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A Practical Scheme to Introduce Explicit Tidal Forcing Into an Ogc...

By: M. Hirabara; K. Sakamoto; G. Yamanaka; H. Tsujino; H. Nakano

Description: Meteorological Research Institute, Nagamine, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0052, Japan. A practical scheme is proposed to explicitly introduce tides into ocean general circulation models (OGCM). In this scheme, barotropic linear response to the tidal forcing is calculated by the time differential equations modified for ocean tides, instead of the original barotropic equations of an OGCM. This allows for the usage of various parameterizations specified for tides, ...

Arbic, B. K., Garner, S. T., Hallberg, R. W., and Simmons, H. L.: The accuracy of surface elevations in forward global barotropic and baroclinic tide models, Deep-Sea Res. II, 51, 3069–3101, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2004.09.014, 2004.; Arbic, B. K., Wallcraft, A. J., and Metzger, E. J.: Concurrent simulation of the eddying general circulation and tides in a global ocean model, Ocean\ Modell., 32, 175–187,

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High Resolution 3-d Temperature and Salinity Fields Derived from i...

By: A.-l. Dhomps; P.-y. Le Traon; G. Larnicol; S. Guinehut

Description: CLS-Space Oceanography Division, Ramonville Saint-Agne, France. This paper describes an observation-based approach that efficiently combines the main components of the global ocean observing system using statistical methods. Accurate but sparse in situ temperature and salinity profiles (mainly from Argo for the last 10 yr) are merged with the lower accuracy but high-resolution synthetic data derived from satellite altimeter and sea surface temperature o...

AVISO: SSALTO/DUACS User Handbook: (M)SLA and (M)ADT near-real time and delayed time products, SALP-MU-P-EA-21065-CLS Edn. 2.9, 73 pp., 2012.; Buongiorno Nardelli, B., Guinehut, S., Pascual, A., Drillet, Y., Ruiz, S., and Mulet, S.: Towards high resolution mapping of 3-D mesoscale dynamics from observations: preliminary comparison of retrieval techniques and models within MESCLA project, Ocean Sci. Discuss., 9, 1045–1083,

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A Robust Method for Removal of Glint Effects from Satellite Ocean ...

By: P. Shanmugam; R. K. Singh

Description: Ocean Optics and Imaging Laboratory, Department of Ocean Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai – 600036, India. Removal of the glint effects from satellite imagery for accurate retrieval of water-leaving radiances is a complicated problem since its contribution in the measured signal is dependent on many factors such as viewing geometry, sun elevation and azimuth, illumination conditions, wind speed and direction, and the water re...

Cox, C. and Munk, W.: Measurement of the roughness of the sea surface from photographs of the Sun's glitter, J. Opt. Soc. Am., 44, 838–850, 1954.; Bailey, S. W., Franz, B. A., and Werdell, P. J.: Estimation of near-infrared water-leaving reflectance for satellite ocean colour data processing, Opt. Express, 18, 7521–7527, doi:10.1364/OE.18.007521, 2010.; Banse, K.: Seasonality of phytoplankton chlorophyll in the central a...

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Sensitivity Analysis of an Ocean Carbon Cycle Model in the North A...

By: C. J. Merchant; H. Kettle; V. Scott

Description: School of GeoSciences, The University of Edinburgh, EH9 3JN, UK. The sensitivity of the biological parameters in a nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (NPZD) model in the calculation of the air-sea CO2 flux, primary production and detrital export is analysed. We explore the effect on these outputs of variation in the values of the twenty parameters that control ocean ecosystem growth in a 1-D formulation of the UK Met Office HadOCC NP...

Anderson, T.: A spectrally averaged model of light penetration and photosynthesis., Limnol. Oceanogr., 38, 1403–1419, 1993.; Anderson, T.: Plankton functional type modelling: running before we can walk?, J. Plankton Res., 27, 1073–1081, 2005.; Anderson, T. and Pondaven, P.: Non-redfield carbon and nitrogen cycling in the {S}argasso {S}ea: pelagic imbalances and export flux., Deep-Sea Res. Part I, 50, 573–591, 2003.; Anderson, T., Ryabchenko, V., Fasham, M., and Gorchakov...

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Toward a Multivariate Reanalysis of the North Atlantic Ocean Bioge...

