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Aristide Briand

 

Aristide Briand

Aristide Briand
Prime Minister of France
In office
29 July 1929 – 2 November 1929
Preceded by Raymond Poincaré
Succeeded by André Tardieu
In office
28 November 1925 – 20 July 1926
Preceded by Paul Painlevé
Succeeded by Édouard Herriot
In office
16 January 1921 – 15 January 1922
Preceded by Georges Leygues
Succeeded by Raymond Poincaré
In office
29 October 1915 – 20 March 1917
Preceded by René Viviani
Succeeded by Alexandre Ribot
In office
21 January 1913 – 22 March 1913
Preceded by Raymond Poincaré
Succeeded by Louis Barthou
In office
24 July 1909 – 2 March 1911
Preceded by Georges Clemenceau
Succeeded by Ernest Monis
Personal details
Born 28 March 1862
Nantes
Died 7 March 1932(1932-03-07) (aged 69)
Paris
Political party SFIO
PRS

Aristide Briand (French: ; 28 March 1862 – 7 March 1932) was a French statesman who served eleven terms as Prime Minister of France during the French Third Republic and was a co-laureate of the 1926 Nobel Peace Prize.

Contents

  • Early life 1
  • Activism 2
  • Prime Minister of France 3
    • Pre-War 3.1
    • First World War 3.2
    • 1920s 3.3
  • Kellogg–Briand Pact 4
  • Briand Plan for European union 5
  • Governments 6
    • Briand's first Government, 24 July 1909 – 3 November 1910 6.1
    • Briand's second Government, 3 November 1910 – 2 March 1911 6.2
    • Briand's third and fourth Governments, 21 January – 22 March 1913 6.3
    • Briand's fifth Government, 29 October 1915 – 12 December 1916 6.4
    • Briand's sixth Government, 12 December 1916 – 20 March 1917 6.5
    • Briand's seventh Government, 16 January 1921 – 15 January 1922 6.6
    • Briand's eighth Government, 28 November 1925 – 9 March 1926 6.7
    • Briand's ninth Government, 9 March – 23 June 1926 6.8
    • Briand's tenth Government, 23 June – 19 July 1926 6.9
    • Briand's eleventh Government, 29 July – 3 November 1929 6.10
  • See also 7
  • Notes 8
  • References 9
  • External links 10

Early life

He was born in Nantes, Loire-Atlantique of a petit bourgeois family. He attended the Nantes Lycée, where, in 1877, he developed a close friendship with Jules Verne.[1] He studied law, and soon went into politics, associating himself with the most advanced movements, writing articles for the Syndicalist journal Le Peuple, and directing the Lanterne for some time. From this he passed to the Petite République, leaving it to found L'Humanité, in collaboration with Jean Jaurès.

Activism

At the same time he was prominent in the movement for the formation of trade unions, and at the congress of working men at Nantes in 1894 he secured the adoption of the labor union idea against the adherents of Jules Guesde. From that time, Briand was one of the leaders of the French Socialist Party. In 1902, after several unsuccessful attempts, he was elected deputy. He declared himself a strong partisan of the union of the Left in what was known as the Bloc, in order to check the reactionary Deputies of the Right.

From the beginning of his career in the Chamber of Deputies, Briand was occupied with the question of the separation of church and state. He was appointed reporter of the commission charged with the preparation of the 1905 law on separation, and his masterly report at once marked him out as one of the coming leaders. He succeeded in carrying his project through with but slight modifications, and without dividing the parties upon whose support he relied.

He was the principal author of the law of separation, but, not content with preparing it, he wished to apply it as well. The ministry of Maurice Rouvier was allowing disturbances during the taking of inventories of church property, a clause of the law for which Briand was not responsible. Consequently he accepted the portfolio of Public Instruction and Worship in the Sarrien ministry (1906). So far as the Chamber was concerned, his success was complete. But the acceptance of a position in a bourgeois ministry led to his exclusion from the Unified Socialist Party (March 1906). As opposed to Jaurès, he contended that the Socialists should co-operate actively with the Radicals in all matters of reform, and not stand aloof to await the complete fulfillment of their ideals.

He became a freemason in the lodge Le Trait d'Union in July 1887 while the lodge didn't record his name in spite of his repeated requests.[2] The lodge declared "unworthy" to him on 6 September 1889.[3] In 1895 he joined the lodge Les Chevaliers du Travail that was established in 1893.[2]

Prime Minister of France

Portrait of Aristide Briand

Pre-War

Briand succeeded Clemenceau as Prime Minister in 1909, serving until 1911, and served again for a few months in 1913. In social policy, Briand’s first ministry was notable for the passage of a bill in April 1910 for workers' and farmers' pensions.[4] That same year, compulsory sickness and old-age insurance was introduced for 8 million rural and urban workers. However, a law court decision in 1912 that questioned the legality of compulsion “enabled a large proportion of employers and workers to evade the law.”[5]

First World War

In October 1915, during the First World War, following an unsuccessful French offensive and the entry of Bulgaria, Briand again became Prime Minister, succeeding René Viviani. He also became Foreign Minister for the first time, a post held by Théophile Delcassé until the final weeks of the previous government.

