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Archduke of Austria


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Austria was ruled by the House of Babenberg until 1246 and by the House of Habsburg from 1282 to 1918.

Margraves of Austria

Main article: Margrave

The March of Austria, also known as Marcha Orientalis, was first formed in 976 out of the lands that had once been the March of Pannonia in Carolingian times. The oldest attestation dates back to 996, where the written name "ostarrichi" occurs in a document transferring land in present-day Austria to a Bavarian monastery.

House of Babenberg

|width=auto| Leopold I the Illustrious
(Luitpold der Erlauchte)
976–994 | | c. 940 | Richardis of Sualafeldgau
nine children | 10 July 994
Würzburg
aged about 54 |- |width=auto| Henry I the Strong
(Heinrich der Starke)
994–1018 | | late 10th century
son of Leopold I and Richardis of Sualafeldgau | never married | 23 June 1018 |- |width=auto| Adalbert the Victorious
(Adalbert der Siegreiche)
1018–1055 | | c. 985
son of Leopold I and Richardis of Sualafeldgau | (1) Glismod of West-Saxony
two children
(2) Frozza Orseolo
no issue | 26 May 1055
Melk
aged about 70 |- |width=auto| Ernest the Brave
(Ernst der Tapfere)
1055–1075 | | c. 1027
son of Adalbert and Glismod of West-Saxony | (1) Adelaide of Eilenburg
1060
three children
(2) Swanhilde von der Ungarnmark
1072
no issue | 10 June 1075
aged about 48 |- |width=auto| Leopold II the Fair
(Luitpold der Schöne)
1075-1095 | | c. 1050
son of Ernest and Adelaide of Eilenburg | Ida of Cham
1065
eight children | 12 October 1095
aged about 45 |- |width=auto| Leopold III the Good
(Luitpold der Heilige)
1095–1136 | | c. 1073
Melk
son of Leopold II and Ida of Cham | (1) Maria of Perg
one son
(2) Agnes of Germany
1106
eighteen children | 15 November 1136
Vienna
aged about 63 |- |width=auto| Leopold IV the Generous
(Luitpold der Freigiebige)
1137–1141 | | c. 1108
son of Leopold III and Agnes of Germany | Maria of Bohemia
28 September 1138
no issue | 18 October 1141
Niederalteich
aged about 33 |- |width=auto| Henry II Jasomirgott
(Heinrich Jasomirgott)
1141–1156 | | c. 1107
son of Leopold III and Agnes of Germany | (1) Gertrude of Süpplingenburg
1 May 1142
one daughter
(2) Theodora Komnene
1148
three children | 13 January 1177
aged about 70 |- |}

Dukes of Austria

In 1156, the Privilegium Minus elevated the march to a duchy, independent of the Duchy of Bavaria.

House of Babenberg

|width=auto| Henry II Jasomirgott
(Heinrich Jasomirgott)
1156-1177 | | c. 1107
son of Leopold III and Agnes of Germany | (1) Gertrude of Süpplingenburg
1 May 1142
one daughter
(2) Theodora Komnene
1148
three children | 13 January 1177
aged about 70 |- |width=auto| Leopold V the Virtuous
(Luitpold der Tugendhafte)
1177-1194 | | c. 1157
son of Henry II and Theodora Komnene | Helena of Hungary
1174
four children | 31 December 1194
Graz
aged about 37 |- |width=auto| Frederick I the Catholic
(Friedrich der Katholische)
1195-1198 | | c. 1175
son of Leopold V and Helena of Hungary | never married | 16 April 1198
The Holy Land
aged about 23 |- |width=auto| Leopold VI the Glorious
(Luitpold der Glorreiche)
1198-1230 | | c. 1176
son of Leopold V and Helena of Hungary | Theodora Angelina
1203
seven children | 28 July 1230
San Germano
aged about 54 |- |width=auto| Frederick II the Quarrelsome
(Friedrich der Streitbare)
1230-1246 | | 25 April 1211
Wiener Neustadt
son of Leopold VI and Theodora Angelina | (1) Sophia Laskarina
no issue
(2) Agnes of Merania
1229
no issue | 15 June 1246
Leitha
aged 35 |- |}

