World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Anna Borkowska (Sister Bertranda)

Article Id: WHEBN0018732653
Reproduction Date:

Title: Anna Borkowska (Sister Bertranda)  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: List of Polish people, Righteous Among the Nations, Abba Kovner, Fareynikte Partizaner Organizatsye, Rescue of Jews by Poles during the Holocaust
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Anna Borkowska (Sister Bertranda)


Anna Borkowska (at that time called Mother Bertranda, O.P.; 1900 –1988),[1] was a Polish cloistered Dominican nun who served as the prioress of her monastery in Kolonia Wileńska, near Wilno, Poland (now Vilnius, Lithuania). She was a graduate of the University of Kraków who had entered the monastery after her studies. During World War II, under her leadership, the nuns of the monastery sheltered 17 young Jewish activists from Nazi persecution. In recognition of this, in 1984 she was awarded the title of Righteous among the Nations by Yad Vashem.

Hiding Jews

Vilnius was taken over by the Germans on 24 June 1941, in Operation Barbarossa, and the killing of the Jews began almost immediately. Mother Betranda first agitated to save Vilnius’ Jewish population following the start of the Ponary massacre in July 1941. She initially sought to gain the support of the Vilnius Catholic leadership, but they rebuffed her efforts out of fear that the Nazi German occupation forces would destroy church property and kill any Christian(s) found to be aiding Jews.[2]

Acting on her own initiative, Mother Betranda then took in 17 members of Hashomer Hatzair, a local Zionist group, and hid them within the grounds of her monastery. The activists included Abe Kovner, the movement's leader, Abraham Suckerwer, Arie Wilner and Edek Boraks. They helped the nuns with working their fields, while Kovner, realized the goals of Hitler's Final Solution, worked on organizing a political resistance to the occupation and writing his manifesto for the later uprising.[1] When several of her nuns objected, Mother Bertranda reportedly threatened them with expulsion from the monastery and excommunication from the faith. Some of the Hashomer Hatzair members later decided to leave their monastery hideout and to return to the Jewish Ghetto in Vilnius, where they organized an underground resistance movement.[2]

Ghetto uprising

Soon after that, Mother Bertranda left the monastery and went to the Ghetto to volunteer her services.[1] She was dissuaded from this by Kovner, who asked that she organize the procurement of supplies instead. She and the other Dominican nuns then took it upon themselves to help the Jewish resistance by smuggling in arms and ammunition. The other nuns of the community included Sister Bernadeta, O.P. (Julia Michrowska), Sister Cecylia, O.P. (Maria Roszek), Sister Diana, O.P. (Helena Frackiewicz), Sister Imelda, O.P. (Maria Neugebauer), Sister Jordana, O.P. (Maria Ostrejko), Sister Małgorzata, O.P. (Irena Adamek) and Sister Stefania, O.P. (Stanisława Bednarska).[3] In this they became among the first to supply hand grenades and other weapons to the Vilnius ghetto underground.[4] Between August and September 1943, some 12,000 men, women and children were deported to camps in Estonia. The uprising, organized by Fareynikte Partizaner Organizatsye (the United Partisan Organization) on 1 September 1943 was crushed. The final Nazi destruction of whatever remained of the Ghetto followed.

In September 1943, Mother Bertranda was arrested by the Nazi German occupation authorities and sent to a labor camp at Perwejniszki, near Kaunas (Polish: Kowno). The monastery was closed and the community of nuns was forced to disperse.[3] After the war, Mother Bertranda asked for a dispensation from her vows and left the monastery.[4][5] She reportedly remained a faithful Catholic, nonetheless.[4]

Recognition

In 1984, Borkowska, now living alone in a small apartment in Warsaw, was awarded the title of Righteous among the Nations by Yad Vashem. Abba Kovner, one of the young Jews who had been saved by Borkowska, personally presented a medal to her at a ceremony in Poland. She was the only member of her monastic community to be honored,[4] according to the statistics given by Yad Vashem.[6]

See also

Notes

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.