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Physical Forcing and Physical/Biochemical Variability of the Medit...

By: N. Kress; A. Crise; S. Carniel; A. Gogou; S. Marullo; E. Garcia-ladona; P. Malanotte-rizzoli; J. M. Garcia-lafuente; H. Kontoyannis; J. Siokou-frangou; D. Hainbucher; E. Kraskapoulou; P.-m. Poulain; E. Souvermezoglou; A. Rubino; Y. Ashkenazy; M. Ribera D'Alcalà; V. Cardin; A. Pascual; V. Artale; M. Gacic; V. Kovacevic; A. Bergamasco; M. Gregoire; S. Brenner; A. Incarbona; G. L. Borzelli-eusebi; K. Schroeder; T. Tanhua; G. Kroskos; J. Font; A. Theocharis; F. D'Ortenzio; E. Ozsoy; W. Roether; G. Triantafyllou; M. Sprovieri; M. Orlic; M. G. Mazzocchi; S. Sofianos; M. Alvarez; G. Civitarese; J. Tintoré

Description: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA. This paper is the outcome of a workshop held in Rome in November 2011 on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of the POEM (Physical Oceanography of the Eastern Mediterranean) program. In the workshop discussions, a number of unresolved issues were identified for the physical and biogeochemical properties of the Mediterranean Sea as a whole, i.e., comprising the Western and Eastern sub-basins. O...

Adani, M., Dobricic, S., and Pinardi, N.: Quality assessment of a 1985–2007 Mediterranean Sea reanalysis, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol., 28, 569–589, 2011.; Ait-Ameur, N. and Goyet, C.: Distribution and transport of natural and anthropogenic CO2 in the Gulf of Cadiz, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 53, 1329–1343, 2006.; Alemany, F., Quintanilla, L., Velez-Belchí, P., García, A., Cortés, D., Rodríguez, J. M., Fernández de Puelles, M. L., González-Pola, C., and López-Jurado, J...

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An Oceanographer's Guide to Goce and the Geoid : Volume 4, Issue 1...

By: R. J. Bingham; C. W. Hughes

Description: Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory, 6 Brownlow St., Liverpool L3 5DA, UK. A review is given of the geodetic concepts necessary for oceanographers to make use of satellite gravity data to define the geoid, and to interpret the resulting product. The geoid is defined, with particular attention to subtleties related to the representation of the permanent tide, and the way in which the geoid is represented in ocean models. The usual spherical harmonic descrip...

Bingham, R. J., Haines, K., and Hughes, C. W.: Calculating the ocean's mean dynamic topography from a mean sea surface and a geoid, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech, in press, 2008.; Chelton, D. B., Walsh, E. J., and MacArthur, J. L.: Pulse compression and sea level tracking in satellite altimetry, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech, 6, 407–438, 1989.; Ekman, M.: Impacts of geodynamic phenomena on systems for height and gravity, Bulletin Géodésique, 63, 281–296, 1989.; ESA: Gravity field and st...

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Long-term Monitoring Programme of the Hydrological Variability in ...

By: G. Budillon; H. Kontoyiannis; S. Sparnocchia; V. Cardin; L. Bengara; I. Taupier-letage; J. Salat; M. Bensi; A. Sanchez-roman; B. El Moumni; M. Borghini; C. Sammari; J. García-lafuente; J. C. Sánchez Garrido; M. Vargas-yáñez; S. Ben Ismail; P. Raimbault; A. Drago; J. L. Fuda; L. Coppola; J. Font; K. Schroeder; P. Puig; G. Rougier; A. Theocharis; G. P. Gasparini; A. Vetrano; C. Curtil; C. Millot; C. Tamburini; D. Lefevre

Description: CNR-ISMAR, Forte Santa Teresa, 19036 Pozzuolo di Lerici, La Spezia, Italy. The long-term monitoring of basic hydrological parameters (temperature and salinity), collected as time series with adequate temporal resolution (i.e. with a sampling interval allowing the resolution of all important timescales) in key places of the Mediterranean Sea (straits and channels, zones of dense water formation, deep parts of the basins), constitute a priority in the con...

