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Comparative Heat and Gas Exchange Measurements in the Heidelberg A...

By: K. E. Krall; B. Jähne; L. Nagel

Description: Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. A comparative study of simultaneous heat and gas exchange measurements was performed in the large annular Heidelberg Air–Sea Interaction Facility, the Aeolotron, under homogeneous water surface conditions. The use of two gas tracers, N2O and C2HF5, resulted not only in gas transfer velocities, but also in the...

Asher, W. E., Jessup, A. T., and Atmane, M. A.: Oceanic application of the active controlled flux technique for measuring air–sea transfer velocities of heat and gases, J. Geophys. Res., 109, C08S12, doi:10.1029/2003JC001862, 2004.; Atmane, M. A., Asher, W., and Jessup, A. T.: On the use of the active infrared technique to infer heat and gas transfer velocities at the air–water free surface, J. Geophys. Res., 109, C08S14...

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The Effects of Global Climate Change on the Cycling and Processes ...

By: J. Su; B. Mayer; M. Mathis; K. O'Driscoll

Description: Marine Research Group, School of Planning, Architecture & Civil Engineering, Queen's University Belfast, UK. The fate and cycling of two selected legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs), PCB 153 and γ-HCH, in the North Sea in the 21st century have been modelled with combined hydrodynamic and fate and transport ocean models (HAMSOM and FANTOM, respectively). To investigate the impact of climate variability on POPs in the North Sea in the 21st century,...

Nizzetto, L., Lohmann, R., Gioia, R., Dachs, J., and Jones, K. C.: Atlantic ocean surface waters buffer declining atmospheric concentrations of persistent organic pollutants, Environ. Sci. Technol., 44, 6978–6984, doi:10.1021/es101293v, 2010.; O'Driscoll, K., Mayer, B., Ilyina, T., and Pohlmann, T.: Modelling the cycling of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the North Sea system: fluxes, loading, seasonality, trends, J...

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Assessment of the Structure and Variability of Weddell Sea Water M...

By: M. Azaneu; M. M. Mata; I. Wainer; T. S. Dotto; R. Kerr

Description: Laboratório de Estudos dos Oceanos e Clima, Instituto de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande – FURG, Rio Grande, RS, 96203-900, Brazil. We assessed and evaluated the performance of five ocean reanalysis in reproducing essential hydrographic properties and their associated temporal variability for the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. The products used in this assessment were ECMWF ORAS4, CFSR, MyOcean UR025.4, ECCO2 and SODA. The present study f...

Azaneu, M.: Assessment of the ECCO2 reanalysis product on the representation of Antarctic Bottom Water properties, M.S. Thesis, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, 103 pp., 2013.; Azaneu, M., Kerr, R., Mata, M. M., and Garcia, C. A. E.: Trends in the deep Southern Ocean (1958–2010): implications for Antarctic bottom water properties and volume export, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 4213–4227, doi:10.1002/jgrc.20303, 2013.; Balmase...

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The Aegean Sea Marine Security Decision Support System : Volume 7,...

By: K. Nittis; G. Korres; G. Krokos; L. Perivoliotis

Description: Hellenic Center for Marine Research, 46,7 Km Athens-Sounion Road, Anavissos, 19013, Greece. As part of the integrated ECOOP (European Coastal Sea Operational observing and Forecasting System) project, HCMR upgraded the already existing standalone Oil Spill Forecasting System for the Aegean Sea, initially developed for the Greek Operational Oceanography System (POSEIDON), into an active element of the European Decision Support System (EuroDeSS). The syst...

Blumberg, A. F. and Mellor, G. L.: A description of a three- dimensional coastal ocean circulation model, in: Three-Dimensional Coastal Ocean Circulation Models, Coastal Estuarine Sci., Vol. 4, AGU, Washington DC, 1–16, 1987.; Delvigne, G. A. L. and Sweeney, C. E.: Natural dispersion of oil, Oil Chem. Pollut., 44, 281–310, 1988.; Gundlach, E. R.: Oil holding capacities and removal coefficients for different shoreline types to compute simulate spills in coastal waters, Pr...

