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M3 Gun Motor Carriage

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Title: M3 Gun Motor Carriage  
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Subject: List of land vehicles of the U.S. Armed Forces, T40/M9 Tank Destroyer, T7 Armored Car, Self-propelled artillery of the United States, World War II half-tracks
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M3 Gun Motor Carriage

75 mm Gun Motor Carriage M3
A picture of the M3 Gun Motor Carriage
Type Tank destroyer
Place of origin United States
Production history
Designer Ordnance Department
Designed 1940–41
Manufacturer Autocar
Produced 1942–43
Number built 2,116
Specifications
Weight 20,000 lb (9.1 t)
Length 20.46 ft (6.24 m)
Width 6.45 ft (1.97 m)
Height 8.17 ft (2.49 m) (including gun shield)
Crew 5 (commander, gunner, two loaders, and a driver)

Armor 0.25–0.625 in (6.4–15.9 mm)
Main
armament
1 × 75 mm (3.0 in) M1897A4
Engine White 160AX, 386 in3 (6,330 cc), 6-cylinder, compression ratio: 6.44:1
147 hp (110 kW)
Power/weight 14.7 hp/ton
Transmission Constant mesh
Suspension Semi-ellipitical longitudal leaf spring for wheels and vertical volute springs for tracks
Ground clearance 11.2 in (280 mm)
Fuel capacity 60 US gal (230 l)
Operational
range
150 mi (240 km)

The M3 Gun Motor Carriage (GMC) was a United States Army tank destroyer equipped with one 75 mm M1897A4 gun based on a M3 Half-track chassis. After the fall of france, the U.S. Army decided to make a self-propelled artillery piece from the M1897A4 gun on the M3 chassis, which was designated the T12. After some improvement, it came into production as the M3 Gun Motor Carriage. However, th supply of M2A3 gun shields was insufficient for production needs, so a new gun shield was used. This was designated the M3A1 GMC.

The T12/M3 first served in the Philippines Campaign in 1942. It was served with the Provisional Field Artillery Regiment in the anti-tank and the fire-support role. It was then served in North Africa in "tank destroyer battalions". It was used ineffectively in the Battle of Kasserine Pass and a few others, but was used with success in the Battle of El Guettar. It also served in the Allied invasion of Sicily, but the M10 tank destroyers. 1361 were converted back into M3A1 half-tracks.

The M3 GMC also served in the Pacific theater, starting with the Battle of Saipan. It proved effective against the Japanese Type 95 Ha-Go and Type 97 Chi-Ha tanks. It later served in the Battle of Okinawa and the Battle of Peleliu and many other island battles.

Specifications

The M3 GMC was 20.46 feet (6.24 m) long, 6.45 feet (1.97 m) wide, 8.17 feet (2.49 m) high (including the gun shield), and weighed 20,000 pounds (9.1 t). Its suspension consisted semi-elliptical longitudal leaf springs for the wheels and vertical volute springs for the tracks, its transmission consisted of constant mesh, and its ground clearance is 11.2 inches (280 mm).[1][2]

It had a White 160AX 147 horsepower (110 kW), 386 cubic inch (6,330 cc),[3] 6-cylinder with a compression ratio of 6.44:1. It had a 150 mile (240 km) range,[4] 60 US gal (230 l) fuel tank, and a power to weight ratio of 14.7 hp per ton. It was armed with one 75 mm M1897A4, had 0.25–0.625 in (6.4–15.9 mm), and a crew of five (commander, gunner, two loaders, and a driver).[1][2]

Development

After the fall of France, the U.S. Army studied the German's effectiveness against French and British forces. By 1941, there was little available that could be used for self-propelled artillery. The Army had a number of M1897A4 guns, sufficient enough for the mass-production for such a weapon, and the M3 Half-track was coming into production. After some debate, the Army decided to place M1897A4 guns on the M3 half-track chassis,[5] which was designated the T12 GMC.[6]

36 T12s were recruited for testing, while another 50 were quickly thrown into action in the Philippines.[7] The 36 T12s were improved. The improvements included the addition of a mount the raised the gun shield, the replacement of the original gun shield with the M2A3 gun shield, and the addition of a 0.5 in (13 mm) M2 Browning machine gun, which was later removed. After the final improvements were finished, the pilot vehicles were sent to the Autocar Company for production.[6][8]

