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Black Sea Coastal Forecasting System : Volume 8, Issue 2 (14/03/2012)

By: V. L. Dorofeev; N. Valchev; Y. B. Ratner; A. Palazov; V. Malciu; A. I. Kubryakov; T. Oguz; G. K. Korotaev; R. Mateescu

Description: Marine Hydrophysical Institute (MHI), 2, Kapitanskaya Street, 99011, Sevastopol, Crimea, Ukraine. The Black Sea coastal nowcasting and forecasting system was built within the framework of EU FP6 ECOOP (European COastalshelf sea OPerational observing and forecasting system) project for five regions: the south-western basin along the coasts of Bulgaria and Turkey, the north-western shelf along the Romanian and Ukrainian coasts, coastal zone around of the ...

Blatov, A. S., Bulgakov, N. P., Ivanov, A. N., Kosarev, A. N., and Tujilkin, V.: Variability of the hydrodynamical fields in the Black Sea, Gidrometeoizdat, St. Petersburg, 240 pp., 1984 (in Russion).; Blumberg, A. F. and Mellor, G. L.: A description of a three-dimensional coastal ocean circulation model, in: Three Dimensional Coastal Ocean Models, edited by: Heaps, N. S., American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1–16, 1987.; Hunter, J. R.: OzPOM: A Version of the P...

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Multi-objective Entropy Evolutionary Algorithm for Marine Oil Spil...

By: M. Marghany

Description: Geoscience {&} Digital Earth Center, Research Institute for Sustainability & Environment, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, UTM, Johor, Malaysia. Oil spill pollution has a substantial role in damaging the marine ecosystem. Oil spill that floats on top of water, as well as decreasing the fauna populations, affects the food chain in the ecosystem. In fact, oil spill is reducing the sunlight penetrates the water, limiting the photosynthesis...

Amorocho, J. and Espildora, B.: Entropy in the assessment of uncertainty in hydrologic systems and models, Water Resour. Res., 9, 1511–1522, 1973.; Barni, M., Betti, M., and Mecocci, A.: A fuzzy approach to oil spill detection an SAR images, International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 1995, IGARSS'95, Quantitative Remote Sensing for Science and Applications, 157–159, 1995.; Calabresi, G., Del Frate, F., Lichtenegger, J., Petrocchi, A., and Trivero, P.: Neural ...

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Numerical Implementation and Oceanographic Application of the Ther...

By: D. R. Jackett; A. Feistel; U. Overhoff; G. M. Marion; W. Wagner; R. Feistel; J. H. Reissmann; K. Miyagawa; C. Guder; D. G. Wright

Description: Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, NS, B2Y 4A2, Canada. The SCOR/IAPSO1 Working Group 127 on Thermodynamics and Equation of State of Seawater has prepared recommendations for new methods and algorithms for numerical estimation of the the thermophysical properties of seawater. As an outcome of this work, a new International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater (TEOS–10) was endorsed by IOC/UNESCO2 in June 2009 as the offici...

Dauphinee, T. M.: Introduction to the special issue on the Practical salinity Scale 1978, IEEE J. Oceanic Eng., OE-5, 1–2, 1980.; Feistel, R.: A new extended Gibbs thermodynamic potential of seawater, Progr. Oceanogr., 58, 43–115, 2003.; Feistel, R.: Numerical implementation and oceanographic application of the Gibbs thermodynamic potential of seawater, Ocean Sci., 1, 9–16, doi:10.5194/os-1-9-2005, 2005.; Feistel, R.: A Gibbs Function for Seawater Thermodynamics for −6 t...

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A Comparison Between Vertical Motions Measured by Adcp and Inferre...

By: H. Van Haren

Description: Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, The Netherlands. Combined vertical current (w) and thermistor string data demonstrate that high-, near-buoyancy frequency internal wave trains along a pycnocline in a flat-bottom shelf sea consist for 2 periods of a dominant mode-1 non-linear part, while thereafter mainly of linear [mode-2, quadrupled frequency] waves, to first order. In a simple [linear] heat budget the ...

Amen, R. and Maxworthy, T.: The gravitational collapse of a mixed region into a linearly stratified fluid, J. Fluid Mech., 96, 65–80, 1980.; Davis, R. E. and Acrivos, A.: Solitary internal waves in deep water, J. Fluid Mech., 29, 593–607, 1967.; Hallock, Z. R. and Field, R. L.: Internal-wave energy fluxes on the New Jersey Shelf, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 35, 3–12, 2005.; Helfrich, K. R.: Internal solitary wave breaking and run-up on a uniform slope, J. Fluid Mech., 243, 133–1...

