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Effect of Variable Winds on Current Structure and Reynolds Stresse...

By: A. V. Sentchev; F. G. Schmitt; K. A. Korotenko

Description: Laboratoire d'Océanologie et de Géosciences, UMR8187, CNRS, Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale, Wimereux, France. Wind and wave effects on tidal current structure and turbulence throughout the water column are examined using an upward-looking acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP). The instrument has been deployed on the seafloor of 20-m depth, off the North-Eastern French coast in the Eastern English Channel over 12 tidal cycles and covered the...

Brylinski, J. M., Brunet, C., Bentley, D., Thoumelin, G., and Hilde, D.: Hydrography and phytoplankton biomass in the Eastern English Channel in spring 1992, Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci., 43, 507–519, 1996.; Fredersen, F. and Williams III, A. J.: Direct estimation of the Reynolds stress vertical structure in the nearshore, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 24, 102–116, 2007.; Fugate, D. C. and Chant, R. J.: Near-bottom shear stresses in a small, highly stratified estuary, J. Geophys....

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An Empirical Stochastic Model of Sea-surface Temperature and Surfa...

By: I. Kamenkovich; D. Kondrashov; M. Ghil; S. Kravtsov

Description: University of Winsconsin-Milwaukee, USA. This study employs NASA's recent satellite measurements of sea-surface temperature (SST) and sea-level wind (SLW) with missing data filled-in by Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA), to construct empirical models that capture both intrinsic and SST-dependent aspects of SLW variability. The model construction methodology uses a number of algorithmic innovations that are essential in providing stable estimates of model...

Abdi, H.: Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression, in: Encyclopedia of Social Sciences Research Methods, edited by: Lewis-Beck, M., Bryman, A., Futing, T., Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 2003.; Arya, S. P.: Introduction to Micrometeorology, Academic Press, New York, 307 pp., 1988.; Bretherton, C. S. and Battisti, D. S.: An interpretation of the results from atmospheric general circulation models forced by the time history of the observed sea surface temperature distribution, Ge...

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An Eddy Resolving Tidal-driven Model of the South China Sea Assimi...

By: J. Zhu; F. Counillon; L. Bertino; J. Xie

Description: ICCES, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qi jia huo zi, De sheng men wai Street, Beijing 100029, China. The upper ocean circulation in the South China Sea (SCS) is driven by the Asian monsoon, the Kuroshio intrusion through the Luzon Strait, strong tidal currents, and a complex topography. Here, we demonstrate the benefit of assimilating along-track altimeter data into a nested configuration of the HYbrid Coordina...

Austin, J. A. and Lentz, S. J.: The inner shelf response to wind-driven upwelling and downwelling, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32, 2171–2193, 2002.; Antonov, J. I., Locarnini, R. A., Boyer, T. P., Mishonov, A. V., and Garcia, H. E.: World Ocean Atlas 2005, vol. 2: Salinity, edited by: Levitus, S., NOAA Atlas NESDIS 61, US Gov. Print. Off., Washington, D. C., 182 pp., 2006.; Arbic, B. K., Wallcraft, A., and Metzger, E. J.: Concurrent simulation of the eddying general circulation ...

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Metrological Traceability of Oceanographic Salinity Measurement Re...

By: D. G. Wright; S. Weinreben; P. De Bièvre; S. Seitz; P. Spitzer; R. Feistel

Description: Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, 38116 Braunschweig, Germany. Consistency of observed oceanographic salinity data is discussed with respect to contemporary metrological concepts. The claimed small uncertainty of salinity measurement results traceable to the conductivity ratio of a certified IAPSO Standard Seawater reference is not metrologically justified if results are compared on climatic time scales. This applies in particular to Practical Sali...

Aoyama, M., Joyce, T. M., Kawano, T., and Takatsuki, Y.: Standard seawater comparison up to P129, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 49, 1103–1114, 2002.; Bacon, S., Culkin, F., Higgs, N., and Ridout, P.: IAPSO standard seawater: definition of the uncertainty in the calibration procedure, and stability of recent batches, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 24, 1785–1799, 2007.; Bacon, S., Snaith, H. M., and Yelland, M. J.: An evaluation of some recent batches of IAPSO standard seawater, J. Atmos....

