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The Given Case

By: Henry James

Barton Reeve waited, with outward rigour and inward rage, till every one had gone: there was in particular an objectionable, travelled, superior young man — a young man with a long neck and bad shoes, especially great on Roumania — whom he was determined to outstay. He could only wonder the while whether he most hated designed or unconscious unpleasantness. It was a Sunday afternoon, the time in the week when, for some subtle reason, 'such people' — Reeve freely generali...

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The Ghostly Rental

By: Henry James

I was in my twenty-second year, and I had just left college. I was at liberty to choose my career, and I chose it with much promptness. I afterward renounced it, in truth, with equal ardor, but I have never regretted those two youthful years of perplexed and excited, but also of agreeable and fruitful experiment. I had a taste for theology, and during my college term I had been an admiring reader of Dr. Channing. This was theology of a grateful and succulent savor; it se...

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Codex Alimentarius Draft Code of Hygienic Practice for Meat

By: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Nutrition Reference Publication

Excerpt: 1. Meat has traditionally been viewed as a vehicle for a significant proportion of human food-borne disease. Although the spectrum of meat-borne diseases of public health importance has changed with changing production and processing systems, continuation of the problem has been well illustrated in recent years by human surveillance studies of specific meat-borne pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp ... Campylobacter spp. and Yersinia enter...

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The Role of Governments and Other Regulatory Authorities in Meat H...

By: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Nutrition Reference Publication

Excerpt: Meat is an essential part of the global food supply and an important element of agricultural commerce and trade in many countries. Commensurate with this, food-borne disease can be a significant public health problem, and inadequate food quality and certification seriously limits the functioning of the marketplace. Meat production can also act as a vehicle for transmission of diseases of animal health importance. For these reasons, civil society demands that gov...

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Control System for Processing Operations the Hazard Analysis and C...

By: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Nutrition Reference Publication

Excerpt: The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system is the most widely used and internationally accepted food safety management system in the world. The main goal of applying HACCP plans in abattoirs is to ensure that animals are slaughtered and dressed under conditions that mean the meat will carry minimal public health risk. A HACCP plan has the following advantages ... it is proactive and preventive ... it is owned by the meat plant ... it is system...

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Personal Hygiene

By: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Nutrition Reference Publication

Excerpt: Persons who come into direct or indirect contact with edible parts of animals or meat should ... maintain an appropriate standard of personal cleanliness ... wear protective clothing appropriate to the circumstances, and ensure that non-disposable protective clothing is cleaned before and during work ... if wearing gloves during the slaughter and dressing of animals and the handling of meat, ensure that they are of an approved type for the particular activity, e...

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Establishments : Design, Facilities and Equipment

By: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Nutrition Reference Publication

Excerpt: ... Establishments should be located, designed and constructed so that contamination of meat is minimized to the greatest extent practicable ... Facilities and equipment should be designed, constructed and maintained so that contamination of meat is minimized to the greatest extent practicable ... Establishments, facilities and equipment should be designed to allow personnel to carry out their activities in a hygienic manner ... Facilities and equipment that are...

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Post-Mortem Inspection

By: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Nutrition Reference Publication

Excerpt: Post-mortem inspection systems should include ... procedures and tests that are risk-based to the extent possible and practicable ... confirmation of proper stunning and bleeding ... availability of inspection as soon as is practicable after completion of dressing ... visual inspection of the carcass and other relevant parts, including inedible parts, as determined by the competent authority ... palpation and/or incision of the carcass and other relevant parts, ...

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Preslaughter Handling, Stunning and Slaughter Methods

By: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Nutrition Reference Publication

Excerpt: Hygiene of animals presented for slaughter ... Animals presented for slaughter should be sufficiently clean so that they do not compromise hygienic slaughter and dressing ... The conditions of holding of animals presented for slaughter should minimize cross-contamination with food-borne pathogens and facilitate efficient slaughter and dressing ... Slaughter animals should be subjected to ante-mortem inspection, with the competent authority determining the proced...

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Ante-Mortem Inspection

By: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Nutrition Reference Publication

Excerpt: Ante-mortem inspection Ante-mortem inspection systems required by the competent authority should include the following ... all relevant information from the level of primary production should be taken into account on an ongoing basis, e.g. declarations from the primary producers relating to the use of veterinary drugs, information from official hazard control programmes ... animals suspected as being unsafe or unsuitable for human consumption should be identifie...

