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Biochemistry


Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes in living organisms. Biochemistry governs all living organisms and living processes. By controlling information flow through biochemical signalling and the flow of chemical energy through metabolism, biochemical processes give rise to the incredible complexity of life. Much of biochemistry deals with the structures and functions of cellular components such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and other biomolecules although increasingly processes rather than individual molecules are the main focus.

 
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Brief Communication: Ikaite (Caco3*6H2O) Discovered in Arctic Sea ...

By: C. Uhlig; J. Göttlicher; M. A. Granskog; G. S. Dieckmann; D. N. Thomas; S. Gerland; G. Nehrke

Description: Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Am Handelshafen 12, 27570 Bremerhaven, Germany. We report for the first time on the discovery of calcium carbonate crystals as ikaite (CaCO3*6H2O) in sea ice from the Arctic (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard). This finding demonstrates that the precipitation of calcium carbonate during the freezing of sea ice is not restricted to the Antarctic, where it was observed for the first time in...

Aguilera, J., Bischof, K., Karsten, U., Hanelt, D., and Wiencke, C.: Seasonal variation in ecophysiological patterns in macroalgae from an Arctic fjord. II. Pigment accumulation and biochemical defence systems against high light stress, Mar. Biol., 140, 1087–1095, doi:10.1007/s00227-002-0792-y, 2002.; Buchardt, B., Seaman, P., Stockmann, G., Vous, M., Wilken, U., Düwel, L., Kristiansen, A., Jenner, C., Whiticar, M. J., and Kristensen, R. M.: Submarine columns of ikaite t...

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The Importance of a Surface Organic Layer in Simulating Permafrost...

By: K. Schaefer; E. Jafarov

Description: National Snow and Ice Data Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309, USA. Permafrost-affected soils contain twice as much carbon as currently exists in the atmosphere. Studies show that warming of the perennially frozen ground could initiate significant release of the frozen soil carbon into the atmosphere. To reduce the uncertainty associated with the modeling of the permafr...

Ekici, A., Chadburn, S., Chaudhary, N., Hajdu, L. H., Marmy, A., Peng, S., Boike, J., Burke, E., Friend, A. D., Hauck, C., Krinner, G., Langer, M., Miller, P. A., and Beer, C.: Site-level model intercomparison of high latitude and high altitude soil thermal dynamics in tundra and barren landscapes, The Cryosphere Discuss., 8, 4959–5013, doi:10.5194/tcd-8-4959-2014, 2014a.; Ekici, A., Beer, C., Hagemann, S., Boike, J.,...

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Experiments with Lymantria Dispar Larvae Do Not Support the Idea o...

By: R. Brandl; H. Ruhnke; D. Matthies

Description: UFZ – Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Community Ecology, Halle, Germany. All organisms have to cope with spatial and temporal heterogeneity of the environment. At short temporal and small spatial scales, organisms may respond by behavioural or physiological mechanisms. To test for physiological adjustments to variation in host quality among tree individuals within a host species, we performed a transfer experiment in a climate...

Alalouni, U., Schädler, M., and Brandl, R.: Natural enemies and environmental factors affecting the population dynamics of the gypsy moth, J. Appl. Entomol., in press, doi:10.1111/jen.12072, 2013.; Bernays, E. A. and Weiss, M. R.: Induced food preferences in caterpillars: The need to identify mechanisms, Entomol. Exp. Appl., 78, 1–8, 1996.; Blaney, W. M., Schoonhoven, L. M., and Simmonds, M. S. J.: Sensitivity variations in...

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The Oxygen Isotope Composition of Phosphate Released from Phytic A...

By: B. Brunner; S. M. Bernasconi; C. Von Sperber; E. Frossard; F. Tamburini

Description: Institute of Agricultural Sciences, ETH Zurich, Eschikon 33, 8315 Lindau, Switzerland. Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for living organisms. Under P-limiting conditions plants and microorganisms can exude extracellular phosphatases that release inorganic phosphate (Pi) from organic phosphorus compounds (Porg). Phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, IP6) is an important form of Porg in many ...

Anderson, G.: Assessing organic phosphorus in soils, in: The role of phosphorus in agriculture, Madison, USA, Amer. Soc. Agron., 411–432, 1980.; Angert, A., Weiner, T., Mazeh, S., Tamburini, F., Frossard, E., Bernasconi, S. M., and Sternberg, M.: Seasonal variability of soil phosphate stable oxygen isotopes in rainfall manipulation experiments, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 75, 4216–4227, 2011.; Angert, A., Weiner, T., Mazeh, S., and Sternberg, M: Soil phosphate stable oxyge...

