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Remote Detection of Water Property Changes from a Time Series of O...

By: M. Tomczak; A. Henry-edwards

Description: School of Chemistry Physics and Earth Sciences, Flinders University of South Australia, Australia. A water mass analysis method based on a constrained minimization technique is developed to derive water property changes in water mass formation regions from oceanographic station data taken at significant distance from the formation regions. The method is tested with two synthetic data sets, designed to mirror conditions in the North Atlantic at the Bermud...

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How Essential Are Argo Observations to Constrain a Global Ocean Da...

By: E. Remy; P. Y. Le Traon; V. Turpin

Description: Mercator Ocean, Parc Technologique du Canal, 8–10 rue Hermès, 31520 Ramonville Saint Agne, France. Observing System Experiments (OSEs) are carried out over a one-year period to quantify the impact of Argo observations on the Mercator-Ocean 1/4° global ocean analysis and forecasting system. The reference simulation assimilates sea surface temperature (SST), SSALTO/DUACS altimeter data and Argo and other in situ observations from the Coriolis data center. ...

Balmaseda, M., Anderson, D., and Vidard, A.: Impact of Argo on analyses of the global ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L16605, doi:10.1029/2007GL030452, 2007.; Bell, M. J., Lefebvre, M., Le Traon, P.-Y., Smith, N., and Wilmer-Becker, K.: GODAE: The global ocean data assimilation experiment, Oceanography, 22, 14–21, doi:10.5670/oceanog.2009.62, 2009.; Benkiran, M. and G...

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Influence of Numerical Schemes on Current-topography Interactions ...

By: G. Madec; J. Le Sommer; B. Barnier; J.-m. Molines; T. Penduff; A.-m. Treguier

Description: Laboratoire des Ecoulements Géophysiques et Industriels, CNRS, UJF, INPG, Grenoble, France. The combined use of partial steps and of an energy-enstrophy conserving momentum advection scheme was shown by Barnier et al. (2006) to yield substantial improvements in the surface solution of the DRAKKAR ¼° global sea-ice/ocean model. The present study extends this investigation below the surface with a special focus on the Atlantic and reveals many improvements...

Adcroft, A. and Marshall, D.: How slippery are piecewise-constant coastlines in numerical ocean models?, Tellus Series A, 60, 95–108, doi:10.1034/j.1600-0870.1998.00007, 1998.; Arakawa, A. and Lamb, V.: A potential enstrophy and energy conserving scheme for the shallow water equations, Mon. Wea. Rev., 109, 18–36, 1981.; Arhan, M., Colin de Verdire, A., and Mercier, H.: Direct observations of the mean circulation at 48$ ^\circ$N in the Atlantic ocean, J. Phys. Oceanogr.\/...

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Technical Note: Animal-borne Ctd-satellite Relay Data Loggers for ...

By: F. Roquet; M. Biuw; P. Lovell; L. Boehme; M. P. Meredith; S. E. Thorpe; J. Nicholson; M. Fedak

Description: NERC Sea Mammal Research Unit, Scottish Oceans Institute, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, KY16,8LB, UK. The increasing need for continuous monitoring of the world oceans has stimulated the development of a range of autonomous sampling platforms. One novel addition to these approaches is a small, relatively inexpensive data-relaying device that can be deployed on marine mammals to provide vertical oceanographic profiles throughout the upper 2000 m o...

Aldrige, H. D. J. N. and Brigham, R. M.: Load carrying and maneuverability in an insectivorous bat: a test of the 5{% rule of radio-telemetry}, J. Mammal., 69, 379–382, 1988.; Alverson, K.: The Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS), Hydro International, 12, 32–33, 2008{a}.; Alverson, K.: Filling the Gaps in GOOS, J. Ocean Technol., 3, 19–23, 2008{b}.; Argos: Argos User's manual, Collecte Localisation Satellites (CLS), 1996.; Biuw, M., Boehme, L., Guinet, C., Hindell, M., ...

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Biofouling Protection for Marine Environmental Sensors : Volume 6,...