By: J.-m. Brankart; P. Brasseur; C. Fontana

Description: CNRS, Laboratoire des Ecoulements Géophysiques et Industriels, UMR 5519, Grenoble, France. Today, the routine assimilation of satellite data into operational models of the ocean circulation is mature enough to enable the production of global reanalyses describing the ocean circulation variability during the past decades. The expansion of the reanalysis concept from ocean physics to biogeochemistry is a timely challenge that motivates the present study. T...

Barnier, B., Madec, G., Penduff, T., Molines, J.-M., Treguier, A.-M., Le Sommer, J., Beckmann, A., Biastoch, A., Boning, C., Dengg, J., Derval, C., Durand, E., Gulev, S., Remy, E., Talandier, C., Theetten, S., Maltrud, M., McClean, J., and De Cuevas, B.: Impact of partial steps and momentum advection schemes in a global ocean circulation model at eddy-permitting resolution, Ocean Dynam., 56, 543–567, doi:10.1007/s10236-...

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X-band Cosmo-skymed Wind Field Retrieval, with Application to Coas...

By: P. De Ruggiero; M. Migliaccio; S. Pierini; G. Spezie; A. Montuori

Description: Dipartimento per le Tecnologie, Università di Napoli Parthenope, Napoli, Italy. In this paper, X-band COSMO-SkyMed© SAR wind field retrieval is investigated to force coastal circulation modeling. The SAR data set consists of 60 X-band Level 1B Multi-Look Ground Detected ScanSAR Huge Region COSMO-SkyMed© SAR data, gathered in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea during the Summer and Winter seasons of 2010. The SAR-based wind vector field es...

Bentamy, A., Queffeulou, P., Quilfen, Y., and Katsaros, K.: Ocean Surface Wind Fields Estimated from Satellite Active and Passive Microwave Instruments, IEEE T. Geosci. Remote, 37, 2469–2486, 1999.; Blumberg, A. F. and Mellor, G. L.: A description of a three-dimensional coastal ocean circulation model, in: Three-Dimensional Coastal Ocean Models, edited by: Heaps, N. S., 1–16, AGU, Washington, DC, 1987.; Chapron, B., Fouhaily, T. E., and Kerbaol, V.: Calibration and valid...

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Technical Note: Mean Sea Level Variation in the Singapore Strait f...

By: M. T. Babu; P. Vethamony; P. Tkalich

Description: Tropical Marine Science Institute, National University of Singapore, 14 Kent Ridge Road, Singapore. Winds over the South China Sea (SCS) are primarily responsible for the observed variability in sea level anomalies (SLAs) in the Singapore Strait (SS). The present study focuses on remote forcing contributing to local mean sea level changes in the SS in seasonal and inter-annual scales, and relating the long term mean sea level variation to El Niño/E...

Bindoff, N. L., Willebrand, J., Artale, V., Cazenave, A., Gregory, J., Gulev, S., Hanawa, K., Le Quéré, C., Levitus, S., Nojiri, Y., Shum, C. K., Talley, L. D., and Unnikrishnan, A.: Observations: oceanic climate change and sea level, in: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, edited by: Solomon, S., Qin, D., Manning, M., Chen, Z., Marquis, M., Aver...

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Optical Tools for Ocean Monitoring and Research : Volume 5, Issue ...

By: P. Fietzek; A. Barnard; S. White; M. R. Lewis; H. M. Sosik; C. Moore; O. Zielinski

Description: WET Labs, Inc., Corvallis, Oregon, USA. Requirements for understanding the relationships between ocean color and suspended and dissolved materials within the water column, and a rapidly emerging photonics and materials technology base for performing optical based analytical techniques have generated a diverse offering of commercial sensors and research prototypes that perform optical measurements in water. Through inversion, these tools are now being us...

% vor jede Referenz Aas, E. and Højerslev, N. K.: Analysis of underwater radiance observations: Apparent optical properties and analytical functions describing the angular radiance distribution, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 8015–8024, 1999; Adornato, L. R., Kaltenbacher, E. A., Greenhow, D. R., and Byrne, R. H.: High-Resolution/In Situ/Analysis of Nitrate and Phosphate in the Oligotrophic Ocean, Environ. Sci. Technol., 41, 4045–4052, 2007.; Alliance of Coastal Technologies (AC...

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Technical Note: is Radiation Important for the High Amplitude Vari...