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Seismic Imaging of a Thermohaline Staircase in the Western Tropica...

By: R. W. Schmitt; W. S. Holbrook; I. Fer; P. Páramo; P. Nandi

Description: Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Allégaten 70, 5007, Bergen, Norway. Multichannel seismic data acquired in the Lesser Antilles in the western tropical North Atlantic indicate that the seismic reflection method has imaged an oceanic thermohaline staircase. Synthetic acoustic modeling using measured density and sound speed profiles corroborates inferences from the seismic data. In a small portion of the seismic image, laterally coherent, uniform...

Garrett, C. J. and Munk, W. H.: Space-time scales of internal waves, Geophys. Fluid Dyn., 3, 225–264, 1972.; Bangs, N.: Ewing Cruise EW9803, 15 March–6 April 1998, Structure tectonics and sediment flow through the Lesser Antilles Subduction Zone, Tech. Rep., Institute og Geophysics, University of Texas, 1998.; Biescas, B., Sallar{è}s, V., Pelegri, J. L., Machin, F., Carbonell, R., Buffett, G., Da{ñ}obeitia, J. J., and Calahorrano, A.: Imaging Meddy finestructure using mu...

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An Estimate of the Sunda Shelf and the Strait of Malacca Transport...

By: S. H. Ooi; S. N. Chenoli; A. A. Samah; F. Daryabor

Description: National Antarctic Research Center, Institute of Postgraduate Studies, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), this study aims to provide an estimate of the volume, freshwater, heat, and salt transports through the Sunda Shelf and the Strait of Malacca in the southern region of the South China Sea (SSCS). The modeling system is configured with two one-way nested domains representing parent a...

Antonov, J. I., Locarnini, R. A., Boyer, T. P., Mishonov, A. V., and Garcia, H. E.: World Ocean Atlas 2005, Volume 2, Salinity, US Government Printing Office 62, NOAA Atlas NESDIS, Washington, D.C., 182 pp., 2006.; Cai, S. Q., Liu, H. L., and Li, W.: Water transport exchange between the South China Sea and its adjacent seas, Adv. Marine Sci., 20, 29–34, 2002 (in Chinese).; Cai, S. Q., Liu, H. L., and Li, W.: Application of LICOM to the numerical study of water exchange b...

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Annual Cycles of Chlorophyll-A, Non-algal Suspended Particulate Ma...

By: F. Gohin

Description: DYNECO/PELAGOS, Centre Ifremer de Brest, BP 70, 29280 Plouzane, Brittany, France. Sea surface temperature, chlorophyll, and turbidity are three variables of the coastal environment commonly measured by monitoring networks. The observation networks are often based on coastal stations, which do not provide a sufficient coverage to validate the model outputs or to be used in assimilation over the continental shelf. Conversely, the products derived from sat...

Aminot, A. and Chaussepied, M.: Manuel des analyses chimiques en milieu marin, CNEXO, 395 p, 1983.; Aminot, A. and Kerouel, R.: Hydrologie des écosystèmes marins, Paramètres et analyses, Éditions Ifremer, 336 p, 2004.; Boss, E., Slade, W. H., and Hill, P.: Effect of particulate aggregation in aquatic environments on the beam attenuation and its utility as a proxy for particulate mass, Opt. Express, 17, 11, 9408–9420, 2009.; Bowers, D. G., Boudjelas, S., and Harker, G. E....

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Mesoscale Variability of Water Masses in the Arabian Sea as Reveal...

By: P. L'Hegaret; R. Baraille; X. Carton

Description: LPO, UBO/UEB, Brest, France. By analysing ARGO float data over the last four years, a few aspects of the mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea are described.

The Red Sea Outflow Water (RSOW) is concentrated in the Southwestern Gulf of Aden, in particular when a cyclonic gyre predominates in this region. Salinities of 36.5 and temperatures of 16 °C are found in this area at depths between 600 and 1000 m. RSOW is more dilute ...

