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Alianore Holland

For other people named Eleanor Holland, see Eleanor Holland (disambiguation).

Alianore Holland, Countess of March (13 October 1370 – October 1405) was the eldest daughter of Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent, and the wife of Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, heir presumptive to her uncle, King Richard II. Through her daughter, Anne Mortimer, she was the great-grandmother of the Yorkist kings Edward IV and Richard III. She was Governess to Queen consort Isabella of Valois.

Family

Alianore Holland was born 13 October 1370[1] in Upholland, Lancashire, the eldest child of Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent, and Lady Alice FitzAlan, the daughter of Richard de Arundel, 10th Earl of Arundel, and his second wife, Eleanor of Lancaster, daughter of Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster, grandson of King Henry III.[2]

Her paternal grandparents were Thomas Holland, 1st Earl of Kent, and Joan of Kent, mother of King Richard II by her third marriage to Edward, the Black Prince. As such, Alianore's father was a maternal half-brother to King Richard II.

Alianore had four brothers and six sisters:[3]

Marriages and issue

Edmund Mortimer, 3rd Earl of March, had died in 1381, leaving a 6-year-old son, Roger Mortimer, as heir to the vast Mortimer estates. According to Davies, the wardship of such an important heir was an 'issue of political moment in the years 1382–4', and eventually Mortimer's lands were granted to a consortium for £4000 per annum, and the guardianship of his person was initially granted to Richard Fitzalan, 11th Earl of Arundel. However at the behest of King Richard's mother, Joan of Kent, in August 1384 Mortimer's wardship and marriage were granted, for 6000 marks,[4] to Joan's son, Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent, and on or about 7 October 1388[1] Kent married Mortimer to his daughter, Alianore.[5]

Roger Mortimer had a claim to the crown through his mother, Philippa Plantagenet, daughter of Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence, and granddaughter of King Edward III. Since Richard II had no issue, Roger Mortimer, as his nephew and a lineal descendant of Edward III, was next in line to the throne. Cokayne states that in October 1385 Mortimer was proclaimed by the King as heir presumptive.[6] However according to Davies the story that Richard publicly proclaimed Mortimer as heir presumptive in Parliament in October 1385 is baseless, although contemporary records indicate that his claim was openly discussed at the time.[5]

Alianore and Roger Mortimer had two sons and two daughters:[7]

On 20 July 1398, at the age of 24, Roger Mortimer was slain in a skirmish with 'O'Brien's men' at Kells.[9] The Wigmore chronicler says that he was riding in front of his army, unattended and wearing Irish garb, and that those who slew him did not know who he was. He was interred at Wigmore Abbey.[10] The King went to Ireland in the following year to avenge Mortimer's death.[11]

The Wigmore chronicler, while criticizing Mortimer for lust and remissness in his duty to God, extols him as 'of approved honesty, active in knightly exercises, glorious in pleasantry, affable and merry in conversation, excelling his contemporaries in beauty of appearance, sumptuous in his feasting, and liberal in his gifts'.[12]

Alianore and Roger Mortimer's young son, Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, succeeded his father in the title and claim to the throne, and he and his brother, Roger, were kept in custody by King Henry IV until the end of his reign. However Alianore and Roger Mortimer's two daughters, Anne and Eleanor, were in their mother's care until her death in 1405.[13] According to Griffiths, they were not well treated by the King, and were described as 'destitute' after her death in 1405.[14]

Before 19 June 1399 Alianore married, as her second husband, the 'Welsh marcher lord', Edward Charleton, 5th Baron Cherleton (1371–1421), by whom she had two daughters:[15]

Death

Eleanor died in childbirth in October 1405.[16]

Her descendants through her daughter, Anne, include the Yorkist Kings Edward IV and Richard III, and Anne Bourchier, 7th Baroness Bourchier.

Footnotes

References

Further reading

  1. Thomas B. Costain,The Last Plantagenets, published by Popular Library, New York, 1962, originally published by Doubleday and Co., Inc.

Ancestry

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