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Continental Atmospheric Circulation Over Europe During the Little ...

By: V. Daux; N. Viovy; I. Chuine; C. Van Leeuwen; J.-m. Boursiquot; E. Garnier; P. Yiou; A. K. Parker; I. García De Cortázar-atauri

Description: Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, UMR8212, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, CE Saclay l'Orme des Merisiers, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France. Estimates of climate conditions before the 19th century are based on proxy data reconstructions or sparse meteorological measurements. The reconstruction of the atmospheric circulation that prevailed during the European Little Ice Age (~1500–1850) has fostered many efforts. This study illustrates a methodology co...

Alonso de Herrera, G.: Agricultura general, version completed in 1813 by the Real Sociedad Economica Matritense, 544 pp., 1513.; Ansell, T., Jones, P., Allan, R., Lister, D., Parker, D., Brunet, M., Moberg, A., Jacobeit, J., Brohan, P., Rayner, N., Aguilar, E., Alexandersson, H., Barriendos, M., Brandsma, T., Cox, N., Della-Marta, P., Drebs, A., Founda, D., Gerstengarbe, F., Hickey, K., Jonsson, T., Luterbacher, J., Nordli, O., Oesterle, H., Petrakis, M., Philipp, A., Ro...

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Late Glacial and Holocene Changes in Vegetation Cover and Climate ...

By: E. V. Bezrukova; S. K. Krivonogov; P. E. Tarasov

Description: Freie Universität Berlin, Geological Sciences, Palaeontology Section, Berlin, Germany. In this study a radiocarbon-dated pollen record from Lake Kotokel (52°47´ N, 108°07´ E, 458 m a.s.l.) located in southern Siberia east of Lake Baikal was used to derive quantitative characteristics of regional vegetation and climate since about 15 kyr BP (1 kyr=1000 cal. yr) until today. Quantitative reconstruction of the late glacial vegetation and climate dynamics s...

Alpat'ev,~A M., Arkhangel'skii,~A M., Podoplelov,~N Y., and Stepanov,~A Y.: Fizicheskaya geografiya SSSR (Aziatskaya chast'), Vysshaya Shkola, Moscow, 359~pp., 1976 (in Russian).; Bartlein,~P J., Webb III, ~T., and Fleri,~E C.: Holocene climatic change in the northern Midwest: pollen-derived estimates, Quaternary Res., 22, 361–374, 1984.; Andreev,~A A. and Tarasov,~P E.: Pollen records, postglacial: Northern Asia, in: Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science, edited by Elias,~...

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Millennial-length Forward Models and Pseudoproxies of Stalagmite Δ...

By: S. J. Phipps; M. Fischer; L. Fuller; C. Bradley; A. Baker; C. Spötl; I. J. Fairchild; C. Azcurra

Description: Connected Waters Initiative Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Water Research Laboratory, 110 King St, Manly Vale, Australia. The stable oxygen isotope parameter Δ18O remains the most widely utilised speleothem proxy for past climate reconstructions. Uncertainty can be introduced into stalagmite Δ18O from a number of factors, one of which is the heterogeneity of groundwater flow in karstified aquifers. Here, we present ...

Baker, A. and Bradley, C.: Modern stalagmite δ18O: Instrumental calibration and forward modelling, Global Planet. Change, 71, 201–206, 2010.; Baker, A. and Brunsdon, C.: Non-linearities in drip water hydrology: an example from Stump Cross Caverns, Yorkshire, J. Hydrol., 277, 151–163, 2003.; Baker, A., Smart, P. L., Edwards, R. L., and Richards, D. A.: Annual banding in a cave stalagmite, Nature, 364, 518–520, 1993.; Baker, A., Proctor, C. J., and Barnes, W. L....

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Clouds and the Faint Young Sun Paradox : Volume 6, Issue 3 (10/06/...

By: C. Goldblatt; K. J. Zahnle

Description: Space Science and Astrobiology Division, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA. We investigate the role which clouds could play in resolving the Faint Young Sun Paradox (FYSP). Lower solar luminosity in the past means that less energy was absorbed on Earth (a forcing of -50 W m−2 during the late Archean), but geological evidence points to the Earth being at least as warm as it is today, with only very occa...

Anderson, G. P., Clough, S. A., Kneizys, F. X., Chetwynd, J. H., and Shettle, E. P.: AFGL atmospheric constituent profiles (0–120 km), Environmental Research Papers 954, Air Force Geophysical Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA, 1986.; Bendtsen, J. and Bjerrum, J.: Vulnerability of climate on {E}arth to sudden changes in insolation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 1706, doi:10.1029/2002GL014829, 2002.; Bergman, N. M., Lenton, T. M., and Watson, A. J.: COPSE: a new model of biogeochemic...