Böhm, E., Morrison, J. M., Manghnani, V., Kim, H. S., and Flagg, C. N.: The Ras al Hadd jet: Remotely sensed and acoustic Doppler current profiler observations in 1994–1995, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 46, 1531–1549, 1999.; Bower, A. S., Fratantoni, D. M., Johns, W. E., and Peters, H.: Gulf of Aden eddies and their impact on Red Sea Water, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 2025, doi:10.1029/2002GL015342, 2002.; Bower, A. S. and Furey, ...

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Spatio-temporal Variability of Micro-, Nano- and Pico-phytoplankto...

By: R. Santoleri; M. Sammartino; S. Marullo; A. Di Cicco

Description: CNR – Istituto di Scienze dell'Atmosfera e del Clima, Rome, Italy. The seasonal and year-to-year variability of the spatial distribution of the Phytoplankton Size Classes (PSCs) has been examined in the Mediterranean Sea using the entire time series of Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) space observations (1998 to 2010). PSCs daily maps have been determined using an empirical model based on a synoptic relationship between surface chloroph...

Alvain, S., Moulin, C., Dandonneau, Y., and Bréon, F. M.: Remote sensing of phytoplankton groups in case 1 waters from global SeaWiFS imagery, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 52, 1989–2004, 2005.; Alvain, S., Moulin, C., Dandonneau, Y., and Loisel, H.: Seasonal distribution and succession of dominant phytoplankton groups in the global ocean: a satellite view, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 22, GB3001, doi:10.1029/2007GB003154, 2008.; Anto...

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Exchange Across the Shelf Break at High Southern Latitudes : Volum...

By: M. S. Dinniman; J. M. Klinck

Description: Center for Coastal Physical Oceanography, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia, USA. Exchange of water across the Antarctic shelf break has considerable scientific and societal importance due to its effects on circulation and biology of the region, conversion of water masses as part of the global overturning circulation and basal melt of glacial ice and the consequent effect on sea level rise. The focus in this paper is the onshore transport of wa...

Bromwich, D. H., Monaghan, A. J., Manning, K. W., and Powers, J. G.: Real-time forecasting for the Antarctic, An evaluation of the Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System (AMPS), Mon. Weather Rev., 133, 579–603, 2005.; Cunningham, S. A., Alderson, S. G., King, B. A., and Brandon, M. A.: Transport and variability of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current in Drake Passage, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 8084, doi:10.1029/2001JC001147, 2003.; Davey, F. J.: Ross Sea Bathymetry, 1{:}2 000 0...

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Forecasting the Mixed-layer Depth in the Northeast Atlantic: an En...

By: Y. Drillet; C. Regnier; O. Le Galloudec; E. Greiner; J. M. Lellouche; M. Drévillon; B. Levier; G. Reffray; M. Clavier

Description: Mercator Ocean, Toulouse, France. Operational systems operated by Mercator Ocean provide daily ocean forecasts, and combining these forecasts we can produce ensemble forecast and uncertainty estimates. This study focuses on the mixed-layer depth in the Northeast Atlantic near the Porcupine Abyssal Plain for May 2013. This period is of interest for several reasons: (1) four Mercator Ocean operational systems provide daily forecasts at a horizontal resolu...

Balmaseda, M. and Anderson, D.: Impact of initialization strategies and observations on seasonal forecast skill, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L01701, doi:10.1029/2008GL035561, 2009.; Béranger, K., Drillet, Y., Houssais, M. N., Testor, P., Bourdalle-Badie, R., Alhammoud, B., Bozec, A., Mortier, L., Bouruet-Aubertot, P., and Crepon, M.: Impact of the spatial distribution of the atmospheric forcing on water mass formation in th...

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How Does Ocean Ventilation Change Under Global Warming? : Volume 3...

By: F. Zeng; J. L. Russell; A. Gnanadesikan

Description: NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ, USA. Since the upper ocean takes up much of the heat added to the earth system by anthropogenic global warming, one would expect that global warming would lead to an increase in stratification and a decrease in the ventilation of the ocean interior. However, multiple simulations in global coupled climate models using an ideal age tracer which is set to zero in the mixed layer and ages at 1 yr/yr...