Interregnum

After Frederick's death, the succession of the Duchy was disputed between various claimants:

House of Habsburg

Main article: House of Habsburg

In 1278, Rudolf I, King of Germany, defeated Ottokar and took control of Austria. In 1282 he invested his sons with the Duchies of Austria and Styria, thereby securing it for the House of Habsburg. |width=auto| Rudolf I
1278-1282 | | 1 May 1218
Breisgau
son of Albert IV, Count of Habsburg and Hedwig of Kyburg | (1) Gertrude of Hohenburg
1245
9 children
(2) Isabella of Burgundy
5 February 1284
no issue | 15 July 1291
Speyer
aged 73 |- |width=auto| Albert I
1282-1308 | | July 1255
Vienna
eldest son of Rudolf I and Gertrude of Hohenburg | Elisabeth of Gorizia-Tyrol
20 December 1274
Vienna
12 children | 1 May 1308
Windisch
aged 52 |- |width=auto| Rudolf II the Debonair
1282-1283 | | July 1270
Rheinfelden
third son of Rudolph I and Gertrude of Hohenburg | Agnes of Bohemia
March 1289
Prague
one son | 10 May 1290
Prague
aged 20 |- |width=auto| Rudolf III the Good
1298-1307 | | c. 1281
Vienna
eldest son of Albert I and Elisabeth of Gorizia-Tyrol | (1) Blanche of France
25 May 1300
one daughter
(2) Elisabeth Richeza of Poland
16 October 1306
no issue | 3/4 July 1307
Horažďovice
aged 26 |- |width=auto| Frederick I the Fair
1308-1330 | | c. 1289
Vienna
second son of Albert I and Elisabeth of Gorizia-Tyrol | Isabella of Aragon
11 May 1315
Ravensburg
three children | 13 January 1330
Gutenstein
aged 41 |- |width=auto| Leopold I the Glorious
1308-1326 | | 4 August 1290
Vienna
third son of Albert I and Elisabeth of Gorizia-Tyrol | Catherine of Savoy
26 May 1315
Basel
two daughters | 28 February 1326
Strassburg
aged 35 |- |width=auto| Albert II the Wise
1330-1358 | | 12 December 1298
Habsburg Castle
fourth son of Albert I and Elisabeth of Gorizia-Tyrol | Joanna of Pfirt
15 February 1324
Vienna
six children | 16 August 1358
Vienna
aged 59 |- |width=auto| Otto I the Merry
1330-1339 | | 23 July 1301
Vienna
seventh son of Albert I and Elisabeth of Gorizia-Tyrol | (1) Elisabeth of Bavaria
15 May 1325
Straubing
two sons
(2) Anne of Bohemia
16 February 1335
Znaim
no issue | 17 February 1339
Neuberg an der Mürz
aged 37 |- |width=auto| Frederick II
1339-1344 |rowspan="2"| | 10 February 1327
eldest son of Otto I and Elisabeth of Bavaria | never married | 11 December 1344
Neuberg an der Mürz
aged 17 |- |width=auto| Leopold II
1339-1344 | c. 1328
second son of Otto I and Elisabeth of Bavaria | never married | 10 August 1344
aged 16 |- |width=auto| Rudolf IV the Founder
1358-1365 | | 1 November 1339
Vienna
eldest son of Albert II the Wise and Joanna of Pfirt | Catherine of Bohemia
13 July 1356
Vienna
no issue | 27 July 1365
Milan
aged 25 |- |}

Archdukes of Austria

House of Habsburg

The Privilegium Maius, fabricated by Rudolf in 1359, attempted to invest the Dukes of Austria with the special position of an Archduke. This title was frequently used by Ernest the Iron and other Dukes but not recognized by other princes of the Holy Roman Empire until Frederick V became Emperor and confirmed the Privilegium in 1453.