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Reconstruction of Drip-water Δ18O Based on Calcite Oxygen and Clum...

By: D. F. C. Riechelmann; J. Fohlmeister; D. K. Richter; D. Scholz; S. Riechelmann; C. Spötl; T. Marx; H. P. Affek; W. Aeschbach-hertig; A. Immenhauser; T. Kluge; A. Mangini; A. Wackerbarth

Description: Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University, 210 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, CT, 06511, USA. The geochemical signature of many speleothems used for reconstruction of past continental climates is affected by kinetic isotope fractionation. This limits quantitative paleoclimate reconstruction and, in cases where the kinetic fractionation varies with time, also affects relative paleoclimate interpretations. In carbonate archive research, clump...

Aeschbach-Hertig, W., Peeters, F., Beyerle, U., and Kipfer, R.: Interpretation of dissolved atmospheric noble gases in natural waters, Water Resour. Res., 35, 2779–2792, 1999.; Affek, H. P. and Eiler, J. M.: Abundance of mass 47 CO2 in urban air, car exhaust and human breath, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 70, 1–12, 2006.; Affek, H. P., Bar-Matthews, M., Ayalon, A., Matthews, A., and Eiler, J. M.: Glacial/interglacial temperature variations in Soreq cave speleothem...

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Sensitivity of the Grassland-forest Ecotone in East African Open W...

By: V. Gelorini; D. Verschuren; I. Ssemmanda

Description: Department of Geology, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda. Fossil pollen records provide key insight into the sensitivity of terrestrial ecosystems to climate change at longer time scales. However, tracing vegetation response to relatively modest historical climate fluctuations is often complicated by the overriding signature of anthropogenic landscape disturbance. Here we use high-resolution pollen data from a ~200 year lake-sed...

Byaruhanga, A., Kasoma, P., and Pomeroy, D.: Important bird areas in Uganda, Royal society for the protection of birds, Nature Uganda, The East African Natural History Society, Kampala, 2001.; de Filippo, C., Bostoen, K., Stoneking, M., and Pakendorf, B.: Bringing together linguistic and genetic evidence to test the Bantu expansion, P. R. Soc. B., 279, 3256–3263, 2012.; Drescher-Schneider, R., de Beaulieu, J., Magny, M., Walter-Simonnet, A., Bossuet, G., Millet, L., Brug...

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Synchronisation of the Edml and Edc Ice Cores for the Last 52 Kyr ...

By: A. Morganti; R. Udisti; F. Parrenin; S. Becagli; E. Castellano; P. Kaufmann; J. P. Steffensen; M. Severi; E. Wolff; F. Lambert; U. Ruth; R. Traversi; P. Huybrechts; H. Fischer

Description: Department of Chemistry, University of Florence, Florence, Italy. A common time scale for the EPICA ice cores from Dome C (EDC) and Dronning Maud Land (EDML) has been established. Since the EDML core was not drilled on a dome, the development of the EDML1 time scale for the EPICA ice core drilled in Dronning Maud Land was based on the creation of a detailed stratigraphic link between EDML and EDC, which was dated by a simpler 1D ice-flow model. The sync...

Cole-Dai, J. and Mosley-Thompson, E.: The Pinatubo eruption in South Polar snow and its potential value to ice core paleovolcanic records, Ann. Glaciol., 29, 99–105, 1999.; Cole-Dai, J., Mosley-Thompson, E., and Thompson L. G.: Annually resolved southern hemisphere volcanic history from two Antarctic ice cores, J. Geophys. Res., 102(D14), 16 761–16 771, 1997.; EPICA-community-members: One-to-one coupling of glacial climate variability in Greenland and Antarctica, Nature,...

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Different Ocean States and Transient Characteristics in Last Glaci...

By: G. Lohmann; X. Xu; G. Knorr; X. Zhang

Description: Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Bussestrasse 24, 27570 Bremerhaven, Germany. The last deglaciation is one of the best constrained global-scale climate changes documented by climate archives. Nevertheless, understanding of the underlying dynamics is still limited, especially with respect to abrupt climate shifts and associated changes in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) during glacial and degl...