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Black Sea Coastal Forecasting System : Volume 8, Issue 2 (14/03/2012)

By: V. L. Dorofeev; N. Valchev; Y. B. Ratner; A. Palazov; V. Malciu; A. I. Kubryakov; T. Oguz; G. K. Korotaev; R. Mateescu

Description: Marine Hydrophysical Institute (MHI), 2, Kapitanskaya Street, 99011, Sevastopol, Crimea, Ukraine. The Black Sea coastal nowcasting and forecasting system was built within the framework of EU FP6 ECOOP (European COastalshelf sea OPerational observing and forecasting system) project for five regions: the south-western basin along the coasts of Bulgaria and Turkey, the north-western shelf along the Romanian and Ukrainian coasts, coastal zone around of the ...

Blatov, A. S., Bulgakov, N. P., Ivanov, A. N., Kosarev, A. N., and Tujilkin, V.: Variability of the hydrodynamical fields in the Black Sea, Gidrometeoizdat, St. Petersburg, 240 pp., 1984 (in Russion).; Blumberg, A. F. and Mellor, G. L.: A description of a three-dimensional coastal ocean circulation model, in: Three Dimensional Coastal Ocean Models, edited by: Heaps, N. S., American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1–16, 1987.; Hunter, J. R.: OzPOM: A Version of the P...

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Towards an Improved Description of Ocean Uncertainties: Effect of ...

By: D. Béal; M. Meinvielle; M. Doron; J.-m. Brankart; C. Fontana; C.-e. Testut; P. Brasseur; J. Verron

Description: LEGI/CNRS, UMR5519, Grenoble, France. The objective of this paper is to investigate if the description of ocean uncertainties can be significantly improved by applying a local anamorphic transformation to each model variable, and by making the assumption of joint Gaussianity for the transformed variables, rather than for the original variables. For that purpose, it is first argued that a significant improvement can already be obtained by deriving the ...

Anscombe, F. J.: Graphs in Statistical Analysis, American Statistician, 27, 17–21, 1973.; Bertino, L., Evensen, G., and Wackernagel, H.: Sequential Data Assimilation Techniques in Oceanography, Int. Statist. Rev., 71, 223–241, 2003.; Béal, D., Brasseur, P., Brankart, J.-M., Ourmières, Y., and Verron, J.: Characterization of mixing errors in a coupled physical biogeochemical model of the North Atlantic: implications for nonlinear estimation using Gaussian anamorphosis, Oc...

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Operational Sar-based Sea Ice Drift Monitoring Over the Baltic Sea...

By: J. Karvonen

Description: Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Helsinki, Finland. An algorithm for computing ice drift from pairs of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images covering a common area has been developed at FMI. The algorithm has been developed based on the C-band SAR data over the Baltic Sea. It is based on phase correlation in two scales (coarse and fine) with some additional constraints. The algorithm has been running operationally in the Baltic Sea...

Astola, J., Haavisto, P., and Neuvo, Y.: Vector median filters, Proc. IEEE, 78, 4, 678–689, 1990.; Aiazzi, B., Alparone, L., Baronti, S., and Borri, G.: Pyramid-based multiresolution adaptive filters for additive and multiplicative image noise, IEEE Trans. Circ. Sys.-II, 45, 8, 1092–1097, 1998.; Canny, J.: A computational approach to edge detection, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., 8, 6, 679–698, 1986.; Karvonen, J., Simila, M., and Makynen, M.: Open water detect...

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Simulated Melt Rates for the Totten and Dalton Ice Shelves : Volum...

By: B. K. Galton-fenzi; J. R. Hunter; J. L. Roberts; D. E. Gwyther

Description: Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 129, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia. The Totten Glacier drains a large proportion of the East Antarctic ice sheet, much of it marine based (grounded below sea level), and is rapidly losing mass. It has been suggested that this mass loss is driven by changes in oceanic forcing; however, the details of the ice-ocean interaction are unknown. Here we present results from an...

