World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article
 

Bishopric of Hildesheim

Prince-Bishopric of Hildesheim
Hochstift Hildesheim
State of the Holy Roman Empire
Duchy of Saxony
1235–1803


Coat of arms

Territory as of 1789, valid since 1643
Capital Hildesheim
Government Principality
Historical era Middle Ages
 -  Bishopric founded 815
 -  Reichsfreiheit 1235
 -  Joined
    Lower Saxon Circle
1500
 -  Hildesheim Diocesan Feud 1519–23
 -  Mediatised to Prussia 1803
 -  To Hanover 1815

The Prince-Bishopric of Hildesheim (German: Hochstift Hildesheim) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire from the Middle Ages until 1803. It was the territory of princely rule held by the incumbents of the Diocese of Hildesheim, therefore wielding secular and religious functions as prince-bishops. It was named after its capital, Hildesheim.

Contents

  • History 1
  • Subdivisions (Ämter) 2
  • Wittelsbach prince-bishops 3
  • See also 4
  • External links 5

History

After the Duchy of Saxony had been conquered by the Frankish Kingdom, Emperor Charlemagne in 800 founded a missionary diocese at his eastphalian court in Elze (Aula Caesaris), about 19 km (12 mi) west of Hildesheim. His son King Louis the Pious established the bishopric at Hildesheim in 815, dedicated to Virgin Mary.

Millennium Rose or Thousand-year Rose

According to legend delivered by the Brothers Grimm, the king was hunting in the wintery woods of Elze, when he realized that he had lost his pendant with the relic of Blessed Virgin Mary. Distraught he sent out his attendance who finally discovered a flowering rose bush with the relic in his branches, which it would not let go. Louis had a chapel built by the side of the rose, the later St. Mary's Cathedral. A rosa canina is still growing at the apse of the cathedral, called the Millennium Rose or Thousand-year Rose (Tausendjähriger Rosenstock).

His son King Louis the German appointed the famous former archbishop of Rheims, Ebbo, as bishop between 845 and 847. Ebbo's successor Altfrid began the construction of the cathedral, the groundplan of which has not been changed since then. During the reign of the Saxon Ottonian dynasty Hildesheim, together with the neighbouring bishoprics of Halberstadt and Magdeburg, became the central ecclesiastical territory of the Holy Roman Empire. Bishop Bernward (993-1022) and his successor Gotthard (1022-1038) added much to the architectonic and cultural tradition of the present-day World Heritage Site.

At the Reichstag at Mainz of August 15, 1235 Bishop Conrad II reached the official acknowledgement of Hildesheim as a Prince-bishopric (Hochstift) by Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen. As a negative consequence of this success, Hildesheim began to interfere with the neighbouring Welf duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, culminating in the Hildesheim Diocesan Feud 1519-1523 with warlike Duke Henry the Younger of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel that led to a significant loss of territories.

In the 16th century, most of the diocese as well as most of the state of Hildesheim switched to Protestantism. But the Bishopric managed not only to retain its independence from the surrounding Protestant states of Brunswick-Lüneburg, but also to retrieve large parts of the lost estates, mostly because its bishops were members of the powerful House of Wittelsbach from 1573 until 1761, at last Clemens August of Bavaria from 1723, who also was archbishop and prince-elector of Cologne, prince-bishop of Münster, Osnabrück and Paderborn as well as Grand Master of the Teutonic Order.

During the German Mediatisation of 1803, Hildesheim lost its statehood, and the territory was given to Prussia. Prussia lost it soon thereafter to the Kingdom of Westphalia. The Congress of Vienna of 1815 gave the territory to the Kingdom of Hanover.

Episcopatus Hildesiensis, ed. by Joan Blaeu, 1645

Subdivisions (Ämter)

Wittelsbach prince-bishops

See also

External links

  • Official site
  • Map of Lower Saxony in 1789

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.