Adkins, J. F., McIntyre, K., and Schrag, D. P.: The salinity, temperature, and delta18O of the glacial deep ocean, Science, 298, 1769–1773, doi:10.1126/science.1076252, 2002.; Ahn, J. and Brook, E. J.: Atmospheric CO2 and climate on millennial time scales during the last glacial period, Science, 83, 83–85, doi:10.1126/science.1160832, 2008.; Allen, C. S....

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Modulation of Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic Climate by Variable Dra...

By: G. Muttoni; D. V. Kent

Description: Earth and Planetary Sciences, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA. The small reservoir of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (pCO2) that modulates climate through the greenhouse effect reflects a delicate balance between large fluxes of sources and sinks. The major long-term source of CO2 is global outgassing from sea-floor spreading, subduction, hotspot activity, and metamorphism; the ultimate sink is through wea...

Broecker, W. S. and Sanyal, A.: Does atmospheric CO2 police the rate of chemical weathering?, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 12, 403–408, 1998.; Achache, J., Courtillot, V., and Zhou, Y. X.: Paleogeographic and tectonic evolution of Southern Tibet since middle Cretaceous time: new paleomagnetic data and synthesis, J. Geophys. Res., 89, 10311–10339, 1984.; Agard, P., Omrani, J., Jolivet, L., and Mouthereau, G.: Convergence history across Zagros (Iran): constraints fro...

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Black Shale Deposition During Toarcian Super-greenhouse Driven by ...

By: F. Minoletti; P. Pellenard; M. Hermoso

Description: University of Oxford – Department of Earth Sciences, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3AN, UK. One of the most elusive aspects of the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE) is the paradox between carbon isotopes that indicate intense global primary productivity and organic carbon burial at a global scale, and the delayed expression of anoxia in Europe. During the earliest Toarcian, no black shales were deposited in the European epicontinental seaways, and m...

Jenkyns, H. C.: The Early Toarcian (Jurassic) anoxic event, Am. J. Sci., 288, 101–151, 1988.; Al-Suwaidi, A., Angelozzi, G. N., Baudin, F., Damborenea, S. E., Hesselbo, S. P., Jenkyns, H. C., Manceñido, M. O., and Riccardi, A. C.: First record of the Early Toarcian oceanic anoxic event from the Southern Hemisphere, Neuquén Basin, Argentina, J. Geol. Soc. London, 167, 633–636, doi:10.1144/0016-76492010-025, 2010.; Bo...

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Late Holocene Plant and Climate Evolution at Lake Yoa, Northern Ch...

By: G. Krinner; W. Zheng; P. Braconnot; A.-m. Lézine

Description: Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, UMR8212, CNRS-CEA-UVSQ, Orme des Merisiers, Bâtiment 701, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex, France. The discovery of groundwater-fed Lake Yoa (19.03° N, 20.31° E) in the hyperarid desert of northern Chad by the German research team ACACIA headed by S. Kröpelin provides a unique, continuous sedimentary sequence of late Holocene age available in the entire Saharan desert. Here we present pollen data and c...

African Plant database: http://www.ville-ge.ch/musinfo/bd/cjb/africa/2009 (last access: December 2011), 2009.; Cleuziou, S. and Costantini, L.: Premiers éléments sur l'agriculture protohistorique de l'Arabie orientale, Paléorient, 6, 245–251, 1980.; Arkell, A. J.: Wanyanga and an archaeological reconnaissance of the south-west Libyan desert: the British Ennedi expedition, 1957, London, Oxford University Press,...

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Environmental and Climatic History in the NW Argentine Andes (24° ...

By: A. Lücke; S. T. Kock; K. Schittek; J. J. Kulemeyer; F. Schäbitz; C. Ohlendorf; L. C. Lupo

Description: Seminar of Geography and Geographical Education, University of Cologne, Germany. High-altitude cushion peatlands are versatile archives for high-resolution palaeoenvironmental studies, due to their high accumulation rates, range of proxies and sensitivity to climatic and/or human-induced changes. Especially within the central Andes, the knowledge about climate conditions during the Holocene is limited. In this study, we present the enviro...

Abbott, M. B., Seltzer, G. O., Kelts, K. R., and Southon, J.: Holocene paleohydrology of the tropical Andes from lake records, Quaternary Res., 47, 70–80, doi:10.1006/qres.1996.1874, 1997.; Aldous, A. R.: Nitrogen retention by Sphagnum mosses: responses to atmospheric nitrogen deposition and drought, Can. J. Botany, 80, 721–731, doi:10.1139/b02-054, 2002.; Asada, T.,...

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Possible Earthquake Trigger for 6Th Century Mass Wasting Deposit a...