Gregory, J., White, N., Church, J., Bierkens, M., Box, J., Van den Broeke, M., Cogley, G., Fettweis, X., Hanna, E., Huybrechts, P., Konikow, L., Leclercq, P., Marzeion, B., Oerlemans, J., Tamisiea, M., Wada, Y., Wake, L., and Van de Wal, R.: Twentieth-century global-mean sea-level rise: is the whole greater than the sum of the parts?, J. Climate, 26, 4476–4499, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00319.1, 2012.; Hattermann, T., S...

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Flow and Mixing Near a Glacier Tongue: a Pilot Study : Volume 7, I...

By: M. J. M. Williams; N. J. Robinson; C. L. Stewart; C. L. Stevens; T. G. Haskell

Description: National Institute for Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), Greta Point Wellington, New Zealand. A glacier tongue floating in the coastal ocean presents a significant obstacle to the local flow and so influences oceanic mixing and transport processes. Here acoustic Doppler current profiler and shear microstructure observations very near to a glacier tongue side-wall capture flow accelerations and associated mixing. Flow speeds reached around 40 cm s

Albrecht, N., Vennell, R., Williams, M., Stevens, C., Langhorne, P., Leonard, G., and Haskell, T.: Observation of sub-inertial internal tides in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L24606, doi:10.1029/2006GL027377, 2006.; Barry, J. P. and Dayton, P. K.: Current patterns in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica and their relationship to local biotic communities, Polar Biol., 8, 367–376,

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Assessment of the Three Dimensional Temperature and Salinity Obser...

By: J. L. Høyer; J. She; W. Fu

Description: Center for Ocean and Ice (COI), Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI), Denmark. The spatial averaged correlations are presented in 1.5° × 1.5° bins for the North and Baltic Sea region. The averaged correlations are computed based on the proxy ocean data generated by the operational forecast model of Danish Meteorology Institute (DMI). It is shown that the spatial distribution of the averaged correlations could reflect the overall influence of the local ...

Bishop, C. H., Etherton, B. J., and Majumdar, S. J.: Adaptive sampling with the ensemble transform Kalman filter. Part I: Theoretical aspects. Mon. Weather Rev., 129, 420–436, 2001.; Buch, E., Elken, J., Gajewsk, J., Håkansson, B., Kahma, K., and Soetje, K.: Present Status of the Baltic Operational Oceanographic System. European Operational Oceanography: Present and Future, EuroGOOS Office, Sweden, and European Commission, Belgium, 276–280, 2006.; ICES: Patchiness in the...

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Comparison Between Three Implementations of Automatic Identificati...

By: C. De Boyer Montégut; P. Y. Le Traon; J. M. A. C. Souza

Description: Laboratoire d'Oceanographie Spatiale, IFREMER, P.O. Box 70, Plouzane, 29280, France. Three methods for automatic detection of mesoscale coherent structures are applied to Sea Level Anomaly (SLA) fields in the South Atlantic. The first method is based on the wavelet packet decomposition of the SLA data, the second on the estimation of the Okubo-Weiss parameter and the third on a geometric criterion using the winding-angle approach. The results provide a ...

De Szoeke, R. A. and Levine, M. D.: The advective flux of heat by mean geostrophic motions in the Southern Ocean, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 28A, 1057–1085, 1981.; De Ruijter, W. P., Biastoch, A., Drijfhout, S. S., Lutjeharms, J. R. E., Matano, R. P., Pichevin, T., Van Leeuwen, P. J., and Weijer, W.: Indian-Atlantic interocean exchange: Dynamics, estimation and impact, J. Geophys. Res., 104(C9), 20885–20910, 1999.; De Steur, L., Van Leeuwen, P. J., and Drijfhout, S. S.: Tracer...

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Laminae Type and Possible Mechanisms for the Formation of Laminate...

By: C. B. Lange; J. Pätzold; G. Kuhn; I. A. Seeberg-elverfeldt

Description: Research Center Ocean Margins, University of Bremen, P.O. Box 330440, 28334 Bremen, Germany. Laminated sediments in the Shaban Deep, a brine-filled basin in the northern Red Sea, were analyzed with backscattered electron imagery. Here we present possible mechanisms involved in the formation of laminae of various types and homogenous intervals arising from the detailed investigation of multicore GeoB 7805-1 (26 13.9' N and 35 22.6' E; water depth 1447 m) ...

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