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Transport of Slaughter Animals

By: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Nutrition Reference Publication

Excerpt: Transport of slaughter animals Slaughter animals require transport facilities to the abattoir that ensure that ... soiling and cross-contamination with faecal material is minimized ... new hazards are not introduced during transport ... animal identification as to the place of origin is maintained; and ... consideration is given to avoiding undue stress. Transport vehicles should be designed and maintained so that ... animals can be loaded, unloaded and transpor...

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Traceability

By: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Nutrition Reference Publication

Excerpt: Recall systems Recall systems designed by the establishment operator should ... utilize the approval/registration/listing number of the establishment as a means to identify meat to its final destination ... incorporate management systems and procedures that facilitate rapid and complete recall of implicated lots, e.g. distribution records, lot coding ... keep records that facilitate trace-back to the place of origin of the animals, to the extent practicable; and...

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Animal Identification Practices

By: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Nutrition Reference Publication

Excerpt: Animal identification systems, to the extent practicable, should be in place at primary production level so that the origin of meat can be traced back from the abattoir or establishment to the place of production of the animals.

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Good Practices in Primary Production

By: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Nutrition Reference Publication

Excerpt: Primary production ... Primary production should be managed in a way that reduces the likelihood of introduction of hazards and appropriately contributes to meat being safe and suitable for human consumption ... Whenever possible and practicable, systems should be established by the primary production sector and the competent authority, to collect, collate and make available information on hazards and conditions that may be present in animal populations and that...

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Application of Risk Analysis Principles to the Meat Sector

By: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Nutrition Reference Publication

Excerpt: Food hygiene is defined as ?all conditions and measures necessary to ensure the safety and suitability of food at all stages of the food chain? (FAO/WHO, 1999a). In the practical world of meat hygiene, this will require contributions from a range of stakeholders, including industry and government. Meat hygiene is a demanding science and must deal with different classes of hazards. Chemical hazards entering the food chain at the level of primary production includ...

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Good Practices for the Meat Industry

By: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Nutrition Reference Publication

Excerpt: The FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission is in the final stages of negotiation of a new Code of hygienic practice for meat. The Code implies a transition from meat inspection towards a risk-based approach covering the entire food chain. The manual on good practices for the meat industry aims to assist the industry to prepare itself for compliance with the new regulatory framework, which is expected to come into force when the Code is approved in 2005. To help f...

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Descentralizacion E Impuesto Predial Rural

By: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Nutrition Reference Publication

Excerpt: El presente volumen forma parte de la colecci›n Estudios sobre Tenencia de la Tierra, preparada por el Servicio de Tenencia de la Tierra, de la Direcci›n de Desarrollo Rural de la FAO. Los mecanismos de tenencia de la tierra son fundamentales para la seguridad alimentaria y el desarrollo rural sostenible. El acceso equitativo y seguro a la tierra, en particular en el caso de la poblaci›n rural pobre, es un factor crucial para reducir la pobreza y el hambre, aume...

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La Decentralisation et L'Impot sur la Propriete Rurale

By: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Nutrition Reference Publication

Excerpt: Le pr?sent volume fait partie d?une s?rie d?tudes sur les r?gimes fonciers publi?es par le Service des r?gimes fonciers de la Division du d?veloppement rural de la FAO. Les arrangements relatifs ? la structure fonci?re sont essentiels aux fins de la s?curit? alimentaire et du d?veloppement rural durable. Un acc?s s?r et ?quitable ? la terre, surtout pour les ruraux pauvres, est capital pour r?duire la faim et la pauvret?, accro?tre la productivit? et la croissa...

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Decentralization and Rural Property Taxation

By: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Nutrition Reference Publication

Excerpt: The present volume is part of a series of Land Tenure Studies produced by FAO?s Land Tenure Service of the Rural Development Division. Land tenure arrangements are a key to food security and sustainable rural development. Equitable and secure access to land, especially for the rural poor, is a crucial factor for reducing poverty and hunger, for increasing agricultural productivity and growth, and for improving rural conditions. Effective land tenure institutions...

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Measuring and Assessing Capacity in Fisheries

By: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Nutrition Reference Publication

Introduction: Excessive levels of harvesting capacity are a serious problem facing fishery managers in the new millennium. Mace (1996) identified ?[over]capacity as the single most important factor threatening the long-term viability of exploited fish stocks and the fisheries that depend on them,? requiring a significant reduction in existing global fishing capacity for levels to become commensurate with sustainable resource productivity. As well as being biologically un...

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