Rudolf was succeeded by his brothers that at first ruled jointly: |width=auto| Albert III the Pigtail
1365-1379 | | 9 September 1349
Vienna
third son of Albert II the Wise and Joanna of Pfirt | (1) Elisabeth of Bohemia
after 19 March 1366
Vienna
no issue
(2) Beatrice of Nuremberg
4 March 1375
Vienna
one son | 29 August 1395
Laxenburg
aged 45 |- |width=auto| Leopold III the Just
1365-1379 | | 1 November 1351
Vienna
fourth son of Albert II the Wise and Joanna of Pfirt | Viridis Visconti
23 February 1365
Vienna
six children | 9 July 1386
Sempach
aged 34 |- |}

Divided Rule

The territories were divided between the brothers and their descendants in the Treaty of Neuberg in 1379:

The Albertinian Line received the Duchy of Austria, later called Lower Austria (not to be confused with the namesake modern state): |width=auto| Albert III the Pigtail
1379-1395 | | 9 September 1349
Vienna
third son of Albert the Wise and Joanna of Pfirt | (1) Elisabeth of Bohemia
after 19 March 1366
Vienna
no issue
(2) Beatrice of Nuremberg
4 March 1375
Vienna
one son | 29 August 1395
Laxenburg
aged 45 |- |width=auto| Albert IV the Patient
1395-1404 | | 19 September 1377
Vienna
only son of Albert the Pigtail and Beatrice of Nuremberg | Joanna Sophia of Bavaria
24 April 1390
Vienna
two children | 14 September 1404
Klosterneuburg
aged 26 |- |width=auto| Albert V
1404-1439
under joint guardianship
of Leopold IV and Ernest (1404–1411)
| | 16 August 1397
Vienna
only son of Albert IV and Joanna Sophia of Bavaria | Elizabeth of Luxembourg
26 April 1422
Vienna
three children | 27 October 1439
Neszmély
aged 42 |- |align="center" colspan="5"|Vacant 1439-1440 |- |width=auto| Ladislaus I the Posthumous
1440-1457
under guardianship
of Frederick V (1440–1452)
| | 22 February 1440
Komarom
only son of Albert V and Elizabeth of Luxembourg | never married | 23 November 1457
Prague
aged 17 |- |}

After Ladislaus' death his territories passed to the Leopoldinian Line:

|width=auto| Frederick V the Peaceful
1457-1493 | | 21 September 1415
Innsbruck
first son of Ernest and Cymburgis of Masovia | Eleanor of Portugal
16 March 1452
Rome
five children | 19 August 1493
Linz
aged 77 |- |width=auto| Albert VI the Prodigal
1457-1463 | | 12 September 1418
Vienna
third son of Ernest and Cymburgis of Masovia | Mathilde of the Palatinate
1452
Vienna
no issue | 2 December 1463
Vienna
aged 45 |- |}

The Leopoldinian Line received the Duchies of Styria, Carinthia and Carniola, the County of Tyrol and Further Austria: |width=auto| Leopold III the Just
1379-1386 | | 1 November 1351
Vienna
fourth son of Albert the Wise and Joanna of Pfirt | Viridis Visconti
23 February 1365
Vienna
six children | 9 July 1386
Sempach
aged 34 |- |width=auto| William the Courteous
1386-1406 | | c. 1370
Vienna
eldest son of Leopold the Just and Viridis Visconti | Joan II of Naples
13 November 1401
Vienna
no issue | 15 July 1406
Vienna
aged 36 |- |width=auto| Leopold IV the Fat
1386-1411 | | c. 1371
Vienna
second son of Leopold the Just and Viridis Visconti | Catherine of Burgundy
15 August 1393
Vienna
no issue | 3 June 1411
Vienna
aged 40 |- |width=auto| Ernest the Iron
1402-1406 | | c. 1377
Bruck an der Mur
third son of Leopold the Just and Viridis Visconti | (1) Margaret of Pomerania
14 January 1392
Bruck an der Mur
no issue
(2) Cymburgis of Masovia
25 January 1412
Kraków
nine children | 10 June 1424
Bruck an der Mur
aged 47 |- |width=auto| Frederick IV of the Empty Pockets
1402-1406 | | c. 1382
fourth son of Leopold the Just and Viridis Visconti | (1) Elisabeth of the Palatinate
24 December 1407
Innsbruck
one daughter
(2) Anna of Brunswick
11 June 1411
Innsbruck
four children | 24 June 1439
Innsbruck
aged 57 |- |}