M3A1

However, the existing supply of M2A3 gun shields was not sufficient to produce the requirements for the production of the M3. The Ordnance Department came up with a solution, which was to replace the M2A3 with the M2A2 gun shield. The new design with the M2A2 gun shield was designated with the M3A1 Gun Motor Carriage.[7][9][10]

American use

The T12/M3 GMC first served in the Philippines in 1941–1942, six months after it was designed. Three battalions of the Provisional Field Artillery Brigade consisted of T12s. It mainly provided direct cover fire and anti-tank support. The Japanese captured a few vehicles and used them in the defense of the Philippines.[7]

By 1942, M3 GMCs became part of "tank destroyer" battalions, which consisted of 36 M3s and four 37 mm M6 GMCs. The M3 GMCs proved themselves ineffective in the battles of Sidi Bou Zid and Kasserine Pass, mainly due to the improper use of the M3, which was designed to be effective in ambushing tanks. The M3 was used in the Battle of El Guettar with success, claiming 30 German tanks, and possibly two Tiger tanks, at the cost of 21 M3s. Some M3s also saw service in Operation Husky, but by that time,[11] the M10 tank destroyer had replaced it in the U.S. Army.[12] 1360 M3 GMCs were also converted back into M3A1 half-tracks.[13][14]

The M3, was still in service with the U.S. marines and was first used in the invasion of Saipan. It proved highly effective against the Type 95 Ha-Go and the Type 97 Chi-Ha, in the fight against the Japanese 9th Tank Regiment on Saipan. It also served in the Battle of Peleliu and the Battle of Okinawa, and many other conflicts in the Pacific.[13]

Allied use

Two M3 GMCs used for indirect fire in Italy, 18 February 1945. One of the M3s is named "Acorn Inn".

The M3 GMCs was not supplied to many countries through Lend-lease. 170 were supplied to Britain, which used them in "armored car" regiments. They were first used in the Tunisian Campaign with the Royal Dragoons. It was also used in Sicily, Italy, and later in France, but were gradually retired. The Free French Army also used M3s for training before receiving M10 GMCs.[13]

See also

References

Citations


-- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p
  1. ^ a b Hunnicutt, p. 218.
  2. ^ a b Ness, p. 204.
  3. ^ Hogg & Weeks, p. 94.
  4. ^ Berndt (1993), p. 152.
  5. ^ Hunnicutt, p. 97.
  6. ^ a b Zaloga, p. 22
  7. ^ a b c Zaloga, p. 33.
  8. ^ Hunnicutt, pp. 98–99.
  9. ^ Hunnicutt, p. 104.
  10. ^ Berndt (1994), p. 31.
  11. ^ Zaloga, p. 34.
  12. ^ Mesko, p. 22.
  13. ^ a b c Zaloga, p. 35.
  14. ^ Mesko, p. 21.

Bibliography

  • Berndt, Thomas (1993). Standard Catalog of U.S. Military Vehicles. Iola, WI: Krause Publications. ISBN 0-87341-223-0
  • Berndt, Thomas (1994). American Tanks of World War II. Minnesota, MN: MBI Publishing Company. ISBN 0-87938-930-3
  • Hogg, Ian V.; Weeks, John S. (1980). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Military Vehicles. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. ISBN 0-13-450817-3
  • Hunnicutt, R. P. (2001) Half-Track: A History of American Semi-Tracked Vehicles. Navato, CA: Presido Press. ISBN 0-89141-742-7
  • Mesko, Jim (1996). M3 Half-tracks in Action. Carrollton, TX: Squadron/Signal Publications. ISBN 0-89747-363-9
  • Ness, Leland S. (2002). Jane's World War II Tanks and Fighting Vehicles. New York, NY: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-711228-9
  • Zaloga, Steven J. (1994). M3 Infantry Half-track 1940–1973, Oxford: Osprey Publications. ISBN 1-85532-467-9

External links

  • M3 Gun Motor Carriage (75 mm) – Military factory
  • Gun Motor Garriage M3 – History of War
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