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Frontal Structures in the West Spitsbergen Current Margins : Volum...

By: W. Walczowski

Description: Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences, Powstancow Warszawy 55 81-712 Sopot, Poland. The structures of the hydrographic fronts separating the Atlantic origin waters from ambient waters in the northern Nordic Seas are discussed. Flows of the western and eastern branches of the West Spitsbergen Current create the Atlantic domain borders and maintain these fronts. The work is based on previous research and on investigations in the project ...

Druet, C.: Dynamika Stratyfikowanego Oceanu, PWN Warszawa, 146 pp., 1994.; Druet, C.: Elementy Hydrodynamiki Geofizycznej, PWN Warszawa, 111 pp., 1995.; Dietrich, G., Kalle, K., Krauss, W., and Siedler, G.: General Oceanography, 2nd Edn., Wiley-Intersci., New York, 626, 1980.; Aagaard, K. and Carmack, E.: The role of sea ice and other fresh water in the arctic circulation, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 14485–14498, 1989.; Allen, J. T., Smeed, D. A., and Chadwick, A. L.: Eddies a...

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Tidal Forcing, Energetics, and Mixing Near the Yermak Plateau : Vo...

By: A. K. Peterson; M. Müller; I. Fer

Description: Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway. The Yermak Plateau, located northwest of Svalbard in Fram Strait, is the final passage for the inflow of warm Atlantic Water into the Arctic Ocean. The region is characterized by the largest barotropic tidal velocities in the Arctic Ocean. Internal waves generated in response to the tidal flow over this topographic feature locally contribute to mixing and remove heat from the Atlantic Wat...

Althaus, A. M., Kunze, E., and Sanford, T. B.: Internal tide radiation from Mendocino Escarpment, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 33, 1510–1527, 2003.; Amante, C. and Eakins, B.: ETOPO1 1 Arc-Minute Global Relief Model: Procedures, Data Sources and Analysis, NOAA Technical Memorandum NESDIS NGDC-24, National Geophysical Data Center, NOAA, doi:10.7289/V5C8276M, 2009.; Arneborg, L. and Liljebladh, B.: Overturning and dissipation caused by...

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Observations of Water Masses and Circulation with Focus on the Eur...

By: G. Björk; U. Schauer; B. Rabe; S. Pisarev; M. Korhonen; B. Rudels; A. Wisotzki

Description: Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, 00014, Helsinki, Finland. The circulation and water mass properties in the Eurasian Basin are discussed based on a review of previous research and an examination of observations made in recent years within, or parallel to, DAMOCLES (Developing Arctic Modeling and Observational Capabilities for Long-term Environmental Studies). The discussion is strongly biased towards observations made from ice...

Aagaard, K. and Carmack, E. C.: The role of sea ice and other freshwater in the Arctic circulation, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 14485–14498, 1989.; Aagaard, K. and Greisman, P.: Towards a new mass and heat budget for the Arctic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 80, 3821–3827, 1975.; Aagaard, K., Darnall, C., and Greisman, P.: Year-long measurements in the Greenland-Spitsbergen passage, Deep-Sea Res., 20, 743–746, 1973.; Aksenov, Y., Ivanov, V. V., Nurser, A. J. G., Bacon., S., Polykov,...

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Sensitivity of Oxygen Dynamics in the Water Column of the Baltic S...

By: A. Stips; S. Miladinova

Description: CEC Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Ispra (VA), Italy. A 1-D biogeochemical/physical model of marine systems has been applied to study the oxygen cycle in four stations of different sub-basins of the Baltic Sea, namely, in the Gotland Deep, Bornholm, Arkona and Fladen. The model consists of the biogeochemical model of Neumann et al. (2002) coupled with the 1-D General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM). The model has been ...

Axell, L. B.: On the variability of Baltic Sea deep-water mixing, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 667–682, 1998.; Blackford, J. C, Allen, J. I., and Gilbert, F. J.: Ecosystem dynamics at six contrasting sites: a generic modelling study, J. Marine Syst. 52, 191–215, 2004.; Bonsdorff, E., Rönnberg, C., and Aarnio, R.: Some ecological properties in relation to eutrophication in the Baltic Sea, Hydrobiologia, 475/476, 371–377, 2002.; Lass, H. U. and Mohrholz, V.: On dynamics and mixi...