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Obstacles and Benefits of the Implementation of a Reduced-rank Smo...

By: P. Brasseur; E. Cosme; J.-m. Brankart; E. Kpemlie; N. Freychet

Description: Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1, LEGI, Grenoble, France. Most of oceanographic operational centers use three-dimensional data assimilation schemes to produce reanalyses. We investigate here the benefits of a smoother, i.e. a four-dimensional formulation of statistical assimilation. A square-root sequential smoother is implemented with a tropical Atlantic Ocean circulation model. A simple twin experiment is performed to investigate its benefits, c...

Allen, M. R., Lawrence, S. P., Murray, M. J., Mutlow, C. T., Stockdale, T. N., Llewellynjones, D. T., and Anderson, D. L. T.: Control of tropical instability waves in the pacific, Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 2581–2584, 1995.; Anderson, B. D. O. and Moore, J. B.: Optimal Filtering, Prentice-Hall, 357 pp., 1979.; Brankart, J.-M., Testut, C.-E., Brasseur, P., and Verron, J.: Implementation of a multivariate data assimilation scheme for isopynic coordinate ocean models: applica...

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Variability in the Subtropical-tropical Cells and Its Effect on Ne...

By: C. W. Böning; A. Biastoch; J. F. Lübbecke

Description: Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences at the University of Kiel, Germany (IfM-GEOMAR). A set of experiments utilising different implementations of the global ORCA-LIM model with horizontal resolutions of 2°, 0.5° and 0.25° is used to investigate tropical and extra-tropical influences on equatorial Pacific SST variability at interannual to decadal time scales. The model experiments use a bulk forcing methodology building on the global forcing data set for...

Gent, P R. and McWilliams, J.: Isopycnal mixing in ocean circulation models, J Phys Oceanogr., 20, 150–156, 1990.; Adcroft, A., Hill, C., and Marshall, J.: Representation of topography by shaved cells in a height coordinate ocean model, Mon. Wea. Rev., 125, 2293–2315, 1997.; Alory, G., Cravatte, S., Izumo, T., and Rodgers, K B.: Validation of a decadal OGCM simulation for the tropical pacific, Ocean Modelling, 10, 272–282, 2005.; Barnier, B., Siefridt, L., and P., M.: Th...

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Formulation of an Ocean Model for Global Climate Simulations : Vol...

By: A. Rosati; M. J. Spelman; J. L. Russell; R. Gerdes; B. L. Samuels; S. M. Griffies; A. Gnanadesikan; K. W. Dixon; J. P. Dunne; M. J. Harrison; R. Zhang; M. Winton

Description: NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton, USA. This paper summarizes the formulation of the ocean component to the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's (GFDL) climate model used for the 4th IPCC Assessment (AR4) of global climate change. In particular, it reviews the numerical schemes and physical parameterizations that make up an ocean climate model and how these schemes are pieced together for use in a state-of-the-art climate model. ...

Adcroft, A. and Campin, J.-M.: Rescaled height coordinates for accurate representation of free-surface flows in ocean circulation models, Ocean Modelling, 7, 269-284, 2004.; Adcroft, A., Hill, C., and Marshall, J.: Representation of topography by shaved cells in a height coordinate ocean model, Monthly Weather Review, 125, 2293-2315, 1997.; Anderson, J L., Balaji, V., Broccoli, A J., Cooke, W F., Delworth, T L., Dixon, K W., Donnor, L J., Dunne, K A., Freidenreich, S M.,...

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Biofouling Protection for Marine Environmental Sensors : Volume 6,...

By: M. Lehaitre; C. Compère; L. Delauney

Description: In Situ Measurement and Electronics Group, Ifremer, B. P. 70, 29280, Plouzané, France. These days, many marine autonomous environment monitoring networks are set up in the world. These systems take advantage of existing superstructures such as offshore platforms, lightships, piers, breakwaters or are placed on specially designed buoys or underwater oceanographic structures. These systems commonly use various sensors to measure parameters such as dissolve...

