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Alexander Ypsilantis

Alexander Ypsilantis (1792–1828)
Native name Greek: Αλέξανδρος Υψηλάντης
Romanian: Alexandru Ipsilanti
Russian: Александр Константинович Ипсиланти
Born 1792
Constantinople, Ottoman Empire
Died 1828 (aged 35–36)
Vienna, Austrian Empire
Allegiance
Years of service 1805–1821
Rank Major general
Battles/wars

Alexander Ypsilantis, Ypsilanti, or Alexandros Ypsilantis (Greek War of Independence against the Ottoman Empire. He should not be confused with his namesake grandfather, a Prince of Wallachia and Moldavia at the end of the 18th century.

Contents

  • Early life 1
  • Russian military service 2
  • Preparations for the Greek insurrection 3
  • Campaign in Moldavia and Wallachia 4
  • Refuge 5
  • Death 6
  • Literature 7
  • See also 8
  • References 9
  • References 10

Early life

The Ypsilantis family hailed from the Pontian population of Trabzon. He was born on 12 December 1792 in Constantinople, the capital of the Ottoman Empire, as the eldest of three brothers (the others being Nicholas and Demetrios).[1] His father Constantine Ypsilantis and grandfather Alexander were active in the Ottoman administration and highly educated, each with their own share of service as a dragoman in the Sultan's court and as hospodars of the Danubian Principalities.

Russian military service

Ypsilantis in the uniform of a senior officer of the Russian Hussars, 1810s.

With the outbreak of the Russo-Turkish War in 1805, his father fled with family to Imperial Russia. The young Alexander had received a thorough education, becoming fluent in Russian, French, German and Romanian. At the age of 15, he was presented to the Russian Court, where he came under the patronage of Empress Maria Feodorovna.[1]

Monument of Alexander Ypsilanti, that contains bones, Champ de Mars, Athens, 1869

On 12 April 1808, he entered a commission in the prestigious Chevalier Guard Regiment with the rank of cornet. Moving rapidly up the ranks, he was promoted to lieutenant on 27 September 1810 and to Stabs-Rittmeister on 18 October of the same year.[1] During the French invasion of Russia, he fought in the battles of Klyastitsy and Polotsk. Promoted to full Rittmeister (captain) on 20 February 1813, he went on to participate in the Battle of Bautzen. On 6 July, he was transferred to the 6th Klyastitsy Hussar Regiment as lieutenant colonel, and participated with his new unit in the Battle of Dresden, where his right arm was torn off by a shell.[1]

Although he was immediately promoted to full colonel, it meant that Ypsilantis would not be able to see action again. However, he attended the Congress of Vienna, where he was a popular figure in society (see Auguste Louis Charles La Garde de Chambonas, Souvenirs), and earned the sympathy of Tsar Alexander I, who appointed him his aide-de-camp on 1 January 1816. In late 1817, at the age of 25, he became a major general and commander of the 1st Brigade of Hussars of the 1st Hussar Division.[1]

Preparations for the Greek insurrection

Playing cards from 1829 depicting heroes of the Greek War of Independence with Ypsilantis as the King of Spades. Historical and Ethnological Museum of Athens.

In 1820, on the refusal of Count John Capodistria, the then Russian foreign minister, to accept the post of leader of the Filiki Eteria, the post was offered to Ypsilantis, who was then elected as the leader of the secret society. Following that, he processed and approved the general plan of the Greek war of independence, which was revised during May 1820 at Bucharest, with the participation of rebel captains from mainland Greece.

The main points of the plan were:

  • to aid the simultaneous revolt of Serbs and Montenegrins.
  • to provoke a revolt in Wallachia, by also enlisting rebels from the Serbian lands, battle-hardened from the first and second Serbian uprisings.
  • to provoke civil unrest in Istanbul through the use of agents, and burn the Ottoman fleet at the city's port.
  • to start the revolution in Greece in the Peloponnese, after Ypsilantis' arrival there.

Campaign in Moldavia and Wallachia

Alexandros Ypsilantis crosses the Pruth by Peter von Hess, Benaki Museum, Athens.

Because information regarding the existence and the activities of the Filiki Eteria had leaked to the Ottoman authorities, Ypsilantis hastened the outbreak of the revolt in Wallachia and participated personally in it. Beginning the revolution in the Danubian Principalities had the added benefit that they, being autonomous under the joint suzerainty of Russia and the Ottoman Empire, did not have Ottoman garrisons, while in turn the local leaders were entitled to maintain small armed retinues for their own protection.