In 1406, the Leopoldinian lines split their territories:
The Elder Ernestine line received the Duchies of Styria, Carinthia and Carniola, also called Inner Austria:

|width=auto| Ernest the Iron
1402-1424 | | c. 1377
Bruck an der Mur
third son of Leopold the Just and Viridis Visconti | (1) Margaret of Pomerania
14 January 1392
Bruck an der Mur
no issue
(2) Cymburgis of Masovia
25 January 1412
Kraków
nine children | 10 June 1424
Bruck an der Mur
aged 47 |- |width=auto| Frederick V the Peaceful
1457-1493 | | 21 September 1415
Innsbruck
first son of Ernest the Iron and Cymburgis of Masovia | Eleanor of Portugal
16 March 1452
Rome
five children | 19 August 1493
Linz
aged 77 |- |width=auto| Albert VI the Prodigal
1457-1463 | | 12 September 1418
Vienna
third son of Ernest the Iron and Cymburgis of Masovia | Mathilde of the Palatinate
1452
Vienna
no issue | 2 December 1463
Vienna
aged 45 |- |}

Both under the guardianship of |width=auto| Frederick IV of the Empty Pockets
1406-1435 | | c. 1382
fourth son of Leopold the Just and Viridis Visconti | (1) Elisabeth of the Palatinate
24 December 1407
Innsbruck
one daughter
(2) Anna of Brunswick
11 June 1411
Innsbruck
four children | 24 June 1439
Innsbruck
aged 57 |- |}

The Junior Tyrolean Line received Tyrol and soon also Further Austria. These territories were also called Upper Austria (not to be confused with the namesake modern state):

|width=auto| Frederick IV of the Empty Pockets
1406-1439 | | c. 1382
fourth son of Leopold the Just and Viridis Visconti | (1) Elisabeth of the Palatinate
24 December 1407
Innsbruck
one daughter
(2) Anna of Brunswick
11 June 1411
Innsbruck
four children | 24 June 1439
Innsbruck
aged 57 |- |width=auto| Sigismund the Rich
1439-1490
under guardianship
of Frederick V (1439–1446)
| | 26 October 1427
Innsbruck
second son of Frederick IV and Anna of Brunswick | (1) Eleanor of Scotland
12 February 1449
Innsbruck
one son
(2) Katharina of Saxony
24 February 1484
Innsbruck
no issue | 4 March 1496
Innsbruck
aged 68 |- |}

In 1490 these territories were handed over to

|width=auto| Maximilian I the Last Knight
1490-1493 | | 22 March 1459
Wiener Neustadt
second son of Frederick V and Eleanor of Portugal | (1) Mary of Burgundy
18 August 1477
Ghent
three children
(2) Anne of Brittany
18 December 1490
Rennes
no issue
(3) Bianca Maria Sforza
16 March 1494
Hall in Tirol
no issue | 12 January 1519
Wels
aged 59 |- |}

  • Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary, claimed the Austrian territories and occupied Austria proper and Styria. Claiming the title "Duke of Austria", he resided in Vienna from 1485 to his death in 1490.

|width=auto| Matthias Corvinus
1485-1490
Claimant Duke
| | 23 February 1443
Kolozsvár
second son of John Hunyadi and Elizabeth Szilágyi | (1) Elizabeth of Celje
no issue
(2) Catherine of Poděbrady
1 May 1461
Matthias Church, Budapest
no issue
(3) Beatrice of Naples
15 December 1476
Vienna
no issue | 6 April 1490
Vienna
aged 47 |- |}

