prog. Oceanogr., 61, 105–156, 2004.; Chen Y. L.: Spatial and seas...

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A Process-based Fire Parameterization of Intermediate Complexity i...

By: S. Levis; F. Li; X. D. Zeng

Description: International Center for Climate and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. A process-based fire parameterization of intermediate complexity has been developed for global simulations in the framework of a Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (DGVM) in an Earth System Model (ESM). Burned area in a grid cell is estimated by the product of fire counts and average burned area per fire. Th...

Albini, F. A. and Stocks, B. J.: Predicted and observed rates of spread of crown fires in immature jack pine, Combust. Sci. Technol., 48, 65–76, 1986.; Andreae, M. O. and Merlet, P.: Emission of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 15, 955–966, 2001.; Andreae, M. O., Rosenfeld, D., Artaxo, P., Costa, A. A., Frank, G. P., Longo, K. M., and Silva-Dias, M. A. F.: Smoking rain clouds over the Amazon, Science, 303, 1337–1342, 2004.; Archibald...

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Simulation of Tree Ring-widths with a Model for Primary Production...

By: I. C. Prentice; S. P. Harrison; D. Falster; G. Li

Description: Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW 2109, Australia. We present a simple, generic model of annual tree growth, called T. This model accepts input from a first-principles light-use efficiency model (the P model). The P model provides values for Gross Primary Production (GPP) per unit of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Absorbed PAR is estimated from the current leaf area. GPP i...

Ahmed, M., Anchukaitis, K. J., Asrat, A., Borgaonkar, H. P., Braida, M., Buckley, B. M., Büntgen, U., Chase, B. M., Christie, D. A., and Cook, E. R.: Continental-scale temperature variability during the past two millennia, Nat. Geosci., 6, 339–346, doi:10.1038/NGEO1797, 2013.; Bai, F., Sang, W., Li, G., Liu, R., Chen, L., and Wang, K.: Long-term protection effects of national reserve to forest vegetation in 4 decades: biodiv...

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Antarctic Ice Sheet Fertilises the Southern Ocean : Volume 10, Iss...

By: F. Monteiro; J. L. Wadham; A. Ridgwell; A. M. Le Brocq; S. Dutkiewicz; R. Raiswell; M. Tranter; R. Death

Description: School of Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol, BS8 1SS, UK. Southern Ocean (SO) marine primary productivity (PP) is strongly influenced by the availability of iron in surface waters, which is thought to exert a significant control upon atmospheric CO2 concentrations on glacial/interglacial timescales. The zone bordering the Antarctic Ice Sheet exhibits high PP and seasonal plankton blooms in response to light and variations in i...

Anderson, J. B., Domack, E. W., and Kurtz, D. D.: Observations of sediment-laden icebergs in Antarctic waters – implications to glacial erosion and transport, J. Glaciol., 25, 387–396, 1980.; Arrigo, K. R., van 5 Dijken, G. L., and Bushinsky, S.: Primary production in the Southern Ocean, 1997–2006, J. Geophys. Res., 113, C08004, doi:10.1029/2007jc004551, 2008.; Bigg, G. R., Wadley, M. R., Stevens, D. P., and Johnson, J. ...

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Microbial Reduction of Iron and Porewater Biogeochemistry in Acidi...

By: D. Schulz; M. Blöthe; M. Reiche; K. Küsel; H. L. Drake

Description: Limnology Research Group, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, 07743 Jena, Germany. Temporal drying of upper soil layers of acidic methanogenic peatlands might divert the flow of reductants from CH4 formation to other electron-accepting processes due to a renewal of alternative electron acceptors. In this study, we evaluated the in situ relevance of Fe(III)-reducing microbial activities in peatlands of a forested catchment that differed in the...

Adams, L. K., Boothman, C., and Lloyd, J. R.: Identification and characterization of a novel acidotolerant Fe(III)-reducing bacterium from a 3000-year-old acidc rock drainage site, FEMS Microbiol. Lett., 268, 151–157, 2007.; Alewell, C. and Gehre, M.: Patterns of stable S isotopes in a forested catchment as indicators for biological S turnover, Biogeochem., 47, 319–333, 1999.; Alewell, C. and Giesemann, A.: Sulfate reduction in a forested catchment as indicated by $\delt...

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Seasonal and Latitudinal Patterns of Pelagic Community Metabolism ...

By: S. Agusti

Description: Department of Global Change Research, IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB) Instituto Mediterráneo de Estudios Avanzados, Calle Miquel Marqués 21, 07190 Esporles, Balearic Islands, Spain. Temporal and spatial patterns in the variability of the pelagic metabolism at the surface of the Atlantic Ocean were analyzed in a series of four oceanographic cruises (LATITUDE 1, 2, 3 and 4). The cruises crossed the oligotrophic waters of North and South subtropical gyres and this explain...

Agustí, S. and Duarte, C. M.: Phytoplankton chlorophyll a distribution and water column stability in the central Atlantic Ocean, Oceanol. Acta, 22, 193–203, 1999.; Agustí, S., Satta, M. P., and Mura, M. P.: Summer community respiration and pelagic metabolism in upper surface Antarctic waters, Aquat. Microb. Ecol., 35, 197–205, 2004.; Aiken, J., Rees, N., Hooker, S., Holligan, P., Bale, A., Robins, D., Moore, G. , Harris, R., and Pilgrin, D.: The Atlantic Meridional Trans...

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