Manov, D. V., Chang, G. C., and Dickey, T. D.: Methods for reducing biofouling of moored optical sensors, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 21(6), 958–968, 2004.; Morris; R. S. and Walsh, M. A.: Zinc oxide photoactive material, U.S. Pat. 6063849, 2000.; Abou-Ghazala, A. and Schoenbach, K. H.: Biofouling Prevention with Pulsed Electric Fields, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 28, 115–121, 2000.; Bearinger, J. P., Terrettaz, S., Michel, R., et al.: Sulfamer Block Copolymers Protection of Gol...

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High Frequency Variability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning ...

By: A. T. Blaker; B. Balan Sarojini; B. Sinha; L. C. Shaffrey; G. R. Bigg; D. Cameron; J. M. Gregory; N. R. Edwards; R. Tailleux; A. P. Megann

Description: National Centre for Atmospheric Science – Climate Division, Reading, UK. We compare the variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) as simulated by the coupled climate models of the RAPID project, which cover a wide range of resolution and complexity, and observed by the RAPID/MOCHA array at about 26° N. We analyse variability on a range of timescales. In models of all resolutions there is substantial variability on timescales ...

Baehr, J., Cunnningham, S., Haak, H., Heimbach, P., Kanzow, T., and Marotzke, J.: Observed and simulated estimates of the meridional overturning circulation at 26.5\degree N in the Atlantic, Ocean Sci., 5, 575–589, doi:10.5194/os-5-575-2009, 2009.; Biastoch, A., Böning, C. W., Getzlaff, J., Molines, J.-M., and Madec, G.: Mechanisms of interannual-decadal variability in the meridional overturning circulation of the mid-latitude North Atlantic Ocean, J. Climate, 21, 6599–6...

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Sensitivity of Phytoplankton Distributions to Vertical Mixing Alon...

By: H. J. Van Der Woerd; H. A. Dijkstra; L. Hahn-woernle

Description: Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht (IMAU), Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.005, 3508 TA Utrecht, the Netherlands. Using in situ data of upper ocean vertical mixing along a transect in the North Atlantic and a one-dimensional phytoplankton growth model, we study the sensitivity of the surface phytoplankton concentration to vertical mixing distributions. The study is divided into two parts. In the first par...

Antoine, D., Morel, A., Gordon, H., Banzon, V., and Evans, R.: Bridging ocean color observations of the 1980s and 2000s in search of long-term trends, J. Geophys. Res., 110, C06009, doi:10.1029/2004JC002620, 2005.; Beckmann, A. and Hense, I.: Beneath the surface: Characteristics of oceanic ecosystems under weak mixing conditions – A theoretical investigation, Prog. Oceanogr., 75, 771–796,

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Transport of Antarctic Bottom Water Through the Kane Gap, Tropical...

By: E. G. Morozov; H. Van Haren; R. Y. Tarakanov

Description: Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nakhimovsky pr. 36, Moscow, 117997, Russia. We study low-frequency properties of the Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) flow through the Kane Gap (9° N) in the Atlantic Ocean. The measurements in the Kane Gap include five visits with CTD (Conductivity-Temperature-Depth) sections in 2009–2012 and a year-long record of currents on a mooring using three AquaDopp current meters. We found an alternatin...

Fischer, J., Rhein, M., Schott, F., and Stramma, L.: Deep water masses and transports in the Vema Fracture Zone, Deep-Sea Res. I, 43, 1067–1074, 1996.; Hall, M. M., McCartney, M. S., and Whitehead, J. A.: Antarctic Bottom Water flux in the Equatorial Western Atlantic, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27, 1903–1926, 1997.; Hobart, M. A., Bunce, E. T., and Sclater, J. G.: Bottom water flow through the Kane Gap, Sierra Leone Rise, Atlantic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 80, 5083–5088, 1975.; ...

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From the Chlorophyll A in the Surface Layer to Its Vertical Profil...