By: R. Sulpizio; G. Zanchetta; S. Krastel; S. Trajanovski; B. Lushaj; A. Francke; A. Grazhdani; G. Daut; K. Lindhorst; H. Vogel; B. Wagner; J. Rethemeyer

Description: Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, University of Cologne, Zülpicher Str. 49a, 50674 Cologne, Germany. Lake Ohrid shared by the Republics of Albania and Macedonia is formed by a tectonically active graben within the south Balkans and suggested to be the oldest lake in Europe. Several studies have shown that the lake provides a valuable record of climatic and environmental changes and a distal tephrostratigraphic record of volcanic eruptions from Italy. ...

Albrecht, C. and Wilke, T.: Ancient Lake Ohrid: biodiversity and evolution, Hydrobiology, 615, 103–140, 2008.; Aliaj, S., Adams, J., Halchuk, S., Sulstarova, E., Peci, V., and Muco, B.: Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Maps for Albania, 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2004.; Ambraseys, N.: Earthquakes in the Mediterranean and Middle East, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2009.; Ambraseys, N. and Jackson, J.: Seismicity and Associa...

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Early and Mid-holocene Climate in the Tropical Pacific: Seasonal C...

By: Y. Yu; P. Braconnot; Y. Luan; W. Zheng; O. Marti

Description: State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (LASG), Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP), Beijing, China. Using a coupled atmosphere-ocean model we analyze the responses of the mean climate and interannual variations in the tropical Pacific to the changes in insolation during the early and middle Holocene, for which only the variations of Earth's orbital configuration are considered. Comparison of ...

AchutaRao, K. and Sperber, K. R.: ENSO simulation in coupled ocean-atmosphere models: are the current models better?, Clim. Dynam., 27, 1–15, 2006.; Annamalai, H., Hamilton, K., and Sperber, K. R.: The South Asian Summer Monsoon and Its Relationship with ENSO in the IPCC AR4 Simulations, J. Climate, 20, 1071–1092, 2007.; Berger, A. L.: Long-term variations of daily insolation and quaternary climatic changes, J. Atmos. Sci., 35, 2362–2367, 1978.; Braconnot, P., Hourdin, F...

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Post-pliocene Establishment of the Present Monsoonal Climate in SW...

By: Y.-s. Liu; Y.-w. Xing; F. M. B. Jacques; R. A. Spicer; Z.-k. Zhou; Y.-j. Huang; T. Su

Description: Key Laboratory of Tropical Forest Ecology, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Mengla 666303, China. The paleoclimate of the late Pliocene Longmen flora from Yongping County located at the southeastern boundary of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was reconstructed using two leaf-physiognomy-based methods, i.e., leaf margin analysis (LMA) and Climate Leaf Analysis Multivariate Program (CLAMP), to understand the paleoclimate cond...

Adams, J. M., Green, W. A., and Zhang, Y.: Leaf margins and temperature in the North American flora: Recalibrating the paleoclimatic thermometer, Global Planet. Change, 60, 523–534, 2008.; Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources of Yunnan Province (BGMRYP): Regional geology of Yunnan Province, Geological Publishing House, Beijing, 1990 (in Chinese).; Bureau of Geology of Yunnan Province (BGYP): Regional geological survey report (geological part), Bureau of Geology of Yun...

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On the Verification of Climate Reconstructions : Volume 3, Issue 3...

By: G. Bürger

Description: FU-Berlin, Institut für Meteorologie; Carl-Heinrich-Becker-Weg 6–10, 12165 Berlin, Germany. The skill of proxy-based reconstructions of Northern hemisphere temperature is reassessed. Using an almost complete set of proxy and instrumental data of the past 130 years a multi-crossvalidation is conducted of a number of statistical methods, producing a distribution of verification skill scores. Among the methods are multiple regression, multiple inverse regr...

Aldrich, J.: Correlations Genuine and Spurious in Pearson and Yule, Discussion Paper Series In Economics And Econometrics 9502, Economics Division, School of Social Sciences, University of Southampton, available at: http://ideas.repec.org/p/stn/sotoec/9502.html, 1995.; Briffa, K R.: Annual climate variability in the holocene: interpreting the message of ancient trees, Quat. Sci. Rev., 19, 87–105, 2000.; Bhansali, R J. and Kokoszka, P S.: Estimation of the long memory par...

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Mid-pliocene Shifts in Ocean Overturning Circulation and the Onset...

