World Library  



Biochemistry


Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes in living organisms. Biochemistry governs all living organisms and living processes. By controlling information flow through biochemical signalling and the flow of chemical energy through metabolism, biochemical processes give rise to the incredible complexity of life. Much of biochemistry deals with the structures and functions of cellular components such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and other biomolecules although increasingly processes rather than individual molecules are the main focus.

 
  • Cover Image

Seasonal Variability of Phytoplankton Fluorescence in Relation to ...

By: E. Crisafi; F. Raffa; F. Decembrini; F. Azzaro

Description: Institute for Coastal Marine Environment, CNR, Sp. S. Raineri, 86, 98122 Messina, Italy. In the Straits of Messina the large gradients of tidal displacements as well as the topographic constrictions determine the upwelling of deeper waters in the surface layer. This work describes the seasonal variability of surface distribution of phytoplankton biomass depending on upwelling phenomena. Temperature, salinity, nitrates and phytoplankton fluorescence were ...

Androsov, A. A., Kagan, B. A., Romanenkov, D. A., and Voltzinger, N. E.: Numerical modelling of barotropic tidal dynamics in the Straits of Messina, Advances in Water Resources, 25, 401–415, 2002.; Azzaro, F., Decembrini, F., and Crisafi, E.: Sequenza temporale delle condizioni termo-aline e distribuzione della biomassa fotoautotrofa nello Stretto di Messina. Biol. Mar. Medit., 7(1), 541–548, 2000.; Azzaro, F., Cavalli, R. M., Decembrini, F., Pignatti, S., and Santella, ...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Surface Circulation in the Eastern Mediterranean Using Drifters (2...

By: C. Millot; I. Taupier-letage; R. Gerin; P.-m. Poulain; S. Ben Ismail; C. Sammari

Description: Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS) – Borgo Grotta Gigante, 42/c-34010 Sgonico (Trieste), Italy. Within the framework of the EGITTO/EGYPT program, the spatial structure and the temporal variability of the surface circulation in the eastern basin of the Mediterranean Sea was studied by means of satellite-tracked drifters. A total of 97 drifters drogued to 15-m nominal depth were released between September 2005 and March 20...

Fusco, G., Manzella, G. M. R., Cruzado, A., Gacic, M., Gasparini, G. P., Kovacevic, V., Millot, C., Tziavos, C., Velasquez, Z. R., Walne, A., Zervakis, V., and Zodiatis, G.: Variability of mesoscale features in the Mediterranean Sea from XBT data analysis, Ann. Geophys., 21, 21–32, 2003.; Grilli, F. and Pinardi, N.: The computation of Rossby radii of deformation for the Mediterranean Sea, MTP News, 6, 1998.; Hamad, N., Millot, C., and Taupier-Letage, I.: A new hypothesis...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Application of a Hybrid Enkf-oi to Ocean Forecasting : Volume 6, I...

By: L. Bertino; P. Sakov; F. Counillon

Description: Mohn Sverdrup Center/Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center Thormøhlensgate 47, Bergen, Norway. Data assimilation methods often use an ensemble to represent the background error covariance. Two approaches are commonly used; a simple one with a static ensemble, or a more advanced one with a dynamic ensemble. The latter is often non-practical due to its high computational requirements. Some recent studies suggested using a hybrid co...

Bentsen, M., Evensen, G., Drange, H., and Jenkins, A. D.: Coordinate transformation on a sphere using conformal mapping, Mon. Weather Rev., 127, 2733–2740, 1999.; Bishop, C. H., Etherton, B. J., and Majumdar, S. J.: Adaptive sampling with the ensemble transform Kalman filter. Part I: Theoretical aspects, Mon. Weather Rev., 129, 420–436, 2001.; Browning, G. L. and Kreiss, H. O.: Initialization of the shallow water equations with open boundaries by the bounded derivative m...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Toward a Multivariate Reanalysis of the North Atlantic Ocean Bioge...

By: J.-m. Brankart; P. Brasseur; C. Fontana

Description: CNRS, Laboratoire des Ecoulements Géophysiques et Industriels, UMR 5519, Grenoble, France. Today, the routine assimilation of satellite data into operational models of the ocean circulation is mature enough to enable the production of global reanalyses describing the ocean circulation variability during the past decades. The expansion of the reanalysis concept from ocean physics to biogeochemistry is a timely challenge that motivates the present study. T...