By: E. Bauerfeind; A. Bracher; E.-m. Nöthig; C. Melsheimer; A. Cherkasheva

Description: Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany. Current estimates of global marine primary production range over a factor of two. At high latitudes, the uncertainty is even larger than globally because here in-situ data and ocean color observations are scarce, and the phytoplankton absorption shows specific characteristics due to the low-light adaptation. The improvement of the primary production estimates requires an accur...

Antoine, D. and Morel, A.: Oceanic primary production: I. Adaptation of a spectral light-photosynthesis model in view of application to satellite chlorophyll observations, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 10, 43–55, 1996.; Antoine ,D., André, J. M. and Morel, A.: Oceanic primary production: II. Estimation at global scale from satellite (Coastal Zone Color Scanner) chlorophyll, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 10, 57–69, 1996.; Behrenfeld, M. J.: Abandoning Sverdrup's Critical Depth Hypoth...

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The Role of Continental Shelves in Nitrogen and Carbon Cycling : V...

By: K. Fennel

Description: Dalhousie University, Department of Oceanography, Halifax, Canada. Continental shelves play a key role in the cycling of nitrogen and carbon. Here the physical transport and biogeochemical transformation processes affecting the fluxes into and out of continental shelf systems are reviewed, and their role in the global cycling of both elements is discussed. Uncertainties in observation-based estimates of nitrogen and carbon fluxes mostly r...

Belkin, I. M.: Propagation of the Great Salinity Anomaly of the 1990s around the northern North Atlantic, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L08306, doi:10.1029/2003GL019334, 2004.; Biscaye, P. E., Flagg, C. N., and Falkowski, P. G.: The shelf edge exchange processes experiment, SEEP-II: An introduction to hypotheses, results and conclusions, Deep Sea Res. Pt. II, 41, 231–252, 1994.; Boyd, P. W., Watson, A. J., Law, C. S., Abraham...

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About Uncertainties in Practical Salinity Calculations : Volume 6,...

By: M. Le Menn

Description: French Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service (SHOM), CS 92803, 29228 Brest Cedex 2, France. Salinity is a quantity computed, in the actual state of the art, from conductivity ratio measurements, knowing temperature and pressure at the time of the measurement and using the Practical Salinity Scale algorithm of 1978 (PSS-78) which gives practical salinity values S. The uncertainty expected on PSS-78 values is ±0.002, but nothing has ever been detai...

Fellmuth, B., Fisher, J., and Tegeler, E.: Uncertainty budgets for characteristics of SPRTs calibrated according to the ITS-90, BIPM, CCT/01–02, 2002.; Bacon, S., Culkin, F., Higgs, N., and Ridout, P.: IAPSO Standard Seawater: definition of the uncertainty in the calibration procedure and stability of recent batches, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 24, 1785–1799, 2007.; BIPM: Evaluation of measurement data – Supplement 1 to the Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measureme...

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A Nested Circulation Model for the North Aegean Sea : Volume 3, Is...

By: K. P. Tsiaras; V. H. Kourafalou

Description: Hellenic Center for Marine Research, Anavyssos, Greece. A multi-nested approach has been employed for numerical simulations in the northern part of the Aegean Sea in the framework of the MFSTEP (Mediterranean Forecast System: Toward Environmental Predictions) project. The high resolution (~1.6 km) hydrodynamic model of the North Aegean Sea (NAS) has been nested within a coarser model of the Eastern Mediterranean (resolution ~3.6 km) which is also nested...

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Characterisation and Quantification of Regional Diurnal Sst Cycles...

By: J. L. Høyer; I. Karagali

Description: DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Risø Campus, Building 125, Roskilde, 4000, Denmark. Hourly SST fields from the geostationary Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) offer a unique opportunity for the characterisation and quantification of the diurnal cycle of SST in the Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea and the Northern European Shelf seas. Six years of SST fields from the SEVIRI dataset are validated against th...