The opening weeks of Briand's ministry required him to broker an agreement between General Gallieni, the new War Minister, and General Joffre, newly (2 December) promoted to “Commander-in-Chief of the French Armies” (generalissimo) over all theatres apart from North Africa.[6][7]

In the poisonous atmosphere after the opening of the German attack at Verdun (21 February 1916), Gallieni read an angry report at the Council of Ministers on 7 March criticising Joffre's conduct of operations over the last eighteen months and demanding ministerial control, then resigned. He was falsely suspected of wanting to launch a military takeover of the government.[8] Briand knew that publication of the report would damage morale and might bring down the government. Gallieni was persuaded to remain in office until a replacement had been agreed.[9] General Roques was appointed after it had been ensured that Joffre had no objections.[10]

Late in March 1916 Joffre and Briand blocked the withdrawal of five British divisions from

Political offices
Preceded by
Jean-Baptiste Bienvenu-Martin
Minister of Public Instruction and Fine Arts
1906–1908
Succeeded by
Gaston Doumergue
Minister of Worship
1906–1911
Succeeded by
Ernest Monis
Preceded by
Edmond Guyot-Dessaigne
Minister of Justice
1908–1909
Succeeded by
Louis Barthou
Preceded by
Georges Clemenceau
Prime Minister of France
1909–1911
Succeeded by
Ernest Monis
Minister of the Interior
1909–1911
Preceded by
Jean Brun
interim Minister of War
1911
Succeeded by
Maurice Berteaux
Preceded by
Jean Cruppi
Minister of Justice
1912–1913
Succeeded by
Louis Barthou
Preceded by
Raymond Poincaré
Prime Minister of France
1913
Succeeded by
Louis Barthou
Preceded by
Théodore Steeg
Minister of the Interior
1913
Succeeded by
Louis Lucien Klotz
Preceded by
Jean-Baptiste Bienvenu-Martin
Minister of Justice
1914–1915
Succeeded by
René Viviani
Preceded by
René Viviani
Prime Minister of France
1915–1917
Succeeded by
Alexandre Ribot
Minister of Foreign Affairs
1915–1917
Preceded by
Georges Leygues
Prime Minister of France
1921–1922
Succeeded by
Raymond Poincaré
Minister of Foreign Affairs
1921–1922
Preceded by
Édouard Herriot
Minister of Foreign Affairs
1925–1926
Succeeded by
Édouard Herriot
Preceded by
Paul Painlevé
Prime Minister of France
1925–1926
Preceded by
Édouard Herriot
Minister of Foreign Affairs
1926–1932
Succeeded by
Pierre Laval
Preceded by
Raymond Poincaré
Prime Minister of France
1929
Succeeded by
André Tardieu
  • Nobel biography
  • Timeline for the 150th anniversary of Aristide Briand

External links

  •  
  • Bernard, Philippe; Dubief, Henri; Forster, Thony (1985). The Decline of the Third Republic, 1914–1938. The Cambridge History of Modern France. New York: Cambridge University Press.  
  • Doughty, Robert A. (2005). Pyrrhic Victory. Havard University Press.  
  • Mayeur, Jean-Marie; Rebirioux, Madeleine; Foster, J. R. (1984). The Third Republic from its Origins to the Great War, 1871–1914. The Cambridge History of Modern France. New York: Cambridge University Press.  
  • Palmer, Alan (1998). Victory 1918. Weidenfeld & Nicolson.  
  • Wright, Julian (2005). "Social Reform, State Reform, and Aristide Briand's Moment of Hope in France, 1909–1910". French Historical Studies 28 (1): 31–67.  