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Tobacco Fermentation Process Intensification and Improvement

By: K. Kintsurashvili
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World Health Organization Drug Information : Volume 13, No. 1, Yea...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

INDEX Articles and summaries are indexed in their language of publication. The names of authors of articles are prinred in capitab Les orticles et ler rtrumts sont indexPs dons lo langue de leurpubliention. Les noms d'outeurs sont imprim& en mjucules. Acrolein, field trials in Egypt. 249-2M) field trials in Sudan. 243-248 ADM, J. P.: Transmission d'himosporidies par des anoph2les cavemimles dans les grottes du Congo (Brauavdle), 598-602 ADAMSW, . M., vide CROSSLAM)N, . 0...

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World Health Organization : Year 1987 ; The Special Programme for ...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

1. SCIENTIFIC REPORT 1. 1 Tntroduction The seventh meeting of the Scientific Working Croup (SWG) on the Immunology of leprosy (LMMLEP) was held in Geneva, 9-11 June 1987, under tha auspices of the UNDP/WORLD BANK/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR). Dr S.K. Noordeen opened the meeting with a brief review of the progress achieved by IMMLEP over the past five years. He described the setting up of field trials on the killed Mvcobacteri...

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World Health Organization Publication : Year 2006 ; Issue 92416605...

By: L. G. Sipes and A. Mattia

Medical Reference Publication

The Committee evaluated a group of nine epoxide flavouring agents, including ethyl methylphenylglycidate (No. 1577) (Table 1). The evaluations were conducted according to the Procedure for the Safety Evaluation of Flavouring Agents (see Figure 1, p. 170). The Committee previously evaluated two members of the group: ethyl 3-phenylglycidate (No. 1576) was evaluated at the twenty-fifth meeting (Annex 1, reference 56), when no AD1 was assigned; ethyl methylphenyl-glycidate (...

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World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 341: Prin...

By: J. J. Burns

Medical Reference Publication

1. INTRODUCTION The governing bodies of WHO and its Advisory Committee on Medical Research, assisted by advisory scientific groups, have explored ways and means by which WHO can contribute to the promotion of the therapeutic safety of drugs. As a result, the World Health Assembly decided, inter alia, that generally acceptable principles and requirements for the evaluation of the safety and efficacy of drugs should be formulated under the authority of WHO. The WHO Symposi...

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World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 454: Mult...

By: A. C. Allison

Medical Reference Publication

INTRODUCTION In the decade since the 1958 meeting of the WHO Study Group on Immunological and Haematological Surveys,l many advances have occurred in technical methods for processing and testing human and animal sera. Similar progress has taken place in collecting, storing, and retrieving data from both the field and laboratory, primarily because of the development and availability of electronic computers. Accompanying these technical developments, scientsc studies based...

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Short-term Changes in the Mesozooplankton Community and Copepod Gu...

By: A. Yamaguchi; J. Inoue; S. Nishino; T. Kikuchi; K. Matsuno

Description: Arctic Environment Research Center, National Institute of Polar Research, 10-3 Midori-cho, Tachikawa, Tokyo 190-8518, Japan. To evaluate the effect of atmospheric turbulence on a marine ecosystem, high-frequency samplings (two to four times per day) of a mesozooplankton community and the gut pigment of dominant copepods were performed at a fixed station in the Chukchi Sea from 10 to 25 September 2013. During the study period, a strong wind event (SWE) wa...

Ashjian, C. J., Campbell, R. G., Welch, H. E., Butler, M., and Keuren, D. V.: Annual cycle in abundance, distribution, and size in relation to hydrography of important copepod species in the western Arctic Ocean, Deep-Sea Res. I, 50, 1235–1261, 2003.; Ashjian, C. J., Braund, S. R., Campbell, R. G., George, J. C. C., Kruse, J., Maslowski, W., Moore, S. E., Nicolson, C. R., Okkonen, S. R., Sherr, B. F., Sherr, E. B., and Spitz, Y. H.: Climate variability, oceanography, bow...

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Spatiotemporal Variability of Sedimentary Organic Matter Supply an...

By: C. Wild; E. Bayraktarov

Description: Coral Reef Ecology Group (CORE), Leibniz Center for Tropical Marine Ecology (ZMT), Fahrenheitstraße 6, 28359, Bremen, Germany. Sediments are fundamental for the functioning of oligotrophic coral reef ecosystems, because they are major places for organic matter recycling. In Tayrona National Natural Park (TNNP), Colombian Caribbean, located between the population center Santa Marta (>455 000 inhabitants) in the southwest and several river mouths i...

