World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Article Id: WHEBN0001109441
Reproduction Date:

Title: Monogram  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: List of Dutch inventions and discoveries, Christian symbolism, Band of the Fighting Irish, Tamar of Georgia, Cantabrian labarum
Collection: Visual Motifs
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Monogram of the Dutch East India Company (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie), formerly above the entrance to the Castle of Good Hope in South Africa.

A monogram is a motif made by overlapping or combining two or more letters or other graphemes to form one symbol. Monograms are often made by combining the initials of an individual or a company, used as recognizable symbols or logos. A series of uncombined initials is properly referred to as a cypher (e.g. a royal cypher) and is not a monogram.[1]


  • History 1
  • Christograms 2
  • Royal monograms 3
  • Individual monograms 4
  • Corporate logos 5
  • Resistance symbols in wartime 6
  • Japanese 7
  • See also 8
  • References 9


The "AD" monogram that Albrecht Dürer used as a signature.

Monograms first appeared on coins, as early as 350BC. The earliest known examples are of the names of Greek cities who issued the coins, often the first two letters of the city's name. For example, the monogram of Achaea consisted of the letters alpha (Α) and chi (Χ) joined together.[2]

Monograms have been used as signatures by artists and craftsmen on paintings, sculptures and pieces of furniture, especially when guilds enforced measures against unauthorized participation in the trade. A famous example of a monogram serving as an artist's signature is the "AD" used by Albrecht Dürer.


The Chi-Rho, a monogram of the first two letters of the Greek word for Christ.

Over the centuries, monograms of the name of Jesus Christ have been used as Christian symbols. The IX monogram consists of the initial Greek letters of the name "Jesus Christ," "I" for Ιησούς, (Jesus in Greek) and "X" for Χριστος (Christ in Greek). The "IHS" Christogram, denoting the first three letters of the Greek name of Jesus, is usually written as a cypher, but sometimes as a monogram. Perhaps the most significant Christogram is the Chi Rho, formed from the first two letters of Χριστος.

Royal monograms

Royal Monogram of Bulgarian king Boris III
Speciedaler of Denmark, bearing the double C7 monogram of Christian VII.

Monograms of the names of royal cypher, so familiar on pillar boxes, is not technically a monogram, since the letters are not combined.

Royal monograms often appear on coins, frequently surmounted by a crown. Countries that have employed this device in the past include Bulgaria, Great Britain, Russia, Sweden and many German states. Today, several Danish coins carry the monogram of Margrethe II, while the current Norwegian 1 Krone coin has the "H5" monogram of Harald V on the obverse.[3] The only countries using the Euro to have a royal monogram as their national identifying mark are Belgium and Monaco.[4] In Thailand royal monograms appear on the individual flag for each major royal family member.

Individual monograms

Dress shirt monogram locations

An individual's monogram is often a very fancy piece of art used for stationery, for adorning luggage, for embroidery on clothing, and so forth. These monograms may have two or three letters.

A traditional 3-letter monogram has the initial of the individual's last name (surname) set larger, or with some special treatment in the center, while the first name initial appears to the left of it and the middle name initial appears to the right of it. For example, if the individual's name is Mary Ann Jones, and Jones is the surname, then the arrangement of letters would be thus: MJA, with the surname initial set larger in the center, the M for Mary to the left and the A for Ann to the right.[5]

Married or engaged couples may use two-letter monograms of their entwined initials, for example on wedding invitations. Married couples may also create three-letter monograms incorporating the initial of their shared surname. For example, the monogram MJA might be used for Michael and Alice Jones.[5] However, monogramming etiquette for the married couple varies according to the item being monogrammed. Linens, for example, typically list the woman's given initial first, followed by the couple's shared surname initial and then the man's given initial (AJM).[6]

Monograms can often be found on custom dress shirts where they can be located in a number of different positions.

Corporate logos

The University of Notre Dame monogram.
The UT monogram.

Some companies and organizations adopt a monogram for a logo, usually with the letters of their acronym. For example, as well as having an official seal, and the Texas Longhorns logo, the University of Texas at Austin uses a "UT" monogram (in the same color as the Longhorns logo, burnt orange). A more iconic, well recognized example is the monogram used by the University of Notre Dame Fighting Irish. [2] In sports, The St. Louis Cardinals baseball team also uses a monogram on their ball cap insignia and French soccer team Olympique de Marseille use a monogram tooken from in funder. The Consolidated Edison logo, with a rounded "E" nested inside a "C," has been described as a "classic emblem."[7]

Many fashion companies have a monogram for a logo, including Louis Vuitton and Fendi. The connected "CC" company logo, created by Coco Chanel, is one of the most recognizable monograms internationally.[6]

Athletes have also been known to brand merchandise with their monogram logo; notably Tiger Woods and Roger Federer.[8]

Resistance symbols in wartime

Polska Walcząca - "Fighting Poland".

A notable example of a royal monogram is the H7 monogram of King Haakon VII of Norway. While in exile during World War II, Haakon VII 2 and more letters the Norwegian resistance to the German occupation, and H7 became a symbol used by the Norwegian populace to mark solidarity and loyalty to the King, and adherence to the Norwegian resistance movement. The act of drawing or creating a H7 symbol in German-occupied Norway was punishable by imprisonment.[9]

Similarly, during World War II in Poland, the "PW" monogram was used as a resistance symbol, known as The Anchor, or Kotwica due to its characteristic shape. Its meaning varied, as the initials were useful for many different slogans, such as Poland Fights, Warsaw Uprising, Polish Army and others. Like the Norwegian example above, its use was punished by the Nazi occupation authorities.


See also


  1. ^ The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (Fifth edition; 2002) defines it as a "device composed of two or more letters... interwoven together." Volume 1, p. 1820.
  2. ^ Henry Noel Humphreys, The Coin Collector's Manual, Or Guide to Numismatic Student in the Formation of a Cabinet of Coins (Bibliolife, 2008), 226.
  3. ^ Coins, at the Norges Bank website.
  4. ^ A commemorative €2 coin from Luxembourg carried the monogram of Grand Duke Henri.
  5. ^ a b Jeanine Twigg, Embroidery Machine Essentials: How to Stabilize, Hoop and Stitch Decorative Designs, KP Craft, 2001, ISBN 0-87341-999-5, p. 43.
  6. ^ a b "What is a Monogram?". Retrieved 2015-07-02. 
  7. ^ BusinessWeek online, Con Ed: The Power of a Logo, 11 August 2005.
  8. ^ Brubach, Holly (August 29, 2009). "The Main Characters of Tennis, and Style". New York Times. Retrieved 21 August 2014. 
  9. ^  
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.