By: M. Lehaitre; C. Compère; L. Delauney

Description: In Situ Measurement and Electronics Group, Ifremer, B. P. 70, 29280, Plouzané, France. These days, many marine autonomous environment monitoring networks are set up in the world. These systems take advantage of existing superstructures such as offshore platforms, lightships, piers, breakwaters or are placed on specially designed buoys or underwater oceanographic structures. These systems commonly use various sensors to measure parameters such as dissolve...

Manov, D. V., Chang, G. C., and Dickey, T. D.: Methods for reducing biofouling of moored optical sensors, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 21(6), 958–968, 2004.; Morris; R. S. and Walsh, M. A.: Zinc oxide photoactive material, U.S. Pat. 6063849, 2000.; Abou-Ghazala, A. and Schoenbach, K. H.: Biofouling Prevention with Pulsed Electric Fields, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 28, 115–121, 2000.; Bearinger, J. P., Terrettaz, S., Michel, R., et al.: Sulfamer Block Copolymers Protection of Gol...

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Optical Tools for Ocean Monitoring and Research : Volume 5, Issue ...

By: P. Fietzek; A. Barnard; S. White; M. R. Lewis; H. M. Sosik; C. Moore; O. Zielinski

Description: WET Labs, Inc., Corvallis, Oregon, USA. Requirements for understanding the relationships between ocean color and suspended and dissolved materials within the water column, and a rapidly emerging photonics and materials technology base for performing optical based analytical techniques have generated a diverse offering of commercial sensors and research prototypes that perform optical measurements in water. Through inversion, these tools are now being us...

% vor jede Referenz Aas, E. and Højerslev, N. K.: Analysis of underwater radiance observations: Apparent optical properties and analytical functions describing the angular radiance distribution, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 8015–8024, 1999; Adornato, L. R., Kaltenbacher, E. A., Greenhow, D. R., and Byrne, R. H.: High-Resolution/In Situ/Analysis of Nitrate and Phosphate in the Oligotrophic Ocean, Environ. Sci. Technol., 41, 4045–4052, 2007.; Alliance of Coastal Technologies (AC...

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Improving the Parameterisation of Horizontal Density Gradient in O...

By: E. Deleersnijder; S. Blaise

Description: Université catholique de Louvain, Unité de Génie Civil et Environnemental, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. A new parameterisation of horizontal density gradient for a one-dimensional water column estuarine model, inspired by the first-order finite-difference upwind scheme, is presented. This parameterisation prevents stratification from growing indefinitely, a deficiency usually referred to as runaway stratification. It is seen that, using this upwind-like pa...

Blaise, S., Deleersnijder, E., White, L., and Remacle, J.-F.: Influence of the turbulence closure scheme on the finite-element simulation of the upwelling in the wake of a shallow-water island, Cont. Shelf Res., 27, 2329–2345, 2007.; Burchard, H.: Recalculation of surface slopes as forcing for numerical water column models and tidal flow, Appl. Math. Mod., 23, 737–755, 1999.; Burchard, H. and Baumert, H.: The formation of estuarine turbidity maxima due to density effects...

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Simulated Melt Rates for the Totten and Dalton Ice Shelves : Volum...

By: J. R. Hunter; B. K. Galton-fenzi; J. L. Roberts; D. E. Gwyther

Description: Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 129, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia. The Totten Glacier is rapidly losing mass. It has been suggested that this mass loss is driven by changes in oceanic forcing; however, the details of the ice–ocean interaction are unknown. Here we present results from an ice shelf–ocean model of the region that includes the Totten, Dalton and Moscow University ice shelves, based on the R...

Bindoff, N. L., Rosenberg, M. A., and Warner, M. J.: On the circulation and water masses over the Antarctic continental slope and rise between 80 and 150° E, Deep-Sea Res.-Pt. II, 47, 2299–2326, doi:10.1016/S0967-0645(00)00038-2, 2000.; Böning, C. W., Dispert, A., Visbeck, M., Rintoul, S. R., and Schwarzkopf, F. U.: The response of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current to recent climate change, Nat. Geosci., 1, 864–...

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Molecular Biology Techniques and Applications for Ocean Sensing : ...