Barnier, B., Madec, G., Penduff, T., Molines, J.-M., Treguier, A.-M., Le Sommer, J., Beckmann, A., Biastoch, A., Boning, C., Dengg, J., Derval, C., Durand, E., Gulev, S., Remy, E., Talandier, C., Theetten, S., Maltrud, M., McClean, J., and De Cuevas, B.: Impact of partial steps and momentum advection schemes in a global ocean circulation model at eddy-permitting resolution, Ocean Dynam., 56, 543–567, doi:10.1007/s10236-...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Nemo on the Shelf: Assessment of the Iberia–biscay–ireland Configu...

By: The Mercator Team; J. Chanut; B. Levier; P. Marsaleix; G. Reffray; P. De Mey; M. G. Sotillo; F. Lyard; N. Ayoub; C. Maraldi; S. Cailleau; M. Drévillon; E. A. Fanjul

Description: LEGOS/CNRS/Université de Toulouse, UMR5566, 14 avenue Edouard Belin, 31400, Toulouse, France. A high resolution simulation covering the Iberia–Biscay–Ireland (IBI) region is set-up over July 2007–February 2009. The NEMO model is used with a 1/36° horizontal resolution on 50 z-levels in the vertical. It is forced by the astronomical potential and atmospheric forcing fields which consist of 3-hourly ECMWF analyses. Initial hydrograph...

Alvarez, M., Perez, F. F., Bryden, H. L., and R\i os, A. F.: Physical and biochemical transports structure in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre, J. Geophys. Res., 109, C03027, doi:10.1029/2003JC002015, 2004.; Andersson, L. and Rydberg, L.: Exchange of water and nutrients between the Skagerrak and the Kattegat, Estuar. Coast. Shelf S., 36 (2), 159–181, 1993.; André, G., Garreau, P., and Fraunie, P.: Mesoscale slope current...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Assimilating Globcolour Ocean Colour Data Into a Pre-operational P...

By: K. P. Edwards; J. Demaria; D. Lea; R. M. Barciela; M. J. Martin; D. A. Ford

Description: Met Office, FitzRoy Road, Exeter, EX1 3PB, UK. As part of the GlobColour project, daily chlorophyll-a observations, derived using remotely sensed ocean colour data from the MERIS, MODIS and SeaWiFS sensors, are produced. The ability of these products to be assimilated into a pre-operational global coupled physical-biogeochemical model has been tested, on both a hindcast and near-real-time basis, and the impact on the system assessed. The assimila...

Allen, J. I., Eknes, M., and Evensen, G.: An Ensemble Kalman Filter with a complex marine ecosystem model: hindcasting phytoplankton in the Cretan Sea, Ann. Geophys., 21, 399–411, doi:10.5194/angeo-21-399-2003, 2003.; Anderson, L. A., Robinson, A. R., and Lozano, C. J.: Physical and biological modeling in the Gulf Stream region – Part 1: Data assimilation methodology, Deep-Sea Res. I, 47, 1787–1827, 2000.; Anderson,...

Read More
  • Cover Image

The Regulation of the Air: a Hypothesis : Volume 3, Issue 1 (12/03...

By: C. M. R. Fowler; R. E. R. Nisbet; E. G. Nisbet

Description: Department of Earth Sciences, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey, TW20 0EX, UK. We propose the hypothesis that natural selection, acting on the specificity or preference for CO2 over O2 of the enzyme rubisco (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase), has controlled the CO2:O2 ratio of the atmosphere since the evolution of photosynthesis and has also sustained the Earth's greenhouse-set...

André, M. J.: Modelling 18O2 and 16O2 unidirectional fluxes in plants: I. Regulation of pre-industrial atmosphere, Biosystems, 103, 239–251, 2011a.; André, M. J.: Modelling 18O2 and 16O2 unidirectional fluxes in plants: II. Analysis of Rubisco evolution, Biosystems, 103, 252–264, 2011b.; André, M. J.: Interactive comment on The regulation of the air: a hypothesis by e.g. Nisbet et al....

Read More
  • Cover Image

Application of Soil Quality Indices to Assess the Status of Agricu...