Reunited Rule

The Austrian territories were again reunited in 1493. |width=auto| Maximilian I
1493-1519 | | 22 March 1459
Wiener Neustadt
second son of Frederick V and Eleanor of Portugal | (1) Mary of Burgundy
18 August 1477
Ghent
three children
(2) Anne of Brittany
18 December 1490
Rennes
no issue
(3) Bianca Maria Sforza
16 March 1494
Hall in Tirol
no issue | 12 January 1519
Wels
aged 59 |- |width=auto| Charles I
1519-1521 | | 24 February 1500
Ghent
eldest son of Philip I of Castile and Joanna of Castile | Isabella of Portugal
10 March 1526
Seville
seven children | 21 September 1558
Yuste
aged 58 |- |width=auto| Ferdinand I
1521-1564 | | 10 March 1503
Alcalá de Henares
second son of Philip I of Castile and Joanna of Castile | Anne of Bohemia and Hungary
25 May 1521
Linz
fifteen children | 25 July 1564
Vienna
aged 61 |- |}

Divided Again

In 1564 the Austrian territories were again divided among Emperor Ferdinand's sons:

Lower and Upper Austria (Austria proper) passed to Ferdinand's 1st son Maximilian: |width=auto| Maximilian II
1564-1576 | | 31 July 1527
Vienna
eldest son of Ferdinand I and Anne of Bohemia and Hungary | Maria of Spain
13 September 1548
Valladolid
sixteen children | 12 October 1576
Regensburg
aged 49 |- |width=auto| Rudolf V
1576-1608 | | 18 July 1552
Vienna
second son of Maximilian II and Maria of Spain | never married | 20 January 1612
Prague
aged 59 |- |width=auto| Matthias
1608-1619 | | 24 February 1557
Vienna
fourth son of Maximilian II and Maria of Spain | Anna of Tyrol
4 December 1611
Vienna
no issue | 20 March 1619
Vienna
aged 62 |- |width=auto| Albert VII
1619 | | 13 November 1559
Wiener Neustadt
fifth son of Maximilian II and Maria of Spain | Infanta Isabella Clara Eugenia of Spain
18 April 1599
Valencia
no issue | 13 July 1621
Brussels
aged 61 |- |}

Rudolf, Matthias and Albert had no issue. The territories therefore passed to the descendants of Emperor Ferdinand's 3rd son Charles after Albert's abdication on 9 October 1619.

Tyrol and Further Austria passed to Emperor Ferdinand's 2nd son Ferdinand:

|width=auto| Ferdinand II
1564-1595 | | 14 June 1529
Linz
second son of Ferdinand I and Anne of Bohemia and Hungary | (1) Philippine Welser
ca. 1576
four children
(2) Anne Juliana Gonzaga
14 May 1582
Innsbruck
three daughters | 24 January 1595
Innsbruck
aged 65 |- |}

Ferdinand died without an agnatic heir and his territories passed to the descendants of his brother Maximilian:

|width=auto| Matthias
1595-1619
under regency
of Maximilian III
(1612–1618)
| | 24 February 1557
Vienna
fourth son of Maximilian II and Maria of Spain | Anna of Tyrol
4 December 1611
Vienna
no issue | 20 March 1619
Vienna
aged 62 |- |width=auto| Maximilian III
1612-1618
as Governor-Archduke | | 12 October 1558
Vienna
sixth son of Maximilian II and Maria of Spain | never married | 2 November 1618
Vienna
aged 60 |- |}

Matthias died without issue and the territories passed to the descendants of Emperor Ferdinand's 3rd son Charles.

Inner Austria ("Inner-Österreich")(Styria, Carinthia and Carniola) passed to Emperor Ferdinand's 3rd son Charles: |width=auto| Charles II
1564-1590 | | 3 June 1540
Vienna
fourth son of Ferdinand I and Anne of Bohemia and Hungary | Maria Anna of Bavaria
26 August 1571
Vienna
fifteen children | 10 July 1590
Graz
aged 50 |- |width=auto| Ferdinand III
1590/1619-1637
under regency
of Maximilian III
(1593–1595)
| | 9 July 1578
Graz
second son of Charles II and Maria Anna of Bavaria | (1) Maria Anna of Bavaria
23 April 1600
Graz
seven children
(2) Eleonor Gonzaga
2 February 1622
Innsbruck
no issue | 15 February 1637
Vienna
aged 58 |- |}

In German Articles and Books these Archdukes' names and titles are normally completed with the territorial names of their Duchy as: "Charles II of Inner Austria" = "Karl der II. von Inner Österreich"

Reunited and redivided, again

The Austrian territories were reunited again by inheritance in 1620 under Ferdinand III, Archduke of Inner Austria (see Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor), but in 1623 five years into the Thirty Years' War he had so much to do with, Ferdinand divided them yet again, when he made his younger brother Leopold, who had been governor over Upper Austria, Archduke of those territories.