By: P. Moisander; I. Hewson; J. P. Zehr

Description: Department of Ocean Sciences, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street E&MS D446, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA. The study of marine microorganisms using molecular biological techniques is now widespread in the ocean sciences. These techniques target nucleic acids which record the evolutionary history of microbes, and encode for processes which are active in the ocean today. Molecular techniques can form the basis of remote instrumentation sensi...

Dyhrman, S. T. and Haley, S. T.: Phosphorus scavenging in the unicellular marine diazotroph \textitCrocosphaera watsonii, Appl. Environ. Microb., 72, 1452–1458, 2006.; % vor jede Referenz Acinas, S. G., Klepac-Ceraj, V., Hunt, D. E., Pharino, C., Ceraj, I., et al.: Fine-scale phylogenetic architecture of a complex bacterial community, Nature, 430, 551–554, 2004.; Agogue, H., Casamayor, E. O., Bourrain, M., Obernosterer, I., Joux, F., et al.: A survey on bacteria inhabiti...

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Dynamics of Turbulent Western Boundary Currents at Low Latitude in...

By: A. Wirth; C. Q. C. Akuetevi

Description: Université Grenoble Alpes, LEGI, 38000 Grenoble, CNRS, France. The dynamics of low latitude turbulent western boundary currents crossing the equator is considered using numerical results from integrations of a reduced gravity shallow-water model. For viscosity values of 1000 m2 s−1 and more, the boundary layer dynamics compares well to the analytical Munk-layer solution. When the viscosity is reduced, the boundary layer become...

Akuetevi, C. Q. C., Barnier, B., Molines, J.-M., and Lecointre, A.: Interactions between the Somali Current Eddies during the Summer Monsoon: insights from a numerical study, Ocean Sci., in preparation, 2014.; Aubry, N., Holmes, P., Lumley, J. L., and Stone, E.: The dynamics of coherent structures in the wall region of a turbulent boundary layer, J. Fluid Mech., 192, 115–173, 1988.; Barnier, B., Reynaud, T., Beckmann, A., Böning, C., Molines, J.-M., Barnard, S., and Jia,...

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Combining in Situ Measurements and Altimetry to Estimate Volume, H...

By: B. Hansen; K. Jochumsen; K. M. Larsen; S. Østerhus; T. Sherwin; B. Berx

Description: Marine Scotland Science, Marine Laboratory, P.O. Box 101, Aberdeen, AB11 9DB, UK. From 1994 to 2011, instruments measuring ocean currents (Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers; ADCPs) have been moored on a section crossing the Faroe–Shetland Channel. Together with CTD (Conductivity Temperature Depth) measurements from regular research vessel occupations, they describe the flow field and water mass structure in the channel. Here, we use these data to calcu...

Blindheim, J.: Arctic intermediate water in the Norwegian Sea, Deep-Sea Res., 37, 1475–1489, 1990.; Bindoff, N. L., Willebrand, J., Artale, A., Cazenave, A., Gregory, J., Gulev, S., Hanawa, K., Le Quere, C., Levitus, S., Nojiri, Y., Shum, C. K., Talley, L. D., and Unnikrishnan, A.: Observations: Oceanic Climate Change and Sea Level, in: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group 1 to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmenta...

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Evaluation of Meris Products from Baltic Sea Coastal Waters Rich i...

By: S. Kratzer; C. Brockmann; J. M. Beltrán-abaunza

Description: Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden. In this study, retrievals of the medium resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS) reflectances and water quality products using four different coastal processing algorithms freely available are assessed by comparison against sea-truthing data. The study is based on a pair-wise comparison using processor-dependent quality flags for the retrieval of v...

Kajiyama, T., D'Alimonte, D., and Zibordi, G.: Regional Algorithms for European Seas: A Case Study Based on MERIS Data, IEEE Geosci. Remote S., 10, 283–287, 2013.; ACRI-ST: The AMORGOS MERIS CFI (Accurate MERIS Ortho-Rectified Geo-location Operational Software) Software User Manual & Interface Control Document, pO-ID-ACR-GS-0003, 2011.; ACRI-ST: ODESA software distribution, Quick start guide, oDESA-ACR-QSG, 2012.; Antoine, D. and Morel, A.: ATDB 2.7. Atmospheric Correcti...

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The Instability of Diffusive Convection and Its Implication for th...