By: J. Mataix-solera; F. García-orenes; V. Arcenegui; A. Morugán-coronado; J. Mataix-beneyto

Description: GEA – Environmental Soil Science Group, Department of Agrochemistry and Environment, University Miguel Hernández. Avda. de la Universidad s/n., 03202, Elche, Alicante, Spain. The supply of water is limited in some parts of the Mediterranean region, such as southeastern Spain. The use of treated wastewater for the irrigation of agricultural soils is an alternative to using better-quality water, especially in semi-arid regions. On the other hand, this pract...

Anderson, T. H.: Microbial eco-physiological indicators to asses soil quality, Agr. Ecosyst. Environ., 98, 285–293, 2003.; Andrews, S. S. and Carroll, C. R.: Designing a soil quality assessment tool for sustainable agroecosystem management, Ecol. Appl., 11, 1573–1585, 2001.; Aon, M. A., Cabello, M. N., Sarena, D. E., Colaneri, A. C., Franco, M. G., Burgos, J. L., and Cortassa, S. I.: Spatio-temporal patterns of soil microbial and enzymatic activities in an agricultural s...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Methodological Interference of Biochar in the Determination of Ext...

By: C. García Izquierdo; T. Sonoki; K. Jindo; K. Matsumoto; M. A. Sanchez-monedero

Description: Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada del Segura (CEBAS-CSIC), Department of Soil Conservation and Waste Management. Campus Universitario de Espinardo, 30100 Murcia, Spain. Biochar application has received increasing attention as a means to trap recalcitrant carbon and enhance soil fertility. Hydrolytic enzymatic assays, such as β-glucosidase and phosphatase activities, are used for the assessment of soil quality and composting process, which are based...

Al-Asheh, S., Banat, F., and Masad, A.: Kinetics and equilibrium sorption, studies of 4-nitrophenol on pyrolyzed and activated oil shale residue, Environ. Geol., 45, 1109–1117, 2004.; Ayranci, E. and Duman, O.: Adsorption behaviours of some phenolic compounds onto high specific area activated carbon cloth, J. Hazard. Mater., 124, 125–132, 2005.; Bailey, V. L., Fansler, S. J., Smith, J. L., and Bolton, H.: Reconciling apparent variability in effects of biochar amendment o...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Soil Microbiological Properties and Enzymatic Activities of Long-t...

By: J. De Las Heras; J. Hedo; C. Wic; M. E. Lucas-borja; M. Andrés-abellán

Description: Department of Plant Production and Agricultural Technology, School of Advanced Agricultural Engineering, Castilla La Mancha University, Campus Universitario s/n, CP 02071, Albacete, Spain. Wildfires affecting forest ecosystems and post-fire silvicultural treatments may cause considerable changes in soil properties. The capacity of different microbial groups to recolonise soil after disturbances is crucial for proper soil functioning. The aim of this work ...

Andrés Abellan, M., Wic Baena, C., García Morote, F., Picazo Córdoba, M., Candel Pérez, D., and Lucas-Borja, M.: Influence of the soil storage method on soil enzymatic activities, Forest Systems, 20, 379–388, 2011.; Allué, J. L.: Atlas Fitoclimático de España, Taxonomías, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agrarias, Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación, Madrid, 1990 (in Spanish).; Almagro, M., López, J., Querejeta, J. I., and Martínez-Mena, M.: Temperature ...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Elemental Quantification, Chemistry, and Source Apportionment in G...

By: T. Kandakji; D. C. Weindorf; J. Young; M. H. Stietiya; M. A. Mahmoud; T. K. Udeigwe

Description: Department of Plant and Soil Science, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA. This study extends the application of the portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) spectrometry to the examination of elements in semi-arid urban landscapes of the Southern High Plains (SHP) of the United States, focusing on golf courses. The complex environmental challenges of this region and the unique management practices at golf course facilities could lead to differences...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Evaluation of Soil Fertility in the Succession of Karst Rocky Dese...

By: J. J. Li; L. W. Xie; F. X. Cao; F. F. Chen; L. C. Wu; J. Zhong

Description: Key Laboratory of Cultivation and Protection for Non-Wood Forest Trees, Ministry of Education, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004, Hunan, China. Expanding of karst rocky desertification (RD) area in southwestern China is strangling the sustainable development of local agricultural economy. It is important to evaluate the soil fertility at RD regions for the sustainable management of karst lands. The changes in 19 differen...

