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List of Muslim scientists

This is a list of Muslim scientists who have contributed significantly to science and civilization.


  • Astronomers and astrophysicists 1
  • Biologists, neuroscientists, and psychologists 2
  • Chemists and alchemists 3
  • Economists and social scientists 4
  • Geographers and earth scientists 5
  • Mathematicians 6
  • Physicians and surgeons 7
  • Physicists and engineers 8
  • Political scientists 9
  • Other scientists and inventors 10
  • References 11

Astronomers and astrophysicists

Biologists, neuroscientists, and psychologists

Chemists and alchemists

Economists and social scientists

Geographers and earth scientists


Further information: Islamic mathematics: Biographies

Physicians and surgeons

Physicists and engineers

Political scientists

Other scientists and inventors


  1. ^ Amber Haque (2004), "Psychology from Islamic Perspective: Contributions of Early Muslim Scholars and Challenges to Contemporary Muslim Psychologists", Journal of Religion and Health 43 (4): 357-377 [375].
  2. ^ Saoud, R. "The Arab Contribution to the Music of the Western World" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-01-12. 
  3. ^ Amber Haque (2004), "Psychology from Islamic Perspective: Contributions of Early Muslim Scholars and Challenges to Contemporary Muslim Psychologists", Journal of Religion and Health 43 (4): 357-377 [361]
  4. ^ Nurdeen Deuraseh and Mansor Abu Talib (2005), "Mental health in Islamic medical tradition", The International Medical Journal 4 (2), p. 76-79.
  5. ^ Amber Haque (2004), "Psychology from Islamic Perspective: Contributions of Early Muslim Scholars and Challenges to Contemporary Muslim Psychologists", Journal of Religion and Health 43 (4): 357-377 [362]
  6. ^ a b Amber Haque (2004), "Psychology from Islamic Perspective: Contributions of Early Muslim Scholars and Challenges to Contemporary Muslim Psychologists", Journal of Religion and Health 43 (4): 357-377 [363].
  7. ^ a b c Martin-Araguz, A.; Bustamante-Martinez, C.; Fernandez-Armayor, Ajo V.; Moreno-Martinez, J. M. (2002). "Neuroscience in al-Andalus and its influence on medieval scholastic medicine", Revista de neurología 34 (9), p. 877-892.
  8. ^ Omar Khaleefa (Summer 1999). "Who Is the Founder of Psychophysics and Experimental Psychology?", American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences 16 (2).
  9. ^ Muhammad Iqbal, The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam, "The Spirit of Muslim Culture"
  10. ^ S Safavi-Abbasi, LBC Brasiliense, RK Workman (2007), "The fate of medical knowledge and the neurosciences during the time of Genghis Khan and the Mongolian Empire", Neurosurgical Focus 23 (1), E13, p. 3.
  11. ^  
  12. ^ G. A. Russell (1994), The 'Arabick' Interest of the Natural Philosophers in Seventeenth-Century England, pp. 224-262, Brill Publishers, ISBN 90-04-09459-8.
  13. ^ a b Theories on Death and Dying, Lines-2,3, in Additional Lifespan Development Topics, page-4, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,Retrieved from http://glencoe.mcgraw-hill.coms/dl/free/0078883601/680442/Additional_Lifespan_Development_Topics.pdf
  14. ^ Md Zakaria Siddique, Reviewing the Phenomenon of Death—A Scientific Effort from the Islamic World, page-1, Death Studies, 2009. Retrieved from
  15. ^ Karen Meyers, Robert N. Golden, Fred Peterson. Infobase Publishing, 2009, 106 page. Retrieved from
  16. ^ John Warren (2005). "War and the Cultural Heritage of Iraq: a sadly mismanaged affair", Third World Quarterly, Volume 26, Issue 4 & 5, p. 815-830.
  17. ^ Dr. A. Zahoor (1997). JABIR IBN HAIYAN (Geber). University of Indonesia.
  18. ^ a b Paul Vallely. How Islamic inventors changed the world, The Independent
  19. ^ All Nobel Laureates in Chemistry, Nobel Prize
  20. ^ Franz Rosenthal (1950). "Al-Asturlabi and as-Samaw'al on Scientific Progress", Osiris 9, p. 555-564 [559].
  21. ^ a b c Akbar S. Ahmed (1984). "Al-Beruni: The First Anthropologist", RAIN 60, p. 9-10.
  22. ^ Zafarul-Islam Khan, At The Threshold Of A New Millennium – II, The Milli Gazette.
  23. ^ Akbar Ahmed (2002). "Ibn Khaldun’s Understanding of Civilizations and the Dilemmas of Islam and the West Today", Middle East Journal 56 (1), p. 25.
  24. ^ a b c H. Mowlana (2001). "Information in the Arab World", Cooperation South Journal 1.
  25. ^ Mohamad Abdalla (Summer 2007). "Ibn Khaldun on the Fate of Islamic Science after the 11th Century", Islam & Science 5 (1), p. 61-70.
  26. ^ Salahuddin Ahmed (1999). A Dictionary of Muslim Names. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. ISBN 1-85065-356-9.
  27. ^ a b Dr. S. W. Akhtar (1997). "The Islamic Concept of Knowledge", Al-Tawhid: A Quarterly Journal of Islamic Thought & Culture 12 (3).
  28. ^ I. M. Oweiss (1988), "Ibn Khaldun, the Father of Economics", Arab Civilization: Challenges and Responses, New York University Press, ISBN 0-88706-698-4.
  29. ^ Jean David C. Boulakia (1971), "Ibn Khaldun: A Fourteenth-Century Economist", The Journal of Political Economy 79 (5): 1105-1118.
  30. ^ Mahbub ul Haq (1995), Reflections on Human Development, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-510193-6.
  31. ^ Amartya Sen (2000), "A Decade of Human Development", Journal of Human Development 1 (1): 17-23.
  32. ^ [1]Mas'udi, al-." Encyclopædia Britannica, 2006.
  33. ^ L. Gari (2002), "Arabic Treatises on Environmental Pollution up to the End of the Thirteenth Century", Environment and History 8 (4), pp. 475-488.
  34. ^ Solomon Gandz (1936), "The sources of al-Khwarizmi's algebra", Osiris I, p. 263–277."
  35. ^ Serish Nanisetti, Father of algorithms and algebra, The Hindu, June 23, 2006.
  36. ^  .
  37. ^ Dr. Mahmoud Al Deek. "Ibn Al-Haitham: Master of Optics, Mathematics, Physics and Medicine", Al Shindagah, November–December 2004.
  38. ^ Rüdiger Thiele (2005). "In Memoriam: Matthias Schramm", Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 15, p. 329–331. Cambridge University Press.
  39. ^ Al-Khalili, Jim (2009-01-04). "BBC News". BBC News. Retrieved 2014-04-11. 
  40. ^ Mariam Rozhanskaya and I. S. Levinova (1996), "Statics", in Roshdi Rashed, ed., Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, Vol. 2, p. 614-642 [642], Routledge, London and New York.
  41. ^ Peter Bond, Obituary: Lt-Gen Kerim Kerimov, The Independent, 7 April 2003.
  42. ^ Betty Blair (1995), "Behind Soviet Aeronauts", Azerbaijan International 3 (3).
  43. ^ Farouk El-Baz: With Apollo to the Moon, IslamOnline interview
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