Ambar, I., Serra, N., Brogueira, M. J., Cabeçadas, G., Abrantes, F., Freitas, P., Gonçalves, C., and Gonzalez, N.: Physical, Chemical and Sedimentological Aspects of the Mediterranean Outflow Off Iberia, Deep-Sea Res. II, 49, 4163–4177, 2002.; ANTARES Collaboration: First results of the Instrumentation Line for the deep-sea ANTARES neutrino telescope, Astropart. Phys., 26, 314–324, 2006.; Artegiani, A., Paschini, E., Russo, A., Bregant, D., Raicich, F., and Pinardi, N.: ...

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Evaluating Two Numerical Advection Schemes in Hycom for Eddy-resol...

By: L. Bertino; J. A. Johannessen; B. C. Backeberg

Description: Department of Oceanography, University of Cape Town, South Africa. A 4th order advection scheme is applied in a nested eddy-resolving Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) of the greater Agulhas Current system for the purpose of testing advanced numerics as a means for improving the model simulation for eventual operational implementation. Model validation techniques comparing sea surface height variations, sea level skewness and variogram analyses to ...

Backeberg, B. C., Johannessen, J. A., Bertino, L., and Reason, C. J.: The greater Agulhas Current system: An integrated study of its mesoscale variability, Journal of Operational Oceanography, 1(1), 29–44, 2008.; Barnier, B., Madec, M., Pendruff, T., Molines, J.-M., Treguier, A.-M., Sommer, J. L., Beckmann, A., Biastoch, A., Bönning, C., Dengg, J., Derval, C., Durand, E., Gulev, S., Remy, E., Talandier, C., Theetten, S., Maltrud, M., McClean, J., and DeCuevas, B.: Impact...

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Long-term Variability of the South Adriatic Circulation and Phytop...

By: C. Pizzi; M. Gačić; M. Menna; H. Lavigne; G. Civitarese; L. Shabrang

Description: OGS – Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale, Trieste, Italy. The interannual variability of the South Adriatic Gyre and its relation to the wind vorticity and the large-scale climatic pattern (North Atlantic Oscillation – NAO), was studied using the time-series of satellite altimetry data and ocean surface wind products. The cyclonic circulation observed in the South Adriatic area was mainly sustained by the local wind forcing, a...

Atlas, R., Ardizzone, J. V., Hoffman, R., Jusem, J. C., and Leidner, S. M.: Cross-calibrated, multi-platform ocean surface wind velocity product (MEaSUREs Project), Guide Document, Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PODAAC), JPL, Pasadena, California, 18 May 2009, Version 1.0., 26 pp., 2009.; Barnston, A. G. and Livezey, R. E.: Classification, seasonality and persistence of low frequency atmospheric circulation patterns, Mon. Weather Rev., 115, 1083...

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Biogeography of Planktonic Bacterial Communities Across the Whole ...

By: M. Fusi; M. Barbato; S. Borin; G. Merlino; F. Mapelli; R. Alvariño; M. M. Varela; M. Álvarez; D. Daffonchio

Description: Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences, DeFENS, University of Milan, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milan, Italy. Bacterial population distribution in the Mediterranean Sea has been mainly studied by considering small geographical areas or specific phylogenetic groups. The present study is a molecular microbiology investigation aimed to identify the environmental factors driving total bacterioplankton community composition of seawater samples c...

Agogué, H., Lamy, D., Neal, P. R., Sogin, M. L., and Herndl, G. J.: Water mass-specificity of bacterial communities in the North Atlantic revealed by massively parallel sequencing, Mol. Ecol., 20, 258–274, 2011.; Anderson, M. J.: A new method for non-parametric multivariate analysis of variance, Austral. Ecol., 26, 32–46, 2001.; Anderson, M. J.: DISTLM v.2: a FORTRAN computer program to calculate a distance-based multivariate analysis for a linear model, Department of St...

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Absolute Salinity, Density Salinity and the Reference-composition ...

By: T. J. McDougall; R. Pawlowicz; D. G. Wright; G. M. Marion; R. Feistel

Description: Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, NS, B2Y 4A2, Canada. Salinity plays a key role in the determination of the thermodynamic properties of seawater and the new TEOS-101 standard provides a consistent and effective approach to dealing with relationships between salinity and these thermodynamic properties. However, there are a number of practical issues that arise in the application of TEOS-10, both in terms of accuracy...