By: B. Schneider; M. Sarnthein; M. Weinelt; A. Schmittner; M. Prange

Description: Institute for Geosciences, University of Kiel, 24098 Kiel, Germany. A major tipping point of Earth's history occurred during the mid-Pliocene: the onset of major Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (NHG) and pronounced, Quaternary-style cycles of glacial-to-interglacial climates, that contrast with more uniform climates over most of the preceding Cenozoic, that and continue until today. The severe deterioration of climate occurred in three steps between 3.2 ...

Alley, R. B., Clark, P. U., Huybrechts, P., and Joughin, I.: Ice-sheet and sea-level changes, Science, 310, 456–460, 2005.; Bartoli, G., Sarnthein, M., and Weinelt, M.: Late Pliocene millennial-scale climate variability in the northern North Atlantic prior to and after the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation, Paleoceanography, 21, PA4205, 1–15, 2006.; Bartoli, G., Sarnthein, M., Weinelt, M., Erlenkeuser, H., Garbe-Schönberg, D., and Lea, D.: Final closure of Panama a...

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Tephrostratigraphic Studies on a Sediment Core from Lake Prespa in...

By: G. Zanchetta; R. Sulpizio; B. Wagner; N. Nowaczyk; A. Böhm; J. Rethemeyer; M. Damaschke; A. Hilgers

Description: Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, University of Cologne, Zülpicher Straße 49a, 50674 Cologne, Germany. A detailed tephrostratigraphic record, which dates back to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5, has been established from a 17.76 m long core (Co1215) from Lake Prespa (Macedonia, Albania and Greece). A total of eleven tephra and cryptotephra layers (PT0915-1 to PT0915-11) were identified, using XRF scanning, magnetic susceptibility measurements, and macro-...

Alessio, M., Bella, F., Improta, S., Belluomini, G., and Cortesi, C.: University of Rome carbon-14 dates IX, Radiocarbon, 13, 395–411, 1971.; Andronico, D.: La Stratigrafia dei prodotti dell'eruzione di Lagno Amendolare (Phlegrean Fields, Napoli), Atti. Soc. Toscana Sci. Nat., Mem., Serie A, 104, 165–178, 1997.; Andronico, D., Cioni, R., Marianelli, P., and Santacroce, R.: Introduction to Somma-Vesuvius, in: Vesuvius Decade Volcano, edited by: Santacroce, R., Workshop ha...

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Sensitivity of Interglacial Greenland Temperature and Δ18O to Orbi...

By: A. Landais; G. Hoffmann; J. Jouzel; L. Sime; D. Swingedouw; B. Vinther; V. Masson-delmotte; P. Braconnot; Q. Lejeune; M. Kageyama; J. Sjolte; C. Risi

Description: Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, (UMR 8212 CEA-CNRS-UVSQ), 91198 Gif Sur Yvette Cedex, France. The sensitivity of interglacial Greenland temperature to orbital and CO2 forcing is investigated using the NorthGRIP ice core data and coupled ocean-atmosphere IPSL-CM4 model simulations. These simulations were conducted in response to different interglacial orbital configurations, and to increased CO2 concentratio...

Alkama, R., Kageyama, M., Ramstein, G., Marti, O., Ribstein, P., and Swingedouw, D.: Impact of a realistic river routing in coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations of the Last Glacial Maximum climate, Climate Dynamics, 30(7–8), 855–869, 2008.; Barnola, J. M., Raynaud, D., Korotkevich, Y. S., and Lorius, C.: Vostok ice core provides 160 000-year record of atmospheric CO2, Nature, 329, 408–414, 1987.; Born, A., Nisancioglu, K. H., and Braconnot, P.: Sea ice induced...

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Technical Note: the Linked Paleo Data Framework – a Common Tongue ...

By: J. Emile-geay; N. P. McKay

Description: School of Earth Sciences and Environmental Sustainability, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff AZ, 86011, USA. Paleoclimatology is a highly collaborative scientific endeavor, increasingly reliant on online databases for data sharing. Yet, there is currently no universal way to describe, store and share paleoclimate data: in other words, no standard. Data standards are often regarded by scientists as mere technicalities, though they underlie much scien...

Barker, S., Cacho, I., Benway, H., and Tachikawa, K.: Planktonic foraminiferal \chemMg/Ca as a proxy for past oceanic temperatures: a methodological overview and data compilation for the Last Glacial Maximum, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 24, 821–834, doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2004.07.016, 2005.; Bizer, C., Heath, T., and Berners-Lee, T.: Linked data – the story so far, Int. J. Semant. Web Inf., 5, 1–22, doi:

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