Lower Austria and Inner Austria remained with the elder line (Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor): |width=auto| Ferdinand III
1590/1619-1637 | | 9 July 1578
Graz
second son of Charles II and Maria Anna of Bavaria | (1) Maria Anna of Bavaria
23 April 1600
Graz
seven children
(2) Eleonora Gonzaga
2 February 1622
Innsbruck
no issue | 15 February 1637
Vienna
aged 58 |- |width=auto| Ferdinand IV
1637-1657 | | 13 July 1608
Graz
third son of Ferdinand III and Maria Anna of Bavaria | (1) Maria Anna of Spain
20 February 1631
Vienna
six children
(2) Maria Leopoldine of Austria
2 July 1648
Linz
one son
(3) Eleonora Gonzaga
30 April 1651
Wiener Neustadt
four children | 2 April 1657
Vienna
aged 48 |- |} Upper Austria passed to the Younger Tyrolean Line:

|width=auto| Leopold V
1623-1632 | | 9 October 1586
Graz
fifth son of Charles II and Maria Anna of Bavaria | Claudia de' Medici
19 April 1626
Innsbruck
five children | 13 September 1632
Schwaz
aged 45 |- |width=auto| Ferdinand Charles
1632-1662 | | 17 May 1628
Innsbruck
eldest son of Leopold V and Claudia de' Medici | Anna de' Medici
10 June 1646
Innsbruck
two daughter | 30 December 1662
Kaltern
aged 34 |- |width=auto| Sigismund Francis
1662-1665 | | 27 November 1630
Innsbruck
second son of Leopold V and Claudia de' Medici | Hedwig of the Palatinate-Sulzbach
3 June 1665
Sulzbach
no issue | 25 June 1665
Innsbruck
aged 34 |- |}

After Sigismund Francis died without issue and his territories reverted to the elder line.

The Austrian territories were conclusively reunited in 1665 under:

|width=auto| Leopold VI
1657/1665-1705 | | 9 June 1640
Vienna
fourth son of Ferdinand IV and Maria Anna of Spain | (1) Margaret Theresa of Spain
12 December 1666
Vienna
four children
(2) Claudia Felicitas of Austria
15 October 1673
Graz
two daughter
(3) Eleonor Magdalene of Neuburg
14 December 1676
Passau
eleven children | 5 May 1705
Vienna
aged 64 |- |width=auto| Joseph I
1705-1711 | | 26 July 1678
Vienna
eldest son of Leopold VI and Eleonor Magdalene of Neuburg | Wilhelmina Amalia of Brunswick
10 June 1646
Vienna
three children | 17 April 1711
Vienna
aged 32 |- |width=auto| Charles III
1711-1740 | | 1 October 1685
Vienna
second son of Leopold VI and Eleonor Magdalene of Neuburg | Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
1 August 1708
Santa Maria del Mar, Barcelona
five children | 20 October 1740
Vienna
aged 55 |- |width=auto| Maria Theresa
1740-1780
with Francis I Stephen (1740–1765)
Joseph II (1765–1780)
| | 13 May 1717
Hofburg Imperial Palace
eldest daughter of Charles III and Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel | rowspan="2"| 12 February 1736
Vienna
Sixteen Children | 29 November 1780
Hofburg Imperial Palace
aged 63 |- |width=auto| Francis I Stephen
with Maria Theresa (1740–1765) | | 8 December 1708
Nancy
fourth son of Leopold, Duke of Lorraine and Élisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans | 18 August 1765
Innsbruck
aged 56 |- |}