Bacon, S., Culkin, F., Higgs, N., and Ridout, P.: IAPSO Standard Seawater: definition of the uncertainty in the calibration procedure, and stability of recent batches, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 24, 1785–1799, 2007.; Brewer, P. G. and Bradshaw, A.: The effect of non-ideal composition of seawater on salinity and density, J. Mar. Res., 33, 157–175, 1975.; Chen, C.-T. A.: Shelf-vs. dissolution-generated alkalinity above the chemical lysocline, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 49, 5365–53...

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About Uncertainties in Practical Salinity Calculations : Volume 7,...

By: M. Le Menn

Description: French Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service (SHOM), SHOM, CS 92803, 29228 Brest Cedex 2, France. In the current state of the art, salinity is a quantity computed from conductivity ratio measurements, with temperature and pressure known at the time of the measurement, and using the Practical Salinity Scale algorithm of 1978 (PSS-78). This calculation gives practical salinity values S. The uncertainty expected in PSS-78 values is ±0.002, but no de...

BIPM: Evaluation of measurement data – Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement, JCGM 100:2008, GUM 1995 with minor corrections, 2008.; Bacon, S., Culkin, F., Higgs, N., and Ridout, P.: IAPSO Standard Seawater: definition of the uncertainty in the calibration procedure and stability of recent batches, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 24, 1785–1799, 2007.; BIPM: Evaluation of measurement data – Supplement 1 to the Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurem...

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Variability in the Subtropical-tropical Cells and Its Effect on Ne...

By: C. W. Böning; A. Biastoch; J. F. Lübbecke

Description: Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences at the University of Kiel, (IfM-GEOMAR), Kiel, Germany. A set of experiments utilizing different implementations of the global ORCA-LIM model with horizontal resolutions of 2°, 0.5° and 0.25° is used to investigate tropical and extra-tropical influences on equatorial Pacific SST variability at interannual to decadal time scales. The model experiments use a bulk forcing methodology building on the global forcing data ...

Adcroft, A., Hill, C., and Marshall, J.: Representation of topography by shaved cells in a height coordinate ocean model, Mon. Weather Rev., 125, 2293–2315, 1997.; Alory, G., Cravatte, S., Izumo, T., and Rodgers, K B.: Validation of a decadal OGCM simulation for the tropical pacific, Ocean Model., 10, 272–282, 2005.; Barnier, B., Siefridt, L., and Marchesiello, P.: Thermal forcing for a global ocean circulation model using a three-year climatology of ECMWF analyses, J Ma...

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Interannual Variability and Future Projection of Summertime Ocean ...

By: T. Hibiya; W. Sasaki; T. Kayahara

Description: Storm, Flood and Landslide Research Department, National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, Tsukuba, Japan. A 70-yr (from 1985–1995 to 2055–2065) change of decadal mean summertime extreme significant wave heights (SWH) in the western North Pacific under CO2-induced global warming condition is projected. For this purpose, possible atmospheric fields under future global warming are derived from 10-yr time-slice exp...

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A Multi-decadal Meridional Displacement of the Subpolar Front in t...

By: H. Haak; M. Bersch; J. H. Jungclaus; I. Núñez-riboni

Description: Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Bundesstr. 53, 20146 Hamburg, Germany. Observations since the 1950s show a multi-decadal cycle of a meridional displacement of the Subpolar Front (SPF) in the Newfoundland Basin (NFB) in the North Atlantic. The SPF displacement is associated with corresponding variations in the path of the North Atlantic Current. We use the ocean general circulation model MPIOM with enhanced horizontal and vertica...

Bacon, S.: Circulation and fluxes in the North Atlantic between Greenland and Ireland, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27, 1420–1435, 1997.; Bersch, M.: On the circulation of the Northeastern North Atlantic, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 42(9), 1583–1607, 1995.; Bersch, M.: North Atlantic oscillation – induced changes of the upper layer circulation in the Northern North Atlantic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 107(C10), 1–11, 2002.; Bersch, M., Meincke, J., and Sy, A.: Interannual thermohaline chan...

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Correlation Between Subsurface High-salinity Water in the Northern...

By: W. Zhuang; Y. Du; Y. Qi; A. Wang

Description: State Key Laboratory of Tropical Oceanography (LTO), South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301, China. The North Pacific Tropical Water (NPTW), characterized by subsurface high salinity, is observed in the South China Sea (SCS) and is often used as an indicator of the water intrusion from the northwestern Pacific into the SCS. Based on the assimilation product from a global high-resolution Hybrid Coordinate Oc...