Bai, X. Y., Wang, S. J., and Xiong, K. N.: Assessing spatial-temporal evolution processes of karst rocky desertification land: Indications for restoration strategies, Land Degrad. Dev., 24, 47–56, 2013.; Barot, S., Rossi, J. P., and Lavelle, P.: Self-organization in a simple consumer–resource system, the example of earthworms, Soil Biol. Biochem., 39, 2230–2240, 2007.; Bower, C. A., Reitmeir, R. F., and Fireman, M.: Exchangeable cation analysis of saline and alkali soils...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Application of Soil Quality Indices to Assess the Status of Agricu...

By: J. Mataix-solera; F. García-orenes; V. Arcenegui; J. Mataix-beneyto; A. Morugán-coronado

Description: GEA – Environmental Soil Science Group, Department of Agrochemistry and Environment, University Miguel Hernández. Avda. de la Universidad s/n., 03202, Elche, Alicante, Spain. The supply of water is limited in some parts of the Mediterranean region, such as southeastern Spain. The use of treated wastewater for the irrigation of agricultural soils is an alternative to using better-quality water, especially in semi-arid regions. On the other hand, this pract...

Kieft, T. L.: Grazing and plant-canopy effects on semi-arid soil microbial biomass and respiration, Biol. Fert. Soils, 18, 155–162, 1994.; Anderson, T. H.: Microbial eco-physiological indicators to asses soil quality., Agr. Ecosyst. Environ., 98, 285–293, 2003.; Andrews, S. S. and Carroll, C. R.: Designing a soil quality assessment tool for sustainable agroecosystem management, Ecol. Appl., 11, 1573–1585, 2001.; Aon, M. A., Cabello, M. N., Sarena, D. E., Colaneri, A. C.,...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Soil Microbiological Properties and Enzymatic Activities of Long-t...

By: C. Wic; M. E. Lucas-borja; J. Hedo; M. Andrés Abellán; J. De Las Heras

Description: Department of Plant Production and Agricultural Technology, School of Advanced Agricultural Engineering, Castilla La Mancha University, Campus Universitario s/n, CP 02071, Albacete, Spain. Wildfires affecting forest ecosystems and post-fire silvicultural treatments may cause considerable changes in soil properties. The capacity of different microbial groups to recolonize soil after disturbances is crucial for proper soil functioning. The aim of this work...

Allué, J. L.: Atlas Fitoclimático de España, Taxonomías, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agrarias, Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación, Madrid, 1990.; Alegre Prats, S., Cortizo Malvar, M., Simões Vieira, D. C., MacDonald, L., and Keizer, J. J.: Effectiveness of hydromulching to reduce runoff and erosion in a recently burnt pine plantation in central Portugal, Land Degrad. Dev., doi:10.1002/ldr.2236, 2013.; ...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Evaluation of Soil Fertility in the Succession of Karst Rocky Dese...

By: J. J. Li; F. X. Cao; L. C. Wu; L. W. Xie; J. Zhong

Description: Key Laboratory of Cultivation and Protection for Non-Wood Forest Trees, Ministry of Education, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004, Hunan, China. Expanding of karst rocky desertification (RD) area in southwestern China has led to destructed ecosystem and local economic development lagging behind. It is important to understand the soil fertility at RD regions for the sustainable management of karst lands. The effects o...

Bai, X. Y., Wang, S. J., and Xiong, K. N.: Assessing spatial–temporal evolution processes of karst rocky desertification land: Indications for restoration strategies, Land Degrad. Dev., 24, 47–56, 2013.; Barot, S., Rossi, J. P., and Lavelle, P.: Self-organization in a simple consumer-resource system, the example of earthworms, Soil Biol. Biochem., 39, 2230–2240, 2007.; Brookes, P. C., Kragt, J. F., Powlson, D. S., and Jenkinson, D. S.: Chloroform fumigation and the relea...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Methodological Interference of Biochar in the Determination of Ext...

By: K. Matsumoto; T. Sonoki; C. García Izquierdo; K. Jindo; M. A. Sanchez-monedero

Description: Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada del Segura (CEBAS-CSIC), Department of Soil Conservation and Waste Management. Campus Universitario de Espinardo, 30100 Murcia, Spain. Biochar application has received increasing attention as a means to trap recalcitrant carbon and enhance soil fertility. Hydrolytic enzymatic assays, such as β-glucosidase and phosphatase activities, are used for the assessment of soil quality and composting process, which ar...