Therefore, on 22 February 1821 (O.S.), accompanied by several other Greek officers in Russian service, he crossed the Prut river at Sculeni into the Principalities. Two days later, at Iaşi he issued a proclamation, announcing that he had "the support of a great power" (meaning Russia).

Ypsilantis hoped that a revolt would ultimately lead to a Russian intervention: since the Ottomans would have to invade and quell the rebellion, the Orthodox Russians would certainly intervene in favour of their fellow Orthodox. In this hope he was justified, since eventually, the Greek rebellion led to the Russo-Turkish War of 1828 in which Russian troops marched to the outskirts of Constantinople and forced the Sultan to recognize the autonomy of the new Greek state. In 1821 however, Tsar Alexander was still a committed member of the Holy Alliance, and acted swiftly to disassociate himself from Ypsilantis: Count Capodistria denounced Ypsilantis for having misused the Tsar's trust, stripped him of his rank and commanded him to lay down arms. Soon after, Capodistria himself had to take an "indefinite leave of absence" from his post.

These moves emboldened the Turks, who began assembling a large number of troops to quell the insurrection in Wallachia. Ypsilantis marched from Iaşi to Bucharest, trying to enlist volunteers. It was then that the Sacred Band was formed, comprising young Greek volunteers from all over Europe. In Bucharest, where he had arrived after some weeks' delay, it became plain that he could not rely on the Wallachian Pandurs to continue their Oltenian-based revolt for assistance to the Greek cause; Ypsilantis was met with mistrust by the Pandur leader Tudor Vladimirescu, who, as a nominal ally to the Eteria, had started the rebellion as a move to prevent Scarlat Callimachi from reaching the throne in Bucharest, while trying to maintain relations with both Russia and the Ottomans. He further took the Russian renunciation of Ypsilantis to mean that his commitment to the Filiki Eteria was over, and as result, a conflict erupted inside his camp. In the end, Vladimirescu was tried and executed by the pro-Greek faction and the Eteria.

Flag of Ypsilanti's Sacred Band

In the meantime, the Ottomans crossed the Danube river with 30,000 tactical troops, and Ypsilantis, instead of advancing on Drăgăşani on 19 June.

Refuge

Ypsilantis, accompanied by what remained of his followers, retreated to Râmnic, where he spent some days in negotiating with the Austrian authorities for permission to cross the frontier. Fearing that his defeated followers might surrender him to the Turks, he gave out that Austria had declared war on Turkey, caused a Te Deum to be sung in the church of Cozia, and, on pretext of arranging measures with the Austrian commander-in-chief, crossed the frontier. But the reactionary policies of the Holy Alliance were enforced by Francis I and Klemens Metternich, and the country refused to give asylum for leaders of revolts in neighboring countries. Ypsilantis was kept in close confinement for seven years (1823 to 1827 in Terezín), until he was released at the insistence of the emperor Nicholas I of Russia.

Death

Commemorative plate at St. Marx Cemetery in Vienna
A bust of Alexandros Ypsilantis in Nea Trapezounta, Pieria

After his release, he retired to Amalieion in Athens. His appearance in likenesses and the accounts of his life suggest he had dystrophia myotonica, a congenital multi-system disorder. (see Caughey J. E., Dystrophia Myotonica and Related Disorders. 1991)

His body was originally buried on St. Marx cemetery, and later on his remains were transferred to the Ypsilanti-Sina estate, Schloss Rappoltenkirchen, Sieghartskirchen, Austria, by members of his family on 18 February 1903. His last transfer occurred on August 1964, when he was finally relocated to the Taxiarches Church in Pedion tou Areos, Athens, Greece, 136 years after his death. Ypsilanti Township, Michigan, in the United States of America is named in honor of him. Later the city of Ypsilanti, located within the township, was named after his brother Demetrius.

Literature

Alexander Ypsilantis is mentioned in Russian literature by Alexander Pushkin in his short story "The Shot". The hero of Pushkin's story, Silvio, dies in a campaign under command of Ypsilantis.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e "князь Александр Константинович Ипсиланти". Adjudant.ru. Retrieved 2014-02-12. 

References

  •  
  • The Unification of Greece 1770–1923 - Dakin D. (1984), 2nd edition
  • (Russian) князь Александр Константинович Ипсиланти
Preceded by
Veniamin Costache
Military ruler of Moldavia
1821
Succeeded by
Ştefan Vogoride



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