Centurioni, L. R., Niiter, P. P., and Lee, D. K.: Observations of inflow of Philippine Sea surface water into the South China Sea through the Luzon Strait, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34, 113–121, 2004.; Chao, S.-Y., Shaw, P. T., and Wu, S. Y.: Deep sea ventilation in the South China Sea, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 43, 445–466, 1996.; Chen, Z. H.: Study on the multi time scale variability and dynamics of the North Equatorial Current Bifurcation in the Pacific, Ph.D. thesis, Ocean Univ...

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Corrigendum to Observed and Simulated Estimates of the Meridional ...

By: P. Heimbach; H. Haak; S. Cunningham; J. Marotzke; T. Kanzow; J. Baehr

Description: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA. No abstract available.

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Measuring Air–sea Gas-exchange Velocities in a Large-scale Annular...

By: M. Bopp; J. Williams; K. E. Krall; F. Helleis; B. Jähne; E. Mesarchaki; C. Kräuter

Description: Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie (Otto-Hahn-Institut) Hahn-Meitner-Weg 1, 55128 Mainz, Germany. In this study we present gas-exchange measurements conducted in a large-scale wind–wave tank. Fourteen chemical species spanning a wide range of solubility (dimensionless solubility, Α = 0.4 to 5470) and diffusivity (Schmidt number in water, Scw = 594 to 1194) were examined under various turbulent (u10 = 0.73 to 13.2 m s−...

Benkelberg, H. J., Hamm, S., and Warneck, P.: Henry's law coefficients for aqueous solutions of acetone, acetaldehyde and acetonitrile, and equilibrium constants for the addition compounds of acetone and acetaldehyde with bisulfite, J. Atmos. Chem., 20, 17–34, doi:10.1007/Bf01099916, 1995.; Betterton, E. A. and Hoffmann, R. M.: Henry's law constants of some environmentally important aldehydes., Environ. Sci. Technol., 22, ...

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On the Relationship Among the Adriatic–ionian Bimodal Oscillating ...

By: G. L. Eusebi Borzelli; M. Gačić; A. Vetrano; K. Schroeder; G. Civitarese

Description: Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale – OGS, 34010 Sgonico (Trieste), Borgo Grotta Gigante 42/c, Italy. Previous studies have demonstrated that the salinity in the Levantine depends on the intensity of the Atlantic Water inflow. Moreover, its spreading eastward or northward in the Ionian is determined by the Ionian circulation pattern, i.e. by the Adriatic–Ionian Bimodal Oscillating System mechanism. The aim of this p...

Artale, V., Calmante, S., Malanotte-Rizzoli, P., Pisacane, G., Rupolo, V., and Tsimplis, M.: The Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea as connected systems, in: Mediterranean Climate Variability, Dev. Earth Environ. Sci., vol. 4, edited by: Lionello, P., Malanotte-Rizzoli, P., and Boscoli, R., Elsevier, Amsterdam, 283–323, 2006.; Astraldi, M., Balopoulos, S., Candela, J., Font, J., Gačić, M., Gasparini, G. P., Manca, B., Theocharis, A., and Tintoré, J.: The role of straits and ...

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Phytoplankton Blooms on the Western Shelf of Tasmania: Evidence of...

By: J. Kämpf

Description: School of the Environment, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia. Analyses of >10 years of satellite-derived ocean-color data reveal the existence of a highly productive ecosystem on the west Tasmanian shelf. A closer event-based analysis indicates that the nutrient supply for this system has two different dynamical origins: (a) wind-driven coastal upwelling and (b) river plumes. During austral summer months, the west Tasmanian shelf forms a p...

Conolly, J. R. and Von der Borch, C. C.: Sedimentation and physiography of the sea floor south of Australia, Sediment. Geol., 1, 181–220, doi:10.1016/0037-0738(67)90059-0, 1967.; Cresswell, G.: Currents of the continental shelf and upper slope of Tasmania, Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania, 133, 21–30, 2000.; Gibbs, C. F., Tomczak, M., and Longmore, A. R.: The nutrient regime of Bass Strait,...