By: L. Yu; D. Nof

Description: Department of Oceanography, The Florida State University (FSU), Tallahassee, FL, USA. Radiation is of fundamental importance to climate modeling and it is customary to assume that it is also important for the variability of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) formation and the meridional overturning cell (MOC). Numerous articles follow this scenario and incorporate radiation into the calculation. Using relatively old heat-flux maps based on measurements ta...

Bard, E.: Climate shock: abrupt changes over millennial time scales. Physics Today, 55, 32–38, 2002.; Broecker, W. S.: Massive iceberg discharges as triggers from global climate change, Nature, 6, 183–190, 1994.; Bryden, H. L., Longworth, H. R., and Cunningham, S. A.. Slowing of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation at 25° N, Nature, 438, 655–657, 2005.; Clark, P. U., Pisias, N. G., Stocker, T. F., and Weaver, A. J.: The role of the thermohaline circulation in ...

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Assymmetric Eddy Populations in Adjacent Basins – a High Resolutio...

By: A. Vetrano; E. Casella; X. Couvelard; R. M. A. Caldeira

Description: CIIMAR-Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto, Portugal. A high-resolution ocean circulation modelling system forced with a high-resolution numerical wind product was used to study the mesoscale and sub-mesoscale eddy population of the North-Western Mediterranean Sea, contrasting eddy-activity between the Tyrrhenian and Ligurian sub-basins. Numerical solutions reproduced some of the ...

Alb{é}rola, C., Millot, C., and Font, J.: On the seasonal and mesoscale variabilities on the northern current during the PRIMO-0 experiment in the Western Mediterranean Sea, Oceanol. Acta, 18, 163–192, 1995.; Andr{é}, G., Garreau, P., Garnier, V., and Frauni{é}, P.: Modelled variability of the sea surface circulation in the North-western Mediterranean Sea and in the Gulf of Lions, Ocean Dynam., 55, 294–308, 2005.; Arnone, R.: The temporal and spatial variability of chlor...

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Arctic Rapid Sea Ice Loss Events in Regional Coupled Climate Scena...

By: T. Koenigk; R. Döscher

Description: SMHI/Rossby Centre Folkborgsvägen 1, 60176 Norrköping, Sweden. Rapid sea ice loss events (RILEs) in a mini-ensemble of regional Arctic coupled climate model scenario experiments are analyzed. Mechanisms of sudden ice loss are strongly related to atmospheric circulation conditions and preconditioning by sea ice thinning during the seasons and years before the event. Clustering of events in time suggests a strong control by large scale atmospheric circula...

Alexander, M., Bhatt, U., Walsh, J., Timlin, M., Miller, J., and Scott, J.: The atmospheric response to realistic Arctic sea ice anomalies in an AGCM during winter, J. Climate, 17, 890–905, 2.0.CO;2>doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2004)017<0890:TARTRA>2.0.CO;2, 2004.; Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, E., Armour, K. C., Bitz, C. M., and DeWeaver, E.: Persistence and Inherent Predictability of Arctic Sea Ice in a GCM Ensem...

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Descent and Mixing of the Overflow Plume from Storfjord in Svalbar...

By: B. Ådlandsvik; I. Fer

Description: Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway. Storfjorden in the Svalbard Archipelago is a sill-fjord that produces significant volumes of dense, brine-enriched shelf water through ice formation. The dense water produced in the fjord overflows the sill and can reach deep into the Fram Strait. For conditions corresponding to a moderate ice production year, the pathway of the overflow, its descent and evolving water mass properties due to m...

Sternberg, R. W., Aagaard, K., Cacchione, D., Wheatcroft, R. A., Beach, R. A., Roach, A. T., and Marsden, M. A. H.: Long-term near-bed observations of velocity and hydrographic properties in the northeast Barents Sea with implications for sediment transport, Cont. Shelf Res., 21, 509–529, 2001.; Turner, J. S.: Turbulent entrainment: the development of the entrainment assumption, and its application to geophysical flows, J. Fluid Mech., 173, 431–471, 1986.; Aagaard, K., C...

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Intrinsic Variability of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current System:...

