World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Runestone styles

Article Id: WHEBN0012139990
Reproduction Date:

Title: Runestone styles  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Hærulf Runestone, Uppland Runic Inscription Fv1986 84, Uppland Runic Inscription 613, Uppland Runic Inscription 933, Viking art
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Runestone styles

The runestone styles were part of the general evolution of art in Scandinavia. This is a part of the decoration of the Urnes stave church which is in the same as the later runestone styles.
The term "runestone style" in the singular may refer to the Urnes style.

The style or design of runestones varied during the Viking Age. The early runestones were simple in design, but towards the end of the runestone era they became increasingly complex and made by travelling runemasters such as Öpir and Visäte.

A categorization of the styles was developed by Anne-Sophie Gräslund in the 1990s.[1] Her systematization is considered to have been a break-through and is today a standard. The styles are RAK, Fp, Pr1, Pr2, Pr3, Pr4 and Pr5, and they cover the period 980-1130, which was the period during which most runestones were made.

The styles Pr1 and Pr2 correspond to the Ringerike style, whereas Pr3, Pr4 and Pr5 belong to what is more widely known as the Urnes style.[2]

Below follows a brief presentation of the various styles by showing sample runestones according to Rundata's annotation.

Contents

  • RAK 1
  • Fp 2
  • Pr (profile styles) 3
    • Pr1 (Ringerike style) 3.1
    • Pr2 (Ringerike style) 3.2
    • Pr3 (Urnes style) 3.3
    • Pr4 (Urnes style) 3.4
    • Pr5 (Urnes style) 3.5
  • KB 4
  • See also 5
  • Footnotes 6
  • Sources and external links 7

RAK

RAK is the oldest style and covers the period 980-1015 AD, but the Rundata project also includes the older runestones in this group, as well as younger ones. This style has no dragon heads and the ends of the runic bands are straight.

Fp

This style is from the period c. 1010/1015 to c. 1040/1050, when Pr3 appeared. It is characterized by runic bands that end with animal heads seen from above.

Pr (profile styles)

In the styles called Pr1, Pr2, Pr3, Pr4 and Pr5, the runic bands end with animal heads seen in profile.

Pr1 (Ringerike style)

This style is contemporary with FP dated to c. 1010- c. 1050 when it was succeeded by Pr3.

Pr2 (Ringerike style)

This style is only somewhat younger than the previous style and it is dated to c. 1020- c. 1050, and it was also succeeded by Pr3.

Pr3 (Urnes style)

This style succeeded FP, Pr1 and Pr2 and is dated to c. 1050- c. 1080.

Pr4 (Urnes style)

This style appeared somewhat later c. 1060/1070 and lasted until c. 1100.

Pr5 (Urnes style)

This style was the last one before runestones stopped being raised. It appeared c. 1080/1100 and lasted until c. 1130.

KB

This style is used by the Rundata project, although it does not attribute it to Gräslund's model. The style is common in western Södermanland and it is characterized by bordered crosses.

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^
  2. ^ Sawyer 2000:32

Sources and external links

  • Rundata
  • Edberg, Rune. Runriket Täby-Vallentuna – en Handledning
  • Fuglesang, Signe Horn (1998). Swedish Runestones of the Eleventh Century: Ornament and Dating, Runeninschriften als Quellen Interdisziplinärer Forschung (K. Düwel ed.). Göttingen. pp. 197–218
  • Sawyer, Peter. (1997). The Oxford Illustrated History of the Vikings. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-285434-6
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.