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Aiki (martial arts principle)

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Title: Aiki (martial arts principle)  
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Subject: Aikido, Hapkido, Tenkan, Kiai, Tenjho Tenge, Aiki-ken, Yoseikan Budo, Choi Yong-sool, Kitō-ryū, Aiki (film)
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Aiki (martial arts principle)

Japanese name
Shinjitai: 合気
Kyūjitai: 合氣
Hiragana: あいき
Korean name
Hangul: 합기
Hanja: 合氣

Aiki is a Japanese martial arts principle or tactic in which the defender blends (without clashing) with the attacker, then goes on to dominate the assailant through the strength of their application of internal dynamics or Ki energy to affect techniques. Blending with an attacker's movements allows the Aiki practitioner to control the actions of the attacker with minimal effort. One applies aiki by understanding the rhythm and intent of the attacker to find the optimal position and timing to apply a counter-technique.

In Japanese Aiki is formed from two kanji:

  • - ai - joining
  • - ki - spirit


The kanji for "ai" is made of three radicals, "join", "one" and "mouth". Hence, "ai" symbolizes things coming together, merging. Aiki should not be confused with "wa" which refers to harmony. The kanji for "ki" represents a pot filled with steaming rice and a lid on it. Hence, "ki" symbolizes energy (in the body). (See the qi main article for further information).

Thus aiki's meaning is to fit, join or combine energy. However, care must be taken about the absolute meanings of words when discussing concepts derived from other cultures and expressed in different languages. This is particularly true when the words we use today have been derived from symbols, in this case Chinese and Japanese kanji, which represent ideas rather than literal translations of the components. Historical use of a term can influence meanings and be passed down by those wishing to illustrate ideas with the best word or phrase available to them. In this way, there may be a divergence of the meaning between arts or schools within the same art. The characters "ai" and "ki" have translations to many different English words.

The use of the term would be passed on orally, as such teachings were often a closely guarded secret.[1] In some schools, concepts like aiki are described in logical, tangible, terms based on physics,[2] while in other definitions of aiki tend to be vague and open-ended, or more concerned with spiritual aspects. The use of the term aiki can often be ambiguous.

Aiki martial arts

Aiki lends its name to various Japanese martial arts most notably aikido and its parent art, Daito-ryu aiki-jujutsu. These arts tend to use the principle of aiki as a core element underpining the bulk of their techniques. Aiki is an important principle in several other arts such as Kito-ryu and various forms of kenjutsu. It is found as a concept in arts as diverse as karate[3] and judo.[4] Aiki arts are generally classed as soft martial arts. The aiki arts place great emphasis on the use of qi energy. Techniques accomplished with aiki are subtle and require little mechanical force.

The term of aiki is also present in many Korean martial arts where the word is referred to as hapki (합기), most notably hapkido and its softer equivalent hankido.

The concept of Aiki

Aiki is a complex concept, and three aspects of it are as follows:

1) Blending not clashing

Aiki typically describes an idea of oneness or blending in the midst of combat. In aikido it generally describes the more elevated notion of blending rather than clashing. "Blending" is often described even within aikido as "awase".[5] Many definitions for "aiki" seem to be based around "awase". Emphasis is upon joining with the rhythm and intent of the opponent in order to find the optimal position and timing with which to apply force. To blend with an attack, it is usually necessary to yield to incoming forces, so aiki is closely related to the principle of ju. Aiki is about engaging an attack, not retreating from one.[6]

2) Leading the assailant

The aiki practitioner is able to lead the attack, and thus the attacker, into precarious positions. The influence over an assailant grows as the assailant's balance deteriorates. Body movements (tai sabaki) used for this may be large and obvious or small and subtle. Subtle weight shifting and the application of physical pressure to the assailant enable one to lead an assailant, keep him static, or keep him unbalanced (kuzushi) in order to employ the one’s own technique. In the same manner, through deceptive movements, the aiki practitioner may negate a defence response from the assailant or create a defence response from the assailant that puts him even further into peril. There is a strong degree of intent, will or psychology[7] to this aspect of domination. Mind and body are coordinated.

3) Use of internal strength - Ki energy

Kiai and aiki use the same kanji (transposed) and can be thought of as the inner and the outer aspect of the same principle.[8] Kiai relates to the manifestation, emission or projection of ones own energy (internal strength), while Aiki relates to the merging of one's energy with the energy emitted from an external source (blending). Thus kiai is union with our own, internal energy while aiki is union with an attacker's energy. Kiai consists of all parts of the body being unified and directed to one intent. Aiki, ultimately has to do with a very good ability to manipulate kiai upon contact so that the practitioner blends his ki with the attacker’s ki instantaneously. This use of ki will involve the use of kokyu power, i.e. breathing is coordinated with movement.[9] Kokyu Ryoku is the natural power that can be produced when body and consciousness (mind) are unified.[10] The term "kokyu" can also be used to describe a situation in which two opponent's are moving with appropriate timing.

Thoughts on aiki

The oldest book to discuss aiki was the 1899 Budo Hiketsu-Aiki no Jutsu. On the subject of aiki it was written:


The Textbook of Jujutsu (Jujutsu Kyoju-sho Ryu no Maki) from 1913 wrote:


Sokaku Takeda, the founder of Daito-ryu aikijujutsu defined aiki in the following way:


His son Tokimune Takeda had the following to say on the same:


See also


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