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Chronology of Tamil history

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Title: Chronology of Tamil history  
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Subject: Tamil Nadu, Early Pandyan Government, Ancient Tamil music, Education in ancient Tamil country, Legal system of ancient Tamil country
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Chronology of Tamil history

Pre-historic period

  • c. 150,000-100,000 BCE - Evidence for presence of Hominins with Acheulean technology in north Tamil Nadu.[1]
  • c. 30,000 BCE-Paleolithic industries in north Tamil Nadu[2]
  • c. 8000-3000 BCE-Pre-pottery microlithic industries[3]
  • c. 3000-1000 BCE-Neolithic and fine microlithic industries[4]

Pre-Sangam period

Sangam age

Post-Sangam period

  • c. 300-590-Kalabhras invade the Tamil country and displace the traditional rulers
  • c. 300-500-Post-Sangam period, Tamil epics such as Silappatikaram written

Pallava and Pandya

  • c. 560-580-Pallava Simhavishnu overthrows the Kalabhras in Tondaimandalam
  • c. 560-590-Pandya Kadungon rules from Madurai and displaces the Kalabhras from the south
  • c. 590-630-Pallava Mahendravarman I rules in Kanchipuram
  • c. 610-Saiva saint Thirunavukkarasar (Appar) converts Mahendravarman from Jainism
  • c. 628-Chalukya Pulakesi II invades the Pallava kingdom and lays siege on Kanchipuram
  • c. 630-668 Pallava Narasimhavarman I (Mamalla) rules in Tondaimandalam
  • c. 642-Pallava Narasimhavarman I launches a counter invasion into the Chalukya country and sacks Vatapi. Pulakesi is killed in battle
  • c. 670-700 CE-Pandya Arikesari Parankusa Maravarman rules in Madurai
  • c. 700-728-Pallava Rajasimha builds the Kailasanatha temple in Kanchipuram and many of the shore temples in Mamallapuram
  • c. 710-730-Pandya king Kochadaiyan Ranadhiran expands the Pandya kingdom into the Kongu country
  • c. 731-Succession crisis in the Pallava kingdom. Council of ministers select Nandivarman II (Pallavamalla) (731-796) as the Pallava king
  • c. 731-765-Pandya Maravarman Rajasimha aligns with the Chalukya Vikramaditya II and attacks the Pallava king Nandivarmam
  • c. 735-Chaluka Vikramaditya II invades the Pallava country and occupies the capital Kanchipuram
  • c. 760-Pallava Nandivarman II invades and defeats the Ganga kingdom at the battle of Villande
  • c. 768-815-Pandya Parantaka Nedunchadaiyan (Varaguna Pandyan) rules in Madurai[15]
  • c. 767-Pandya forces defeat the Pallavas on the south banks of the Kaveri
  • c. 800-830-Varagunan I becomes Pandya king and extends his empire up to Tiruchirapalli by defeating the Pallava king Dandivarman
  • c. 830-862-Pandya Sirmara Srivallabha rules in Madurai
  • c. 840-Srimara invades Lanka and captures the northern provinces of the Lanka king Sena I[16]
  • c. 848 -Rise of Vijayalaya Chola in Tanjavur after defeating the Muttaraiyar[17]Muthuraja rulers of kaveri delta
  • c. 846-869-Pallava Nadivarman III leads an invasion against the Pandya kingdom and defeats the Pandyas at the battle of Tellaru. Pallava kingdom extends up to the river Vaigai
  • c. 859-Pandya Srivallaba defeats the Pallavas at a battle at Kumbakonam
  • c. 862-Sinhala forces under Sena II invade the Pandya country and sack Madurai. Srimara is killed in battle

Chola period

Chola to Pandya transition

Pandiya revival and Muslim rule

  • 1251 -Accession of Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan I[23]
  • 1279 -End of the Chola dynasty with the death of Rajendra Chola III[20]
  • 1268-1310 - Kulasekara Pandiyan rules in Madurai[23]
  • 1308 -Malik Kafur a general of Allaudin Khilji invades Devagiri en route to Tamil Nadu[24]
  • 1310 -Sundara Pandian, son of Kulasekara Pandiyan, kills his father and becomes king. In the ensuing civil war he is defeated by his brother Vira Pandiyan.[25]
  • 1311 -Malik Kafur, invades Pandiya country and attacks Madurai[24]
  • 1327-1370 Madurai under the rule of Madurai Sultanate[24]

Vijayanagar and Nayak period

East India Company

British rule

  • 1892 – British government passes the Indian Councils Act
  • 1909 - 'Minto-Morley Reforms'. Madras Legislative Council formed
  • 1921 - First regional elections held in Madras. Justice party forms government[29]
  • 1927 - Madras Congress passes a resolution for 'Full Independence'
  • 1928 - Simon Commission visits Madras. Mass protests result in several deaths
  • 1937 - Congress party under C. Rajagopalachari wins provincial elections and forms government in Madras
  • 1938 - Dravida Nadu consisting of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala
  • 1941 - Indian Muslim League holds its congress in Madras. Muhammad Ali Jinnah delivers keynote speech
  • 1944 - Dravidar Kazhagam

