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Hans Scholl

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Title: Hans Scholl  
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Subject: Sophie Scholl, White Rose, Robert Scholl, Unsere Besten, Christoph Probst
Collection: 1918 Births, 1943 Deaths, Executed Revolutionaries, Executed Students, Executed Widerstand Members, German Christian Pacifists, German Civilians Killed in World War II, German Lutherans, German People Executed by Decapitation, German People of World War II, German Resistance Members, German Revolutionaries, Hans and Sophie Scholl, Hitler Youth, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Lutheran Pacifists, Nonviolence Advocates, People Condemned by Nazi Courts, People Executed by Guillotine by Nazi Germany, People Executed for Treason Against Germany, People from Baden-Württemberg Executed by Nazi Germany, People from Crailsheim, People from the Kingdom of Württemberg, Protestants in the German Resistance, Resistance Members Killed by Nazi Germany, White Rose Members
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Hans Scholl

Hans Scholl
German stamp of Hans Scholl and his sister Sophie
Born Hans Fritz Scholl
22 September 1918
Ingersheim, Germany
Died 22 February 1943(1943-02-22) (aged 24)
Munich, Germany
Religion Lutheran
Parent(s) Robert Scholl
Magdalena Müller
Relatives Inge Scholl (sister)
Sophie Scholl (sister)

Hans Fritz Scholl (22 September 1918 – 22 February 1943) was a founding member of the White Rose resistance movement in Nazi Germany. Along with his sister Sophie, he was executed by the Nazis.

Contents

  • Biography 1
  • White Rose 2
  • Legacy 3
  • In film 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7

Biography

Scholl was born in Ingersheim (now a part of Crailsheim, Baden-Württemberg). His father, Robert, later became the mayor of Forchtenberg am Kocher. Hans was the second of six children:

  1. Inge Aicher-Scholl (1917–1998)[1][2]
  2. Hans Scholl (1918–1943)
  3. Elisabeth Scholl Hartnagel (born 1920), married Sophie's long-term boyfriend, Fritz Hartnagel.
  4. Sophie Scholl (1921–1943)
  5. Werner Scholl (1922–1944) missing in action and presumed dead in June 1944.
  6. Thilde Scholl (1925–1926)

In 1933 he joined the Hitler Youth, but quickly became disillusioned when he realised the true meaning behind the group. He was raised as a Lutheran, although he did at one point consider converting to Catholicism. After this, Hans Scholl studied in the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München Medizin (medicine).

White Rose

In the early summer of 1942, Scholl, his sister Sophie, Willi Graf, Kurt Huber, Christoph Probst, and Alexander Schmorell co-authored six anti-Nazi Third Reich political resistance leaflets. Calling themselves the White Rose, they instructed Germans to passively resist the Nazis. The group had been horrified by the behavior of some German soldiers on the Eastern Front, where they had witnessed cruelty towards Jews in Poland and Russia.

The leaflets were distributed around the Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich,[3] where they studied, and the University of Hamburg. They also mailed the leaflets to doctors, scholars, and pub owners throughout Germany.

On 18 February 1943, Hans and Sophie were spotted by a custodian while throwing leaflets from the atrium at Ludwig Maximilians University. They were arrested by the Gestapo and, with Probst, tried for treason by Judge Roland Freisler, found guilty, and condemned to death on 22 February.

Hans and Sophie Scholl and Christopher Probst were beheaded by Johann Reichhart in Munich's Stadelheim Prison, only a few hours later. The execution was supervised by Dr. Walter Roemer, the enforcement chief of the Munich district court. Scholl's last words were "Es lebe die Freiheit!" ("Long live freedom!").

Shortly thereafter, most of the other students involved were arrested and executed as well.

Legacy

Scholl memorial in Bommersheim

Following the deaths, a copy of the sixth leaflet was smuggled out of Germany through Scandinavia to the UK by German jurist Helmuth James Graf von Moltke, where it was used by the Allied Forces. In mid-1943, they dropped over Germany millions of propaganda copies of the tract, now retitled The Manifesto of the Students of Munich.

In a historical context, the White Rose's legacy has significance for many commentators, both as a demonstration of exemplary spiritual courage, and as a well-documented case of social dissent in a time of violent repression, censorship, and conformist pressure.

Playwright Lillian Garrett-Groag stated in Newsday on 22 February 1993, that "It is possibly the most spectacular moment of resistance that I can think of in the twentieth century... The fact that five little kids, in the mouth of the wolf, where it really counted, had the tremendous courage to do what they did, is spectacular to me. I know that the world is better for them having been there, but I do not know why."

In the same issue of Newsday, Holocaust historian Jud Newborn noted that "You cannot really measure the effect of this kind of resistance in whether or not X number of bridges were blown up or a regime fell... The White Rose really has a more symbolic value, but that's a very important value."

In film

Hans was portrayed by Fabian Hinrichs in the film Sophie Scholl: The Final Days.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Inge Aicher-Scholl" at the Wayback Machine (archived December 31, 2007). 6 September 1998. Archived from the original on 31 December 2007.
  2. ^
  3. ^

External links

  • The White Rose: A Lesson in Dissent by Jacob G. Hornberger
  • Text of leaflets in English
  • Hans Scholl at Find a Grave
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