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Apuolė

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Apuolė

Apuolė
Village
Medieval festival in Apuolė
Medieval festival in Apuolė
Apuolė is located in Lithuania
Apuolė
Apuolė
Location in Lithuania
Coordinates:
Country  Lithuania
County Klaipėda County
Municipality Skuodas district municipality
Eldership Aleksandrija eldership
First mentioned 854
Population (2011)
 • Total 119
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)

Apuolė is a historic village in Skuodas district municipality, Lithuania. It is situated some 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) east of Skuodas on the banks of the Luoba River.[1] It had a population of 132 according to the 2001 census[2] and 119 according to the 2011 census.[3] Having survived a viking attack in 854, Apuolė is the oldest Lithuanian settlement mentioned in written sources. Since 2004, the attack is commemorated by an annual medieval reenactment Apuolė 854.

History

Apuolė mound

Apuolė was an important hill fort of the Curonians, one of the Baltic tribes. Archaeologists dated the wooden fortress to the 1st century AD.[1] The hill fort is situated on the confluence of Luoba and its tributary Brukis rivulet. According to archaeological research, a large village was situated near the hill fort. This would indicate early stages of city development.[4]

Grobiņa before besieging Apuolė. According to Rimbert, 15,000 locals defended themselves for eight days but then agreed to surrender: the Curonians paid silver ransom for each man in the fortress, pledged their loyalty to Sweden, and gave 30 hostages to guarantee future payments.[5]

Apuolė was mentioned again only in a 1253 treaty between Bishop of Riga and Livonian Order. The location was described as uncultivated land.[1] The castle was probably destroyed and the villagers moved to safer areas. The settlement was mentioned again in the 17th century. By late 18th century the hill fort attracted attention from historians and archaeologists. The first excavations were carried out by Eduards Volters and Birger Nerman in 1928–1932.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b c d Simas Sužiedėlis, ed. (1970–1978). "Apuolė".  
  2. ^ Klaipėdos apskrities kaimo gyvenamosios vietovės ir jų gyventojai (in Lietuvių). Vilnius: Department of Statistics to the Government of the Republic of Lithuania. 2003. p. 48.  
  3. ^ "Gyventojai gyvenamosiose vietovėse" (Excel). Department of Statistics to the Government of the Republic of Lithuania. 2013-01-25. Retrieved 2014-10-29. 
  4. ^ Zabiela, Gintautas (1995). Lietuvos medinės pilys (in Lietuvių). Vilnius: Diemedis. p. 63.  
  5. ^ a b c Butrimas, Adomas; Jovaiša, Eugenijus; Malonaitis, Arvydas (2002). "Seniausios rašytinės žinios apie Rytų Pabaltijį". Gimtoji istorija. Nuo 7 iki 12 klasės (in Lietuvių). Vilnius: Elektroninės leidybos namai.  

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