Post independence period

  • 1947 -Madras Presidency, comprising Tamil Nadu and parts of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka established
  • 1953 -Madras state comes into being along linguistic lines
  • 1965 -Widespread agitations in response to the Federal Government's directive of Hindi being the National Language
  • 1968 -Madras state is renamed as Tamil Nadu (Country of the Tamils)[30]

See also


  1. ^ Pappu et al., Shanni. "Early Pleistocene Presence of Acheulian Hominins in South India". Science Magazine. Retrieved 12 April 2014. 
  2. ^ "Excavations at the Palaeolithic Site of Attirampakkam, South India" (297). Antiquity journal. September 2003. Retrieved 17 May 2013. 
  3. ^ "Evidence of pre-historic humans in Thanjavur". The Hindu (Thanjavur, India). 10 May 2009. 
  4. ^ "Bedrock on which Neolithic man sharpened stone tools found in T.N.". The Hindu (India). 3 April 2013. 
  5. ^ "Kanchi district, gold mine of megalithic sites". IBN Live (Tamilnadu, India). 14 March 2012. 
  6. ^ Coningham, R.A.E.; Allchin, F.R.; Batt, C.M., (1996). "Passage to India: Anuradhapura and the early use of Brahmi Script". Cambridge Archaeological Journal 6:2: 73–97. 
  7. ^ Allan Dahlaquist. Megasthenes and Indian Religion
  8. ^ Keay, John (2000) [2001]. India: A history. India: Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-3797-0.
  9. ^ Singh, Upinder (2009). A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India 1st Edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson.  
  10. ^ "Hathigumpha Inscription of Kharavela of Kalinga". Project South Asia. South Dakota State University. Retrieved 12 April 2014. 
  11. ^ Strabo XV.1
  12. ^ Schoff (tr. & ed.), W.H. "The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea: Travel and Trade in the Indian Ocean by a Merchant of the First Century (London, Bombay & Calcutta 1912)". Internet History Sourcebooks Project. Fordham University. Retrieved 12 April 2014. 
  13. ^ Zvelebil, Kamil Veith (1991). Companion Studies to the History of Tamil Literature. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell.  
  14. ^ Coningham (et al.), Robin. "Anuradhapura (Sri Lanka) Project, Phase I: ASW2". Arts and Humanities Research Council. Retrieved 12 April 2014. 
  15. ^ "Preserving the past". The Hindu (India). 3 February 2010. 
  16. ^ "Sinhala king and South Indian invasions". Daily News (SriLanka). 20 October 2009. 
  17. ^ "Chapter 1-4.pmd" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-11-07. 
  18. ^ a b c d Kulke and Rothermund (2010). A History of India. Routledge. p. 115.  
  19. ^ Majumdar, R.C. (1934). Ancient Indian Colonies In The Far East. Dacca: Asoke Humar Majumdar Ramna. p. 407. 
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (2005). A History of South India. New Age International Limited (P). p. 158. 
  21. ^ Meyer, Holger (1999). Umsatzsteuer - Binnenmarkt. Berlin: Boorberg. p. 73.  
  22. ^ Sethuraman, N (1980). Medieval Pandyas, A.D. 1000-1200. University of Michigan. 
  23. ^ a b Thinakaran, Alice Justina (15 May 2007). The Second Pandyan Empire, A.D. 1190-1312. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan. p. 225. 
  24. ^ a b c Aiyangar, Sakkottai Krishnaswami (1921). South India and her Muhammadan Invaders. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 222–223. 
  25. ^ Aiyangar, Sakkottai Krishnaswami (1921). South India and her Muhammadan Invaders. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. p. 97. 
  26. ^ "Portuguese on the Coromandel". The Hindu (India). 17 May 2004. 
  27. ^ "Historical Moments". Thanjavur Municipality, Tamilnadu state Government. Retrieved 28 May 2013. 
  28. ^ "Excerpts from a Sergeant's Diary recounting Robert Clive's capture of Arcot, September-October 1751". Project South Asia. South Dakota State University, USA. Retrieved 11 July 2013. 
  29. ^ "A history of agitational politics". Frontline (India). 10 April 2004. 
  30. ^ "Tamil Nadu Secretariat - Brief History". Tamilnadu State government, India. Retrieved 16 May 2013. 
  • Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. A History of South India, OUP, Reprinted 2000
  • Nilakanta Sastri, K.A., Srinivasachari, Advanced History of India, Allied Publishers Ltd, New Delhi, Reprinted 2000
  • Read, Anthony, The Proudest Day - India's Long Ride to Independence, Jonathan Cape, London, 1997

External links

  • . Tamil shrines, Tamil culture, the history of Tamils, by Kavi Yogi Dr. Shuddhananda BharatiTamil Sentiment
  • Historical Atlas of South India-Timeline- (French Institute of Pondicherry)
  • Codrington, Humphry William, A Short History of Lanka
  • Veluppillai, Prof. A., Religious Traditions of the Tamils
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