By: S. Pierini; H. A. Dijkstra; G. Sgubin

Description: Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, Paris, France. In this paper, the variability of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current system produced by purely intrinsic nonlinear oceanic mechanisms is studied through a sigma-coordinate ocean model, implemented in a large portion of the Southern Ocean at an eddy-permitting resolution under steady surface heat and momentum fluxes. The mean transport through Drake Passage and the structure of ...

Barnier, B., Marchesiello, P., de Miranda, A. P., Molines, J.-M., and Coulibaly, M.: A sigma-coordinate primitive equation model for studying the circulation in the South Atlantic. Part I: Model configuration with error estimates, Deep-Sea Res., 45, 543–572, 1998.; Barnier, B. and collaborators: Impact of partial steps and momentum advection schemes in a global ocean circulation model at eddy permitting resolution, Ocean Dynam., 56, 543–567, 2006.; Beckmann, A. and Haidv...

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Seawater Capacitance – a Promising Proxy for Mapping and Character...

By: J. C. Wynn; J. A. Fleming

Description: Cascades Volcano Observatory, US Geological Survey, 1300 SE Cardinal Ct, Vancouver, WA 98683, USA. Hydrocarbons released into the deep ocean are an inevitable consequence of natural seep, seafloor drilling, and leaking wellhead-to-collection-point pipelines. The Macondo 252 (Deepwater Horizon) well blowout of 2010 was even larger than the Ixtoc event in the Gulf of Campeche in 1979. History suggests it will not be the last accidental release, as deepwat...

Breier, J. S., Rauch, C. G., McKartney, K., Toner, B. M., Fakra, S. C., White, S. N., and German, C. R.: A suspended-particle rosette multi-sampler for discrete biogeochemical sampling in low-particle-density waters, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Paper LBNL-3586E, 11 pp., 2010.; Camilli, R., Reddy, C. M., Yoerger, D. R., Van Mooy, B. A. S., Jakuba, M. V., Kinsey, J. C., McIntyre, C. P., Sylva, S. P., and Maloney, J. V.: Tracking hydrocarbon plume transport and bi...

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On the Multiple Time Scales of Variability in the Northeast Pacifi...

By: R. Tokmakian

Description: Department of Oceanography, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, USA. The spatial and temporal sea surface height energy distribution of the Northeast Pacific Ocean is described and discussed. Using an altimetric data set covering 15 years (1993–2007), the energy within the 3–9 month band is primarily located within 10° of the coast. In the Gulf of Alaska, this energy signal is on the shelf, while further south, west of the California/Oregon...

Barnston, A. G. and Livezey, R. E: Classification, seasonality and persistence of low-frequency atmospheric circulation patterns, Mon. Weather Rev., 115, 1083–1126, 1987.; Beamish, R. J., Neville, C. E., and Cass, A. J.: Production of Fraser River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in relation to decadal-scale changes in the climate and the ocean, Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 54, 543–554, 1997.; Capotondi, A., Alexander, M. A., Deser, C., and Miller, A. J.: Low-frequency ...

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Salinity in the Sicily Channel Corroborates the Role of the Adriat...

By: S. Cosoli; G. Civitarese; K. Schroeder; G. L. Eusebi Borzelli; M. Gačić; A. Vetrano

Description: Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale – OGS, 34010 Sgonico (Trieste), Borgo Grotta Gigante 42/c, Italy. Previous studies have demonstrated that the salinity in the Levantine basin depends on the intensity of the Atlantic water (AW) inflow. Moreover, its spreading eastward (to the Levantine basin) or northward (to the Ionian Sea) is determined by the Ionian circulation pattern, i.e. by the Adriatic–Ionian Bimodal Oscillating Syste...

Artale, V., Calmante, S., Malanotte-Rizzoli, P., Pisacane, G., Rupolo, V., and Tsimplis, M.: The Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea as connected systems, in Mediterranean Climate Variability, Dev. Earth Environ. Sci., 4, 283–323, edited by: Lionello, P., Malanotte-Rizzoli, P., and Boscoli, R., Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2006.; Lacombe, H., Tchernia, P., and Gamberoni, L.: Variable bottom water in the western Mediterranean basin, Prog. Oceanogr., 14, 319–338, 1985.; Astraldi, M., B...

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Spectral Studies of Ocean Water Using Doas : Volume 4, Issue 3 (25...