Al-Asheh, S., Banat, F., and Masad, A.: Kinetics and equilibrium sorption, studies of 4-nitrophenol on pyrolyzed and activated oil shale residue, Environ. Geol., 45, 1109–1117, 2004.; Ayranci, E. and Duman, O.: Adsorption behaviours of some phenolic compounds onto high specific area activated carbon cloth, J. Hazard. Mater., 124, 125–132, 2005.; Bailey, V. L., Fansler, S. J., Smith, J. L., and Bolton, H.: Reconciling apparent variability in effects of biochar amendment o...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Effects of Soil Depth on the Dynamics of Selected Soil Properties ...

By: A. Abegaz; A. Adugna

Description: Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. This study was conducted with an aim to analyze the spatial variability of soil properties with depth under four prominent land use patterns viz., forestland, grazing land, cultivated land and bush land of Northeast Wollega. Soil samples were collected from the land uses at two depths (0–15 and 15–30 cm) in replicates and totally 40 composite soil sa...

Morgan, P. C.: Soil Erosion and Conservation, 3rd edn., Blackwell Publishing, Malden, 2005.; Abubakar, M.: Monitoring land degradation in the semi-arid tropics using an inferential approach: the Kabomo basin case study, Nigeria, Land Degrad. Dev., 8, 311–323, 1997.; Adeboye, M., Bala, A., Osunde, A., Uzoma, A., Odofin, A., and Lawal, B.: Assessment of soil quality using soil organic carbon and total nitrogen and microbial properties in tropical agro-ecosystems, Journal o...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Elemental Quantification, Chemistry, and Source Apportionment in G...

By: T. Kandakji; J. Young; M. H. Stietiya; D. C. Weindorf; T. K. Udeigwe; M. A. Mahmoud

Description: Department of Plant and Soil Science, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA. This study extends the application of the portable x-ray fluorescence (PXRF) spectrometry to examination of elements in semi-arid urban landscapes of the Southern High Plains (SHP) of the United States (US), focusing on golf courses. The complex environmental challenges of this region and the unique management practices at golf course facilities could lead to diffe...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Ecological Soil Quality Affected by Land Use and Management on Sem...

By: J. Bloem; G. J. Lair; L. Hemerik; D. Moraetis; P. C. De Ruiter; J. P. Van Leeuwen; N. P. Nikolaidis

Description: Biometris, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 16, 6700 AA Wageningen, the Netherlands. Land use and soil management practice can have strong effects on soil quality, defined in terms of soil fertility, carbon sequestration and conservation of biodiversity. In this study, we investigate whether ecological soil quality parameters are adequate to assess soil quality under harsh conditions, and are able to reflect different land uses and intensities of soil ma...

Anderson, S. P., Bales, R. C., and Duffy, C. J.: Critical zone observatories: Building a network to advance interdisciplinary study of earth surface processes, Mineral. Mag., 72, 7–10, 2008.; Arroyo, J. and Iturrondobeitia, J. C.: Differences in the diversity of oribatid mite communities in forests and agrosystems lands, Eur. J. Soil Biol., 42, 259–269, doi:10.1016/j.ejsobi.2006.01.002, 2006.; Ashford, O. S., Fos...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Brief Communication: Ikaite (Caco3·6H2O) Discovered in Arctic Sea ...

By: C. Uhlig; J. Göttlicher; G. Nehrke; D. N. Thomas; G. S. Dieckmann; M. A. Granskog; S. Gerland

Description: Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Am Handelshafen 12, 27570 Bremerhaven, Germany. We report for the first time on the discovery of calcium carbonate crystals as ikaite (CaCO3·6H2O) in sea ice from the Arctic (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard) as confirmed by morphology and indirectly by X-ray diffraction as well as XANES spectroscopy of its amorophous decomposition product. This finding demonstrates that the precipitatio...

Aguilera, J., Bischof, K., Karsten, U., Hanelt, D., and Wiencke, C.: Seasonal variation in ecophysiological patterns in macroalgae from an Arctic fjord, II. Pigment accumulation and biochemical defence systems against high light stress, Mar. Biol., 140, 1087–1095, doi:10.1007/s00227-002-0792-y, 2002.; Buchardt, B., Seaman, P., Stockmann, G., Vous, M., Wilken, U., Düwel, L., Kristiansen, A., Jenner, C., Whiticar, M. J., and Kristensen, R. M.: Submarine columns of ikaite t...

Read More
 
425
|
426
|
427
|
428
|
429
Records: 8521 - 8540 of 8,608 - Pages: 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.