By: L. Qu; Y.-z. Lu; X.-l. Song; S.-q. Zhou

Description: State Key Laboratory of Tropical Oceanography, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, 164 West Xingang Road, Haizhu District, Guangzhou 510301, China. In the present study, the classical description of diffusive convection is updated to interpret the instability of diffusive interfaces and the dynamical evolution of the bottom layer in the deep Arctic Ocean. In the new consideration of convective instability, both the background salinity stratifica...

Anschutz, P. and Blanc, G.: Heat and salt fluxes in the Atlantis II Deep (Red Sea)., Earth Planet. Sc. Lett, 142, 147–159, doi:10.1016/0012-821X(96)00098-2, 1996.; BGOS: The hydrographic data measured by the Ice-Tethered Profiler 2 (ITP2) in Beaufort Gyre Observing System (BGOS) were used in the present work., available at: http://www.whoi.edu/itp, last access: 10 August 2012.;...

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Constraining Energetic Slope Currents Through Assimilation of High...

By: J. Röhrs; K. H. Christensen; A. K. Sperrevik

Description: Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo, Norway. Assimilation of high-frequency (HF) radar current observations and CTD hydrography is performed with the 4D-Var analysis scheme implemented in the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). We consider both an idealized case, with a baroclinic slope current in a periodic channel, and a realistic case for the coast of Vesterålen in northern Norway. In the realistic case, the results of the data assimilation a...

Albretsen, J., Sperrevik, A. K., Staalstrøm, A., Sandvik, A. D., Vikebø, F., and Asplin, L.: NorKyst-800 report no. 1: User manual and technical descriptions, Tech. Rep. 2, Institute of Marine Research, Bergen, Norway, available at: http://www.imr.no/filarkiv/2011/07/fh_2-2011_til_web.pdf/nb-no (last access: 5 March 2015), 2011.; Barrick, D. E., Evans, M. W., and Weber, B. L.: Ocean surface curren...

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Assessment of the Ecco2 Reanalysis on the Representation of Antarc...

By: R. Kerr; M. M. Mata; M. Azaneu

Description: Laboratório de Estudos dos Oceanos e Clima, Instituto de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), Rio Grande, RS, 96203-900, Brazil. We analyzed the ability of the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean – Phase II (ECCO2) reanalysis to represent the hydrographic properties and variability of the Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) in the Southern Ocean. We used a twenty-year observational database to perform comparisons of hydr...

Lee, T., Awaji, T., Balmaseda, M., Ferry, N., Fujii, Y., Fukumori, I., Giese, B., Heimbach, P., Köhl, A., Masina, S., Remy, E., Rosati, A., Schodlok, M., Stammer, D., and Weaver, A.: Consistency and fidelity of Indonesian-throughflow total volume transport estimated by 14 ocean data assimilation products, Dynam. Atmos. Oceans, 50, 201–223, doi:10.1016/j.dynatmoce.2009.12.004, 2010.; Lumpkin, R. and Speer, K.: ...

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The Influence of the Brazil and Malvinas Currents on the Southwest...

By: A. R. Piola; E. D. Palma; R. P. Matano

Description: College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA. The oceanic circulation over the southwestern Atlantic shelf is influenced by large tidal amplitudes, substantial freshwater discharges, high wind speeds and – most importantly – by its proximity to two of the largest western boundary currents of the world ocean: the Brazil and Malvinas currents. This review article aims to describe the dynamical processes cont...

Acha, E. M., Mianzan, H. W., Guerrero, R. A., Favero, M., and Bava, J.: Marine fronts at the continental shelves of austral South America, physical and ecological processes, J. Mar. Syst., 44, 83–105, 2004.; Bakun, A., and Parrish, R. H.: Comparative studies of coastal pelagic fish reproductive habitats: The anchovy (Engraulis anchoita) of the southwestern Atlantic, ICES J. Mar. Sci, 48, 343–361, 1991.; Bianchi, A. A., Bianucci, L., Piola, A. R., Pino, D. R., Schloss, I....

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Improved Near Real Time Surface Wind Resolution Over the Mediterra...