Eastwood, S., Le Borgne, P., Péré, S., and Poulter, D.: Diurnal variability in sea surface in the Arctic, Remote Sens. Environ., 115, 2594–2602, 2011.; Bellenger, H. and Duvel, J. P.: An analysis of ocean diurnal warm layers over tropical oceans, J. Climate, 22, 3629–3646, 2009.; Bellenger, H., Takayabu, Y. N., Ushiyama, T., and Yoneyama, K.: Role of diurnal warm layers in the diurnal cycle of convection over the tropical Indian Ocean during MISMO, Mon. Weather Rev., 138...

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A Numerical Scheme to Calculate Temperature and Salinity Dependent...

By: M. T. Johnson

Description: School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK. The transfer velocity determines the rate of exchange of a gas across the air-water interface for a given deviation from Henry's law equilibrium between the two phases. In the thin film model of gas exchange, which is commonly used for calculating gas exchange rates from measured concentrations of trace gases in the atmosphere and ocean/freshwaters, the overall transfer is control...

Archer, S. D., Goldson, L. E., Liddicoat, M. I., Cummings, D. G., and Nightingale, P. D.: Marked seasonality in the concentrations and sea-to-air flux of volatile iodocarbon compounds in the western English Channel, J. Geophys. Res., 112, C08009, doi:10.1029/2006JC003963, 2007.; Asher, W. E.: The effects of experimental uncertainty in parameterizing air-sea gas exchange using tracer experiment data, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9...

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On the Representation of Regional Characteristics by Hydrographic ...

By: J. H. Reissmann

Description: Institut für Ostseeforschung Warnemünde, Rostock, Germany. In this work the eddy resolving data sets of salinity, temperature, and oxygen content aquired in the framework of the German-Russian project MESODYN (MESOscale DYNamics) in the Arkona Basin, the Bornholm Basin, the Stolpe Furrow, and the Eastern Gotland Basin during summer and winter stratification situations are utilized to examine to which extent the observations at the central monitoring sta...

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The Role of Subpolar Deep Water Formation and Nordic Seas Overflow...

By: H. R. Langehaug; D. Matei; J. Mignot; W. Park; O. H. Otterå; S. Lorenz; M. Menary; K. Lohmann; J. Ba; J. H. Jungclaus; Y. Gao

Description: Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany. We investigate the respective role of variations in subpolar deep water formation and Nordic Seas overflows for the decadal to multidecadal variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). This is partly done by analysing long (order of 1000 years) control simulations with five coupled climate models. For all models, the maximum influence of variations in subpolar deep water f...

Ba, J., Keenlyside, N., Park, W., Latif, M., Hawkins, E., and Ding, H.: A mechanism for Atlantic multidecadal variability in the Kiel Climate Model, Clim. Dynam., 41, 2133–2144, doi:10.1007/s00382-012-1633-4, 2013.; Ba, J., Keenlyside, N., Latif, M., Park, W., Ding, H., Lohmann, K., Mignot, J., Menary, M., Otterå, O. H., Wouters, B., Salas, D., Oka, A., Belluci A., and Volodin, E.: A multi-model comparison for Atlan...

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Field Measurements of Aerosol Production from Whitecaps in the Ope...

By: B. I. Moat; I. M. Brooks; R. W. Pascal; M. J. Yelland; S. J. Norris; G. De Leeuw; B. Brooks

Description: School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, UK. Simultaneous measurements of near-surface aerosol and bubble spectra were made during five buoy deployments in the open ocean of the North Atlantic and used to estimate aerosol fluxes per unit area of whitecap. The measurements were made during two cruises as part of the SEASAW project, a UK contribution to the international SOLAS program. The mean bubble number concentrations for each deployment...

Andreas, E. L.: A review of the sea spray generation function for the open ocean, in: Atmosphere-Ocean Interactions, Vol. 1, edited by: Perrie, W., 1–46, WIT Press, Southampton, UK, 2002.; Andreas, E. L, Jones, K. F., and Fairall, C. W.: Production velocity of sea spray droplets, J. Geophys. Res., 115, C12065, doi:10.1029/2010JC006458, 2010.; Blanchard, D. C.: The electrification of the atmosphere by particles from bubbl...

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