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Mechanisms of Amoc Variability Simulated by the Nemo Model : Volum...

By: V. N. Stepanov; K. Haines

Description: Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, UK. We have investigated dominant mechanisms of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) variability at 26.5° N (without the Ekman component) on monthly timescales using 1° and 1/4° NEMO model data. All data were detrended and the seasonal cycle removed. The spatial lead-lag correlations of different hydrodynamic fields with the AMOC time series were calculated.

The ana...

Adcroft A., Hill C., and Marshall J.: Representation of topography by shaved cells in a height coordinate ocean model, Mon. Weather Rev., 125, 2293–2315, 1997.; Barnier, B. and the DRAKKAR Group: Eddy-permitting ocean circulation hindcasts of past decades, Clivar Exchanges, 12, 8–10, 2007.; Barnier, B., Madec, G., Penduff, T., Molines, J. M., Treguier, A. M., Le Sommer, J., Beckmann, A., Biastoch, A., Böning, C., Dengg, J., Derval, J., Durand, E., Gulev, S., Remy, E., Ta...

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An Ensemble Study of Extreme Storm Surge Related Water Levels in t...

By: H. De Vries; H. Van Den Brink; R. Haarsma; E. Van Meijgaard; A. Sterl

Description: Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), P.O. Box 201, 3730 AE De Bilt, The Netherlands. The height of storm surges is extremely important for a low-lying country like The Netherlands. By law, part of the coastal defence system has to withstand a water level that on average occurs only once every 10 000 years. The question then arises whether and how climate change affects the heights of extreme storm surges. Published research points to ...

Bärring, L. and von Storch, H.: Scandinavian storminess since about 1800, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L20202, doi:10.1029/2004GL020441, 2004.; Alexandersson, H., Schmith, T., Iden, K., and Tuomenvirta, H.: Long-term variations of the storm climate over NW Europe, Global Atmos. Oc. System, 6, 97–120, 1998.; Alexandersson, H., Tuomenvirta, H., Schmidth, T., and Iden, K.: Trends of storms in NW Europe derived from an updated pressure data set, Climate Res., 14, 71–73, 2000.; B...

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Characteristics of the Seasonal Cycle of Surface Layer Salinity in...

By: M. J. McPhaden; F. M. Bingham; G. R. Foltz

Description: Center for Marine Science, University of North Carolina Wilmington, 601 S. College Rd., Wilmington, NC 28403-5928, USA. The seasonal variability of surface layer salinity (SLS), evaporation (E), precipitation (P) and E-P over the global ocean is examined using in situ salinity data and the National Center for Environmental Prediction's Climate System Forecast Reanalysis. Seasonal amplitudes and phases are calculated using...

Adler, R. F., Huffman, G. J., Chang, A., Ferraro, R., Xie, P., Janowiak, J., Rudolf, R., Schneider, U., Curtis, S., Bolvin, D., Gruber, A., Susskind, J., Arkin, A., and Nelkin, E.: The version 2 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) monthly precipitation analysis (1979 – present), J. Hydrometeorol., 4, 1147–1167, 2003.; Bengtsson, L.: The global atmospheric water cycle, Environ. Res. Lett., 5, 025202, doi:1...

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Joint Use of Satellite and In-situ Data for Coastal Monitoring : V...

By: F. Gohin

Description: DYNECO/PELAGOS, Centre Ifremer de Brest, BP 70, 29280 Plouzane, Brittany, France. Sea surface Temperature, Chlorophyll and turbidity are three variables of the coastal environment commonly measured by monitoring networks. The observation networks are often based on coastal stations which do not provide a sufficient coverage to val-idate the model outputs or to be used in assimilation over the continental shelf. Conversely, the products derived from sate...

Aminot, A. and Chaussepied, M.: Manuel des analyses chimiques en milieu marin, CNEXO, 395 p, 1983.; Aminot, A. and Kerouel, R.: Hydrologie des écosystèmes marins, Paramètres et analyses, Éditions Ifremer, 336 p, 2004.; Boss, E., Slade, W. H., and Hill, P.: Effect of particulate aggregation in aquatic environments on the beam attenuation and its utility as a proxy for particulate mass, Optics Express, 17(11), 9408–9420, 2009.; Bowers, D. G., Boudjelas, S., and Harker, G. ...

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