By: J. P. Burrows; T. Dinter; A. Bracher; B. Sierk; M. Vountas

Description: Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Bremen, Otto-Hahn-Allee 1, 28359 Bremen, Germany. Methods enabling the retrieval of oceanic parameter from the space borne instrumentation Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric ChartographY (SCIAMACHY) using Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) are presented. SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT measures back scattered solar radiation at a spectral resolution (0.2 to 1.5 nm...

Grainger, J. and Ring, J.: Anomalous Fraunhofer line profiles, Nature\/, 193\/, 762, 1962.; Babin M., Therriault J.C., Legendre L., and Condal A.: Variations in the specific absorption coefficient for natural phytoplankton assemblages: impact on estimates of primary production, \em Limnol. Oceanogr.\/, 38, 154–177, 1993.; Bovensmann H., Burrows J. P., Buchwitz M., Frerick J., No\el S., and Rozanov V. V.: SCIAMACHY: Mission Objectives and Measurement Modes, J. Atm. Sci., ...

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Contribution of the Black Sea Observing System to Ecoop : Volume 8...

By: V. Malciu; S. V. Motyzhev; S. V. Stanichny; A. Palazov; V. V. Suslin; G. K. Korotaev; V. L. Dorofeev; A. Zatsepin; Y. B. Ratner; E. Nesterov; V. N. Belokopytov; V. S. Suetin

Description: Marine Hydrophysical Institute National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine Sevastopol, Ukraine. Regular observations in the Black Sea basin started in the past century, and quite good multidisciplinary observing system operated in the 70–80ies based on the ship observations. Modern oceanographic observing system in the basin is built according to the GOOS principles. It includes space remote sensing observations, data of free floating buoys and costal observ...

Churilova, T. Y., Berseneva, G. P., and Georgieva, L. V.: Variability in bio-optical characteristics of phytoplankton in the Black Sea, Oceanology, 44(2), 192–204, 2004.; Davis, R. E., Sherman, J. T., and Dufour, J.: Profiling ALACEs and other advances in autonomous subsurface floats, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., Boston, MA. 18, 982–993, 2001.; Dorofeyev, V. L., Korotaev, G. K., Suetin , V. S., and Sukhikh, L. I.: Assimilation of satellite color imagery in multi-disciplinary ...

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Argo Data Assimilation Into Hycom with an Enoi Method in the Atlan...

By: L. N. Lima; C. A. S. Tanajura; A. N. Santana; D. Mignac; J. Xie

Description: Graduate Program in Geophysics, Physics Institute and Geosciences Institute, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Brazil. An ocean data assimilation system to assimilate Argo temperature (T) and salinity (S) profiles into the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) was constructed, implemented and evaluated for the first time in the Atlantic Ocean (78° S to 50° N and 98° W to 20° E). The system is based on the ensemble optimal interpolation...

Bell, M. J., Martin, M. J., and Nichols, N. K.: Assimilation of data into an ocean model with systematic errors near the equator, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 130, 873–893, 2004.; Belyaev, K. P., Tanajura, C. A. S., and Tuchkova, N. P.: Comparison of Methods for Argo Drifters Data Assimilation into a Hydrodynamical Model of the Ocean, Oceanology, 52, 593–603, 2012.; Bleck, R.: An oceanic general circulation model framed in hybrid isopycnic-Cartesian coordinates, Ocean Modell...

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Annual Cycles of Chlorophyll-A, Non-algal Suspended Particulate Ma...

By: F. Gohin

Description: DYNECO/PELAGOS, Centre Ifremer de Brest, BP 70, 29280 Plouzane, Brittany, France. Sea surface temperature, chlorophyll, and turbidity are three variables of the coastal environment commonly measured by monitoring networks. The observation networks are often based on coastal stations, which do not provide a sufficient coverage to validate the model outputs or to be used in assimilation over the continental shelf. Conversely, the products derived from sat...

Aminot, A. and Chaussepied, M.: Manuel des analyses chimiques en milieu marin, CNEXO, 395 p, 1983.; Aminot, A. and Kerouel, R.: Hydrologie des écosystèmes marins, Paramètres et analyses, Éditions Ifremer, 336 p, 2004.; Boss, E., Slade, W. H., and Hill, P.: Effect of particulate aggregation in aquatic environments on the beam attenuation and its utility as a proxy for particulate mass, Opt. Express, 17, 11, 9408–9420, 2009.; Bowers, D. G., Boudjelas, S., and Harker, G. E....

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