Alldredge, A. L. and Silver, M. W.: Characteristics, dynamics and significance of marine snow, Prog. Oceanogr., 20, 41–82, 1988.; Anderson, M. J.: A new method for non-parametric multivariate analysis of variance, Austral Ecol., % 26, 32–46, 2001.; Anderson, M. J., Gorley, R., and Clarke, K: PERMANOVA+ for PRIMER: guide to software and statistical methods, PRIMER-E, Plymouth, UK, 2008.; Alongi, D. M., Tirendi, F., and Goldrick, A.: Organic matter oxidation and sediment c...

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The Subtle Effects of Sea Water Acidification on the Amphipod Gamm...

By: C. Hauton; J. Williams; T. Tyrrell

Description: School of Ocean and Earth Science, University of Southampton, National Oceanography Centre, European Way, Southampton, Hants, SO14 3ZH, UK. We report an investigation of the effects of increases in pCO2 on the growth and molecular physiology of the neritic amphipod Gammarus locusta, which has a cosmopolitan distribution in estuaries. Amphipods were reared from juvenile to mature adult in laboratory microcosms at three...

Borg,~I., Rohde,~G., Löseke,~S., Bittscheidt,~J., Schultze-Werninghaus,~G., and Bufe,~S A.: Evaluation of a~quantitative real-time PCR for the detection of respiratory syncytial virus in pulmonary diseases, Eur. Resp. J., 21, 944–951, 2003.; Bustin,~S A.: Absolute quantification of mRNA using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays, J. Mol. Endocrin., 25, 169–193, 2000.; Al-Rasheid,~K A S. and Sleigh,~M A.: Distribution and abundance of interstit...

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Rapid Carbon Cycling in the Oligotrophic Ocean : Volume 8, Issue 6...

By: S. Agustí; C. M. Duarte

Description: Department of Global Change Research, IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB), Instituto Mediterráneo de Estudios Avanzados, Miquel Marqués 21, 07190 Esporles, Spain. The dynamics of organic carbon production, release and bacterial use was examined across a range of communities spanning from highly oligotrophic ones in the Subtropical Atlantic Ocean, mesotrophic ones in the Mediterranean Sea and productive ones in the Northern African upwelling and the Southern Ocean. A compa...

Llabrés, M. M. and Agustí, S.: Picophytoplankton cell death induced by UV radiation: evidence for oceanic Atlantic communities, Limnol. Oceanogr., 51, 21–29, 2006.; Agustí, S.: Viability and niche segregation of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus cells across the central Atlantic, Ocean Aquat. Microb. Ecol., 36, 53–59, 2004.; Agustí, S. and Duarte, C. M.: Strong seasonality in phytoplankton cell lysis in the NW Mediterranean littotal, Limnol. Oceanogr., 45, 940–947, 2000....

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Empower-1.0: an Efficient Model of Planktonic Ecosystems Written i...

By: A. Yool; W. C. Gentleman; T. R. Anderson

Description: National Oceanography Centre, University of Southampton, Waterfront Campus, European Way, Southampton SO14 3ZH, UK. Modelling marine ecosystems requires insight and judgement when it comes to deciding upon appropriate model structure, equations and parameterisation. Many processes are relatively poorly understood and tough decisions must be made as to how to mathematically simplify the real world. Here, we present an efficient plankton modelling testbed,...

Anderson, T. R.: Plankton functional type modelling: running before we can walk?, J. Plankton Res., 27, 1073–1081, 2005.; Alderkamp, A.-C., Kulk, G., Buma, G. J., Visser, R. J. W., Van Dijken, G. L., Mills, M. M., and Arrigo, K. R.: The effect of iron limitation on photophysiology of Phaeocycstis Antarctica (Prymnesiophyceae) and Flagiariopsis cylindrus (Bacillariophyceae) under dynamic irradiance, J. Phycol., 8, 45–59, 2012.; Anderson, T. R.: A spectrally ...

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Review Article on the Origins of Decadal Climate Variability: a Ne...

By: K. L. Swanson; A. A. Tsonis

Description: Atmospheric Sciences Group, Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201-0413, USA. This review is a synthesis of work spanning the last 25 yr. It is largely based on the use of climate networks to identify climate subsystems/major modes and to subsequently study how their collective behavior explains decadal variability. The central point is that a network of coupled nonlinear subsystems may at times begin...