By: P. Queffeulou; D. Croize-fillon; H.-l. Ayina; A. Bentamy; V. Kerbaol

Description: Institut Français pour la Rechercher et l'exploitation de la MER (IFREMER), DOPS, BP 70, 20280 Plouzané, France. Several scientific programs, including the Mediterranean Forecasting System Toward Environmental Predictions (MFSTEP project), request high space and time resolutions of surface wind speed and direction. The purpose of this paper is to focus on surface wind improvements over the global Mediterranean Sea, based on the blending near real time re...

Atlas, R. M., Hoffman, R. N., Bloom, S. C., Jusem, J. C., and Ardizzone, J.: A multiyear global surface wind velocity dataset using SSM/I wind observations., Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 77, 869–882, 1996.; Liu, W. T., Tang, W., and Polito, P. S.: NASA Scatterometert provides global ocean-surface wind fields with more structures than numerical weather prediction, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25(6), 761–764, 1998.; Bauer, E.: Characteristic frequency distributions of remotely sensed...

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A Parameter Model of Gas Exchange for the Seasonal Sea Ice Zone : ...

By: D. Perovich; C. J. Zappa; W. R. McGillis; B. Loose; P. Schlosser

Description: Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, 215 South Ferry Rd., Narragansett, RI, 02882, USA. Carbon budgets for the polar oceans require better constraint on air-sea gas exchange in the sea ice zone (SIZ). Here, we utilize recent advances in the theory of turbulence, mixing and air-sea flux in the ice-ocean boundary layer (IOBL) to formulate a simple model for gas exchange when the surface ocean is partially covered by sea ice. T...

Timmermans, M. L., Proshutinsky, A., Krishfield, R. A., Perovich, D. K., Richter-Menge, J. A., Stanton, T. P., and Toole, J. M.: Surface freshening in the Arctic Ocean's Eurasian Basin: an apparent consequence of recent change in the wind-driven circulation, J. Geophys. Res., 116, C00D03, doi:10.1029/2011JC006975, 2011.; Toyota, T., Takatsuji, S., and Nakayama, M.: Characteristics of sea ice floe size distribution in the...

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On the Atlantic Cold Tongue Mode and the Role of the Pacific Enso ...

By: P. Nobre; R. A. F. De Almeida

Description: National Institute for Space Research, Brazil. The dominant mode of coupled ocean-atmosphere variability in the Tropical Atlantic is analysed in this work from a melange of datasets, focusing on the seasonal development and evolution of the Bjerknes feedback responsible for the generation of the Atlantic cold tongue mode. The strength, seasonality and interannual variability of this mode is investigated through a joint EOF analysis of the anomalies of z...

Atlas, R., Hoffman, R. N., Bloom, S. C., Jusem, J. C., and Ardizzone, J.: A Multiyear Global Surface Wind Velocity Dataset Using SSM/I Wind Observations, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 77, 869–882, 2.0.CO;2>doi:10.1175/1520-0477(1996)077<0869:AMGSWV>2.0.CO;2, 1996.; Bourlès, B., Lumpkin, R., McPhaden, M. J., Hernandez, F., Nobre, P., Campos, E., Yu, L., Planton, S., Busalacchi, A., Moura, A. D., Servain, J., an...

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On the Chemical Dynamics of Extracellular Polysaccharides in the H...

By: C. Leck; P. A. Matrai; C. Rauschenberg; Q. Gao

Description: Department of Meteorology, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden. The surface microlayer (SML) represents a unique system of which the physicochemical characteristics may differ from those of the underlying subsurface seawater (SSW). Within the Arctic pack ice area, the SML has been characterized as enriched in small colloids of biological origin, resulting from extracellular polymeric secretions (EPS). During the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study...

Aluwihare, L. I., Repeta, D. J., and Chen, R. F.: A major biopolymeric component to dissolved organic carbon in surface sea water, Nature, 387, 166–169, 1997.; Amon, R. M. W. and Benner, R.: Combined neutral sugars as indicators of the diagenetic state of dissolved organic matter in the Arctic Ocean, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 50, 151–169, 2003.; Andreas, E. L. and Monahan, E. C.: The role of whitecap bubbles in air-sea heat and moisture exchange, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30, 433–4...

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