House of Habsburg-Lorraine

The Austrian branch technically ended in 1780 with the death of Maria Theresa of Austria and was replaced by the Vaudemont branch of the House of Lorraine in the person of her son Joseph II. However, in practice, the new successor house styled itself as Habsburg-Lorraine (Habsburg-Lothringen). All Habsburgs living today are in the agnatic descendants of Maria Theresa and Francis Stephen.

|width=auto| Joseph II
1765-1790
with Maria Theresa (1765–1780) | | 13 March 1741
Vienna
eldest son of Francis I Stephen and Maria Theresa | (1) Isabella of Parma
6 October 1760
Vienna
two daughter
(2) Maria Josepha of Bavaria
23 January 1765
Schönbrunn
no issue | 20 February 1790
Vienna
aged 48 |- |width=auto| Leopold VII
1790–1792 | | 5 May 1747
Vienna
third son of Francis I and Maria Theresa | Maria Luisa of Spain
16 February 1764
Innsbruck
sixteen children | 1 March 1792
Vienna
aged 44 |- |width=auto| Francis II
1792–11 August 1804 | | 12 February 1768
Florence
eldest son of Leopold VII and Maria Luisa of Spain | (1) Elisabeth of Württemberg
6 January 1788
Vienna
one daughter
(2) Maria Theresa of Naples and Sicily
15 September 1790
Vienna
12 children
(3) Maria Ludovika of Austria-Este
6 January 1808
Vienna
no issue
(4) Caroline Augusta of Bavaria
29 October 1816
Vienna
no issue | 2 March 1835
Vienna
aged 67 |- |}

Emperors of Austria

In 1804 Francis I adopted the new title Emperor of Austria, but kept the title of Archduke of Austria. In 1806 the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved.

|width=auto| Francis I
11 August 1804–1835 | | 12 February 1768
Florence
eldest son of Leopold VII and Maria Luisa of Spain | (1) Elisabeth of Württemberg
6 January 1788
Vienna
one daughter
(2) Maria Theresa of Naples and Sicily
15 September 1790
Vienna
12 children
(3) Maria Ludovika of Austria-Este
6 January 1808
Vienna
no issue
(4) Caroline Augusta of Bavaria
29 October 1816
Vienna
no issue | 2 March 1835
Vienna
aged 67 |- |width=auto| Ferdinand I
1835-1848 | | 19 April 1793
Vienna
eldest son of Francis II and Maria Theresa of Naples and Sicily | Maria Anna of Savoy
27 February 1831
Vienna
no issue | 29 June 1875
Prague
aged 82 |- |width=auto| Francis Joseph I
1848-1916 | | 18 August 1830
Schönbrunn Palace
eldest son of Archduke Franz Karl of Austria and Princess Sophie of Bavaria | Elisabeth of Bavaria
24 April 1854
Augustinerkirche
four children | 21 November 1916
Schönbrunn Palace
aged 86 |- |width=auto| Charles I
1916-12 November 1918 | | 17 August 1887
Persenbeug-Gottsdorf
eldest son of Archduke Otto Francis of Austria and Princess Maria Josepha of Saxony | Zita of Bourbon-Parma
21 October 1911
Schwarzau Castle
eight children | 1 April 1922
Madeira
aged 34 |- |}

Austrian Republic

In 1918, following the breakup of the Habsburg monarchy, the First Austrian Republic was established, but ended with "Anschluß" into the Third Reich from 1938-1945. Following World War II, the Second Austrian Republic was established in 1945, even though Austria remained under the control and protection of Allied and Soviet Forces between 1945-1955.

The current head of state is the President of Austria; however, in practice, the Chancellor of Austria is more important. Every law still needs to be signed by the President however.

Otto von Habsburg (1912–2011), son of Emperor Charles, was the head of the Habsburg house from 1922, but never reigned. In 2007 he handed the headship to his oldest son Karl Habsburg-Lothringen, Prince Imperial of Austria and Prince Royal of Hungary, who was currently first in the Line of succession to the Austro-Hungarian throne, but without any recognised title. He is now the new head of the imperial family.

See also

References

it:Sovrani d'Austria

sk:Zoznam panovníkov Rakúska

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