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Retroflection from a Double Slanted Coastline – a Model for the Ag...

By: D. Nof; W. Weijer; V. Zharkov

Description: Geophysical Fluid dynamics Institute, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Fl 32306, USA. The Agulhas leakage to the South Atlantic (SA) exhibits strong anti-correlations with the mass flux of the Agulhas Current. This is accompanied by the migration of the Agulhas retroflection whose normal position (NPR) is near Cape Agulhas, where the slant of the South African coast is very small. During periods of strong incoming flux (SIF), the retroflection shif...

Arruda, W. Z., Nof, D., and O'Brien, J. J.: Does the Ulleung eddy owe its existence to β and nonlinearities?, Deep-Sea Res., 51, 2073–2090, 2004.; Biastoch, A., Böning, C. W., and Lutjeharms, J. R. E.: Agulhas leakage dynamics affects decadal variability in Atlantic overturning circulation, Nature, 456, 489–492, 2008.; Bleck, R. and Boudra, D.: Wind-driven spin-up in eddy resolving ocean models formulated in isopycnic and isobaric coordinates, J. Geophys. Res., 91, 7611–...

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Modelling of Underwater Light Fields in Turbid and Eutrophic Water...

By: B. Sundarabalan; P. Shanmugam

Description: Ocean Optics and Imaging Laboratory, Department of Ocean Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai-600036, India. A reliable radiative transfer model is an essential and indispensable tool for understanding of the radiative transfer processes in homogenous and layered waters, analyzing measurements made by radiance sensors and developing remote sensing algorithms to derive meaningful physical quantities and biogeochemical variables in...

Ahn, Y. H.: Optical Properties of Biogenous and Mineral Particles Present in the Ocean. Application: Inversion of Reflectance, Ph.D. thesis, Paris-VI University, 1990.; Antoine, D., André, J. M., and Morel, A.: Oceanic primary production: 2. Estimation at global scale from satellite (coastal zone colour scanner) chlorophyll, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 10, 57–69, 1996.; Arrigo, K. R., Matrai, P. A., and van Dijken, G. L.: Primary productivity in the Arctic Ocean: impacts of ...

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Impact of Model Resolution on Sea-level Variability Characteristic...

By: L. Brodeau; G. C. Smith; T. Penduff; B. Barnier; M. Juza; J.-m. Molines; A.-m. Treguier

Description: Laboratoire des Ecoulements Géophysiques et Industriels, Grenoble, France. Four global ocean/sea-ice simulations driven by the same realistic 46-year daily atmospheric forcing were performed within the DRAKKAR project at 2°, 1°, ½° and ¼° resolutions. Model sea-level anomalies are collocated over the period 1993–2004 onto the AVISO SLA dataset. These five collocated SLA datasets are then filtered and quantitatively compared over various time and space sca...

Arakawa, A. and Lamb, V.: A potential enstrophy and energy conserving scheme for the shallow water equations, Mon. Weather Rev., 109, 18–36, 1981.; Barnier, B., Madec, G., Penduff, T., Molines, J.-M., Treguier, A.-M., le Sommer, J., Beckmann, A., Biastoch, A., B{ö}ning, C., Dengg, J., Derval, C., Durand, E., Gulev, S., Remy, E., Talandier, C., Theetten, S., Maltrud, M., McClean, J., and de Cuevas, B.: Impact of partial steps and momentum advection schemes in a global cir...

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Laminar and Weakly Turbulent Oceanic Gravity Currents Performing I...

By: A. Wirth

Description: LEGI/MEOM/CNRS, UMR5519, Grenoble, France. The small scale dynamics of a weakly turbulent oceanic gravity current is determined. The gravity current considered is initially at rest and adjusts by performing inertial oscillations to a geostrophic mean flow. The dynamics is explored with a hierarchy of mathematical models. The most involved are the fully 3-D Navier-Stokes equations subject to the Boussinesq approximation. A 1-D and 0-D mathematical model ...

Coleman, G. N.: Similarity statistics from a numerical simulation of the neutrally stratified planetary boundary layer, J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 891–900, 1999.; Coleman, G. N., Ferziger, J. H., and Spalart, P. R.: A numerical study of the turbulent Ekman layer, J. Fluid. Mech., 213, 313–348, 1990.; Dimotakis, P. E.: The mixing transition in turbulent flows, J. Fluid. Mech., 409, 69–98, 2000.; Cossu, R., Wells, M. G., and Wahlin, A. K.: Influence of the Coriolis force on the v...