Albert, R. and Barabasi, A.-L.: Statistical mechanics of complex networks, Rev. Mod. Phys., 74, 47–101, 2002.; Albert, R., Jeong, H., and Barabasi, A.-L.: Diameter of the World Wide Web, Nature, }{401, 130–131, 1999.; Ambaum, M. H. P., Hoskins, B. J., and Stephenson, D. B.: Arctic Oscillation or North Atlantic Oscillation?, J. Climate, 14, 3495–3507, 2001.; Arenas, A., Diaz-Guilera, A., and Perez-Vicente, C. J.: Synchronization reveals topological scales in complex netwo...

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Seasonal Variability of Phytoplankton Fluorescence in Relation to ...

By: E. Crisafi; F. Raffa; F. Decembrini; F. Azzaro

Description: Institute for Coastal Marine Environment, CNR, Sp. S. Raineri, 86 – 98122 Messina, Italy. In the Straits of Messina, large gradients of tidal displacements, as well as the topographic constrictions, determine the upwelling of deeper waters in the surface layer. This work describes the seasonal variability in the surface distribution of phytoplankton biomass depending on the upwelling phenomena. Temperature, salinity, nitrates and phytoplankton fluorescen...

Alpers, W., Brandt, P., Rubino, A., and Backhaus, J. O.: Recent contributions of remote sensing to the study of internal waves in the Straits of Gibraltar and Messina. In: Briand, F. (Eds.), Dynamics of Mediterranean straits and channels. CIESM Science Series 2, Bull. Inst. oceanogr., Monaco, 17, 21–40, 1996.; Alpers, N. and Salusti, E.: Scylla and Charybdis observed from space, J. Geophys. Res., 88(3), 1800–1808, 1983.; Androsov, A. A., Voltzinger, N. E., Kagan, B. A., ...

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Impacts of Land Use Change in Soil Carbon and Nitrogen in a Medite...

By: B. Lozano-garcía; M. Martín-carrillo; L. Parras-alcántara

Description: Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, Faculty of Science, Agrifood Campus of International Excellence, ceiA3, University of Cordoba, 14071 Cordoba, Spain. The agricultural Mediterranean areas are dedicated to arable crops (AC), but in the last decades, a significant number of AC has led to a land use change (LUC) to olive grove (OG) and vineyards (V). A field study was conducted to determine the long-term effects (46 years) of LUC (AC by ...

Acosta-Martínez, V., Klose, S., and Zobeck, T. M.: Enzime activities in semiarid soils under conservation reserve program, native rangeland, and cropland, J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci., 166, 699–707, 2003.; Albretch, A. and Kandji, S.: Carbon sequestration in tropical agroforestry systems. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ., 99, 15–27, 2003.; Balesdent, J. and Balabane, M.: Major contribution of roots to soil carbon storage inferred from maize cultivated soils, Soil Biol. Biochem., 28,...

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Land-use Change Effects on Soil Quality in Montilla-moriles Do, So...

By: B. Lozano-garcía; L. Parras-alcántara; M. Martín-carrillo

Description: Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, Faculty of Science, Agrifood Campus of International Excellence – ceiA3, University of Cordoba, 14071 Cordoba, Spain. The agricultural Mediterranean areas are dedicated to arable crops (AC), but in the last few decades, a significant number of AC has a land use change (LUC) to olive grove cultivations (OG) and vineyards (V). A field study was conducted to determine the long-term effects (46 yr) of LUC...

Franzluebbers, A. J.: Soil organic matter stratification ratio as an indicator of soil quality, Soil Till. Res., 66, 95–106, 2002.; Acosta-Martínez, V., Klose, S., and Zobeck, T. M.: Enzime activities in semiarid soils under conservation reserve program, native rangeland, and cropland, J. Soil Sci. Plant Nut., 166, 699–707, 2003.; Albretch, A. and Kandji, S.: Carbon sequestration in tropical agroforestry systems, Agric. Ecosyst. Environ., 99, 15–27, 2003.; Balesdent, J. ...

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World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 635: The ...

By: A. Challier

Medical Reference Publication

INTRODUCTION Trypanosomiases in Africa are s t i l l one of the most serious threats to the health of man and a serious obstacle to the development of agricultural industry. I t i s estimated that some 35 million people and approximately 25 million c a t t l e are exposed to the risk of infection: i n v a s t areas of the continent breeding of domestic stock i s impossible due to the high incidence of the disease. FA0 and WHO have recently expanded their programnes on tr...

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