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John Lavarack

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Title: John Lavarack  
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John Lavarack

Lieutenant General
Sir John Lavarack
KCMG, KCVOKBECBDSO
16th Governor of Queensland
In office
1 October 1946 – 4 December 1957
Monarch King George VI (until 1952)
Queen Elizabeth II
Preceded by Sir Leslie Wilson
Succeeded by Sir Henry Abel Smith
Personal details
Born (1885-12-19)19 December 1885
Kangaroo Point, Queensland
Died 4 December 1957(1957-12-04) (aged 71)
Buderim, Queensland, Australia
Spouse(s) Sybil Nevett Ochiltree
Profession Soldier
Military service
Allegiance  Australia
Service/branch Australian Army
Years of service 1905–1946
Rank Lieutenant General
Commands First Army
I Corps
7th Division
Chief of the General Staff
Royal Military College, Duntroon
Battles/wars

World War I

World War II

Awards Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George
Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order
Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire
Companion of the Order of the Bath
Distinguished Service Order
Mention in Despatches (4)

KCMG, KCVOKBECBDSO (19 December 1885 – 4 December 1957) was an Australian soldier who was Governor of Queensland from 1 October 1946 to 4 December 1957, the first Australian-born governor of that state.[1]

Contents

  • Early life 1
  • Military career 2
    • World War I 2.1
    • Between the wars 2.2
    • World War II 2.3
  • Governor of Queensland 3
  • Later life 4
  • Honours 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7

Early life

John Dudley Lavarack, circa 1887

Lavarack was born in Kangaroo Point, a suburb of Brisbane in Queensland, on 19 December 1885. He was educated at Brisbane Grammar School, where he excelled in the school's army cadets program.

Military career

World War I

On 7 August 1905, Lavarack was commissioned as a lieutenant in the Royal Australian Artillery. In early 1913, he trained as an officer at the Staff College, Camberley in England, and upon the outbreak of World War I was assigned first to the War Office, then as a Brigade Major of the 22nd Division artillery. Lavarack's division spent a month in France during September 1915, but was transferred to Salonica in Greece, where it fought in the Balkans Campaign.[1][2]

In February 1915, Lavarack was assigned to the Australian Imperial Force, but did not join it until July 1916 when he joined the Australian 2nd Division for the Battle of Pozières. He was subsequently assigned as brigade major for the 5th Division, commanding two field artillery batteries during fighting at the Somme and the advance on the Hindenburg Line. In May 1917, his staff college training saw him transferred to 1st Division headquarters, which instigated a lifelong mutual antagonism between Lavarack and his superior at HQ, Thomas Blamey.[1][2]

By December 1917, Lavarack was a Lieutenant Colonel and General Staff Officer, 1st grade in the Australian 4th Division, and took part in battles at Dernancourt, Villers-Bretonneux, Hamel and Amiens, with Lavarack's hand in planning for the Battle of Hamel setting the stage for several subsequent Australian victories.[1][2]

Between the wars

When World War I ended, Lavarack returned to Australia where he took up a post at the Royal Military College, Duntroon. In 1926, he was promoted to Brevet Colonel, and in 1927 attended the Imperial Defence College in London. Back in Australia in 1929, he found himself in heavy debate with fellow IDC student Frederick Shedden over the Australian government's adoption of the "Singapore strategy". Shedden believed that the presence of the Royal Navy in Singapore would deter any aggression from Japan, whilst Lavarack was sure that Japan would take advantage of Britain's focus on Europe and that Australian army forces should prepare for a possible invasion.[1][3]

In January 1933, Lavarack was made commandant of the Royal Military College, Duntroon. On 21 April 1935, with a temporary promotion to Major General (later made permanent in June), he was appointed Chief of the General Staff (CGS), the head of the Australian Army. As CGS, Lavarack pulled no punches over what he saw as an over-reliance on the Royal Navy and neglect of Australia's land forces—renewing his argument with Shedden, and causing considerable friction with the Australian government, in particular a number of successive ministers for Defence.[1][2]

World War II

In 1938, British officer Lieutenant General Ernest Squires was appointed Inspector-General of the Australian Military Forces. Lavarack and Squires worked together to prepare Australia for war, and by the time Lavarack returned from a tour of Britain, World War II had begun. With Squires replacing him as CGS, Lavarack was promoted to Lieutenant General and made General Officer Commanding Southern Command. In 1940, Lavarack was considered to command 6th Division, but Thomas Blamey, now the commander of I Corps, refused his appointment, citing "defects of character".[1][2] Lavarack instead took command of the newly formed 7th Division, also accepting a demotion to Major General which was almost certainly instigated by Blamey.[4]

In 1941, the commander-in-chief in the Middle East, Lord Wavell, ordered Lavarack to Tobruk, where his units were successful in repelling Erwin Rommel's forces. Wavell requested Lavarack take command of the Western Desert Force, but he was once again confounded by Blamey, who insisted that he was unsuitable for high command. After further successes in the Syria-Lebanon Campaign, Lavarack was re-promoted to lieutenant general, and took over Blamey's role as commander of I Corps, with Blamey now deputy commander-in-chief in the Middle East.[1][2]

Following the outbreak of war with Japan, I Corps was shifted to the Far East, arriving in

Military offices
Preceded by
Newly activated organization
GOC First Army
1942–1944
Succeeded by
Lieutenant General Vernon Sturdee
Preceded by
Lieutenant General Sir Thomas Blamey
GOC I Corps
1941–1942
Succeeded by
Lieutenant General Sydney Rowell
Preceded by
Major General Sir Julius Henry Bruche
Chief of the General Staff
1935–1939
Succeeded by
Lieutenant General Ernest Squires
Government offices
Preceded by
Sir Leslie Wilson
Governor of Queensland
1946–1957
Succeeded by
Sir Henry Abel Smith

External links

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i D. M. Horner, Lavarack, Sir John Dudley (1885–1957), Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 15, Melbourne University Press, 2000, pp 61–63.
  3. ^ Dennis, Peter: Heading for Disaster? Australia and the Singapore Strategy, Four Corners (Australian Broadcasting Corporation), 16 February 2002.
  4. ^
  5. ^
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^ LAVARACK, John Dudley, It's an Honour (Australian Honours Database).

References

The Lavarack Barracks in Townsville, Queensland were named in his honour.

In 1942, following KCMG in 1955 while Governor of Queensland.[9]

For his service during World War I, Lavarack was awarded the CMG in 1919, and Mentioned in Despatches three times.[1][2]

Honours

Lavarack retired to his home in Buderim on a pension of £1000 per annum. On 4 December 1957, he collapsed at the breakfast table and died. He was survived by his wife and three sons.[2][7] A state funeral was held on 5 December 1957.[8]

Later life

He was then reappointed for a further year from 1 October 1956, but due to ill health, Lavarack was only served four months of the extended term, and was relieved of his duties on 25 January 1957 by his lieutenant governor, although he officially remained governor until September 1957. [6] In 1946, the

Governor Lavarack with Queen Elizabeth II, 1954

Governor of Queensland

[2][1]

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