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Comparing Historical and Modern Methods of Sea Surface Temperature...

By: J. B. R. Matthews

Description: School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada. Sea surface temperature (SST) has been obtained from a variety of different platforms, instruments and depths over the past 150 yr. Modern-day platforms include ships, moored and drifting buoys and satellites. Shipboard methods include temperature measurement of seawater sampled by bucket and flowing through engine cooling water intakes. Here I review SST measurement met...

Collins, C. A., Giovando, L. F., and Abbott-Smith, K. B.: Comparison of Canadian and Japanese Merchant-Ship Observations of Sea-Surface Temperature in the Vicinity of Present Ocean Weather Station P, 1927–1933, J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can., 32, 253–258, doi:10.1139/f75-023, 1975.; Fedorov, K. N. and Ginsburg, A. I.: The Near-surface Layer of the Ocean, VSP, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 1992.; Ashford, O. M.: A new bucket for measureme...

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Eddy Characteristics in the South Indian Ocean as Inferred from Su...

By: X. Cheng; J. Li; Y. Du; S. Zheng

Description: State Key Laboratory of Tropical Oceanography, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301, China. Using a geometric eddy identification method, cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies from submesoscale to mesoscale in the South Indian Ocean (SIO) have been statistically investigated based on 2082 surface drifters from 1979 to 2013. A total of 19 252 eddies are identified, 60% of them anticyclonic eddies. For the subme...

Abraham, E. R.: The generation of plankton patchiness by turbulent stirring, Nature, 391, 577–580, doi:10.1038/35361, 1998.; Abraham, E. R., Law, C. S., Boyd, P. W., Lavender, S. J., Maldonado, M. T., and Bowie, A. R.: Importance of stirring in the development of an iron-fertilized phytoplankton bloom, Nature, 407, 727–730, doi:10.1038/35037555, 2000.; Aristegui, J., Tett, P., Hern...

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Optical Remote Sensing of the Gulf of Gabès – Relation Between Tur...

By: B. Nechad; F. Zargouni; K. Ruddick; R. Katlane Essersi

Description: University of Sciences Mathematic, Physics and Naturals of Tunisia, Tunisia. Optical remote sensing is used here in the Gulf of Gabès to provide scientific information to support environmental management. The Gulf of Gabès is located in the southern east coast of Tunisia. It is a shallow continental shelf with semi-diurnal tides with average amplitude of 2 m. Industrial activities in this area since the early 1970s may have contribute...

Burollet, P. F., Clairefond, P., and Winnock, E.: La mer pélagienne étude sédimentologique et écologique du plateau tunisien et du golfe de Gabès, Géologie Méditerranéenne, 6(1), 345 pp., 1979.; Ben Mustafa, K., Hattour, A., Mehetli, M., El Abed, A., and Tritar, B.: Bionomie des étages Infra et Circalittoral du golfe de Gabès, Bull. Inst. Natn. Scienc. Tech. Mer (Tunisie), 26(2), 5–48, 1999.; Bjaoui, B., Rais, S., and Koutitonsky, V. : Modélisation de la dispersion du ph...

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A Geographical and Seasonal Comparison of Nitrogen Uptake by Phyto...

By: H. Waldron; D. Clark; R. Philibert

Description: Department of Oceanography, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa. The impact of light and nutrients (such as silicate and iron) availability on nitrogen uptake and primary production vary seasonally and regionally in the Southern Ocean. The seasonal cycle of nitrogen uptake by phytoplankton in the Southern Ocean is not fully resolved over an annual scale due to the lack of winter in situ measurements. In this study, nitrate and ammonium uptak...

Grasshoff, K., Ehrhardt, M., and Kremling, K.: Methods of seawater analysis, Verlag Chemie, Weinheim, Germany, 1983.; Ansorge, I., Speich, S., Lutjeharms, J., Goni, G., Rautenbach, C. d. W., Froneman, P., Rouault, M., and Garzoli, S.: Monitoring the oceanic flow between Africa and Antarctica: report of the first GoodHope cruise : research in action, S. Afr. J. Sci., 101, 29–35, 2005.; Behrenfeld, M. J.: Abandoning Sverdrup's Critical Depth Hypothesis on phytoplankton blo...

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Derivation and Assessment of a Mixed Layer Sub-mesoscale Model : V...

By: M. S. Dubovikov; V. M. Canuto

Description: NASA, Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, NY, 10025, USA. Present studies of mixed layer sub-mesoscales rely primarily on high resolution numerical simulations. Only few of these studies have attempted to parameterize the ensuing buoyancy submesoscale fluxes in terms of the resolved fields so that they can be used in OGCMs (ocean circulation models) that do not resolve sub-mesoscales. In reality, OGCMs used in climate studi...

Batchelor, G. K.: The theory of homogeneous turbulence, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK, 195 pp., 1970.; Boccaletti, G., Ferrari, R., and Fox-Kemper, B.: Mixed layer instabilities and restratification, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 37, 2228–2250, 2007.; Canuto, V. M. and Dubovikov, M. S.: A new approach to turbulence, Int. J. Mod. Phys., 12(18), 3121–3152, 1997.; Canuto, V. M. and Dubovikov, M. S.: Modeling mesoscale eddies, Ocean Model., 8, 1–30, 2005, cited as CD5.; Canuto,...

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On the Permeability of Barrier Layers : Volume 6, Issue 1 (28/04/2009)

By: C. De Boyer Montégut; J. Mignot; M. Tomczak

Description: IPSL/LOCEAN, UPMC/CNRS/IRD/MNHN, Paris, France. We present a revisited 2-degree resolution global ocean climatology of monthly mean Barrier Layer Thickness (BLT) first proposed by de Boyer Montégut et al. (2007a). In addition to using an extended data set, we present a modified computation method in order to take into account the observed permeability of Barrier Layers (BL). We name permeability the fact that barrier layers can, in some areas, be very p...

Cronin, M. F. and McPhaden, M. J.: Barrier layer formation during westerly wind bursts, J. Geophys. Res., 107(C12), 8020, doi:10.1029/2001JC001171, 2002.; Boyer, T., Antonov, J., Garcia, H., Johnson, D., Locarnini, R., Mishonov, A., Pitcher, M., Baranova, O., and Smolyar, I.: W}orld {O}cean {D}atabase 2005, {NOAA Atlas NESDIS 60, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., s. {L}evitus, ed. edn., 190 pp., 2006.; de Boyer Mont{é}gut, C., Madec, G., Fisher, A. S., L...

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A Discussion on the Use of X-band Sar Images in Marine Application...

By: A. Sorrentino; D. Schiavulli; M. Migliaccio

Description: Università degli Studi di Napoli Parthenope, Dipartimento di Scienze Applicate Napoli, Italy. The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is able to generate images of the sea surface that can be exploited to extract geophysical information of environmental interest. In order to enhance the operational use of these data in the marine applications the revisit time is to be improved. This goal can be achieved by using SAR virtual or real constellations and/or...

Schiavulli, D., Sorrentino, A., and Migliaccio, M.: An innovative technique for post-processing de-scalloping, IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens., 2012b.; Alpers, W. and Melsheimer, C.: Rainfall, Synthetic Aperture Radar user's manual, US Department of Commerce, NOAA, Washington, DC, 335–371, 2004.; Baldini, L., Roberto, N., Gorgucci, E., Fritz, J., and Chandrasekar, V.: Analysis of precipitation in repeated acquisition collected by the Cosmo-SkyMed constellation in polarimetric ...

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The Link Between the Barents Sea and Enso Events Reproduced by Nem...

By: H. Zuo; K. Haines; V. N. Stepanov

Description: ESSC, University of Reading, Reading, UK. An analysis of observational data in the Barents Sea along a meridian at 33°30´ E between 70°30´ and 72°30´ N has reported a negative correlation between El Niño/La Niña-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events and water temperature in the top 200 m: the temperature drops about 0.5 °C during warm ENSO events while during cold ENSO events the top 200 m layer of the Barents Sea is warmer. Results from 1 and 1/4-degree g...

Adcroft, A., Hill, C., and Marshall, J.: Representation of topography by shaved cells in a height coordinate ocean model, Mon. Weather Rev., 125, 2293–2315, 1997.; Barnier, B. and the DRAKKAR Group: Eddy-permitting ocean circulation hindcasts of past decades, Clivar Exchanges, 12, 8–10, 2007.; Balmaseda, M. A., Vidard, A., and Anderson, D. L. T.: The ECMWF ocean analysis system: ORAS3, Mon. Weather Rev., 136, 3018–3034, doi...

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