References

  1. ^ Aristide Briand – Biography
  2. ^ a b Osterrieder, Markus (2010). "Der prophezeite Krieg" (PDF) (in German). CeltoSlavica. p. 10. Retrieved 10 November 2014. Zwar war er im Juli 1887 am Tag der Initiation in die Loge Le Trait d’Union nicht anwesend, obwohl er mehrfach den Antrag auf Aufnahme gestellt hatte, trat jedoch 1895 der sozialistisch orientierten, antikapitalistischen und antiparlamentarischen Loge Les Chevaliers du Travail (gegründet 1893) bei, [. . .] Vgl Michel Gaudart de SOULAGES, Hubert LAMANT: Dictionnaire des francs-maçons français. Paris 1995, S. 197-198; Henri CASTEIX: Aristide Briand et la franc-maçonnerie. Histoire sans passion de la franc-maçonnerie française. Paris 1987, S. 229-236; Encyclopédie de la franc-maçonnerie. Hrsg. v. Eric SAUNIER. Paris 1999, S. 146f.; Dictionnaire de la franc-‐maçonnerie. Hrsg. v. Daniel LIGOU. Paris 2004, S. 243-245. 
  3. ^ Mayeur, Jean Marie (2003). Les parlementaires de la troisième république (in French). Publications de la Sorbonne. p. 114.  
  4. ^ http://www.cheminsdememoire.gouv.fr/en/aristide-briand
  5. ^ Foundations of the Welfare State: 2nd Edition by Pat Thane, published 1996
  6. ^ There had already been friction between the two men when Gallieni, Joffre's former superior, had been recalled from retirement to be Military governor of Paris during the First Battle of the Marne earlier in the war.
  7. ^ Doughty 2005, pp229-32
  8. ^ Clayton 2003, pp97-8
  9. ^ Doughty 2005, pp284-5
  10. ^ Doughty 2005, p285
  11. ^ Palmer 1998, p55
  12. ^ Doughty 2005, p318-20
  13. ^ Doughty 2005, p320-1
  14. ^ Blatt, Joel (1993). "France and the Washington conference". Diplomacy & Statecraft 4 (3): 192.  
  15. ^ Navari, Cornelia (1992). "Origins of the Briand plan". Diplomacy & Statecraft 3: 74.  
  16. ^ Briand, Aristide (1930-05-01). Memorandum on the Organization of a System of Federal European Union. France. Ministry of Foreign Affairs - via World Digital Library. Retrieved 2014-06-19. 
  17. ^ D. Weigall and P. Stirk, eds., The Origins and Development of the European Community (Leicester University Press, 1992), pp. 11–15 ISBN 0718514289.

Notes

See also

Briand's eleventh Government, 29 July – 3 November 1929

Briand's tenth Government, 23 June – 19 July 1926

  • 10 April 1926 – Jean Durand succeeds Malvy as Minister of the Interior. François Binet succeeds Durand as Minister of Agriculture.

Changes

Briand's ninth Government, 9 March – 23 June 1926

  • 16 December 1925 – Paul Doumer succeeds Loucheur as Minister of Finance.

Changes

Briand's eighth Government, 28 November 1925 – 9 March 1926

Briand's seventh Government, 16 January 1921 – 15 January 1922

  • 15 March 1917 – Lucien Lacaze succeeds Lyautey as interim Minister of War.

Changes

Briand's sixth Government, 12 December 1916 – 20 March 1917

  • 15 November 1915 – Paul Painlevé becomes Minister of Inventions for the National Defense in addition to being Minister of Public Instruction and Fine Arts.
  • 16 March 1916 – Pierre Auguste Roques succeeds Galliéni as Minister of War

Changes

Briand's fifth Government, 29 October 1915 – 12 December 1916

Briand's third and fourth Governments, 21 January – 22 March 1913

  • 23 February 1911 – Briand succeeds Brun as interim Minister of War.

Changes

Briand's second Government, 3 November 1910 – 2 March 1911

Briand's first Government, 24 July 1909 – 3 November 1910

Governments

As foreign minister Briand formulated an original proposal for a new economic union of Europe.[15] Described as Briand's Locarno diplomacy and as an aspect of Franco-German rapprochement, it was his answer to Germany's quick economic recovery and future political power. Briand made his proposals in a speech in favor of a European Union in the Gustav Stresemann, and the onset of the Great Depression in 1929, Briand's plan was never adopted but it suggested an economic framework for developments after World War II that eventually resulted in the European Union.[17]

Briand Plan for European union

The cordial relations between Briand and Stresemann, the leading statesmen of their respective countries, were cut short by the unexpected death of Stresemann in 1929 and of Briand in 1932.

A 1927 proposal by Briand and United States Secretary of State Frank B. Kellogg for a universal pact outlawing war led the following year to the Pact of Paris, aka the Kellogg–Briand Pact.

Aristide Briand received the 1926 Nobel Peace Prize together with Gustav Stresemann of Germany for the Locarno Treaties (Austen Chamberlain of the United Kingdom had received a share of the Peace Prize a year earlier for the same agreement).

Aristide Briand and Gustav Stresemann

Kellogg–Briand Pact

Briand negotiated the Briand-Ceretti Agreement with the Vatican, giving the French government a role in the appointment of Catholic bishops.

Briand's efforts to come to an agreement over reparations with the Germans failed in the wake of German intransigence, and he was succeeded by the more bellicose Raymond Poincaré. In the wake of the Ruhr Crisis, however, Briand's more conciliatory style became more acceptable, and he returned to the Quai d'Orsay in 1925. He would remain foreign minister until his death in 1932. During this time, he was a member of 14 cabinets, three of which he headed himself.

Briand returned to power in 1921. He supervised the French role in the Washington Naval Conference of 1921–22. Three factors guided the French strategy and necessitated a Mediterranean focus: the French navy needed to carry a great many goods, the Mediterranean was the axis of chief interest, and a supply of oil was essential. The primary goal was to defend French North Africa, and Briand made practical choices, for naval policy was a reflection of overall foreign policy. The Conference agreed on the American proposal that capital ships be limited to a ratio of 5 to 5 to 3 for the United States, Britain, and Japan, with Italy and France allocated 1.7 each. France's participation reflected its need to deal with its diminishing power and reduced human, material, and financial resources.[14]

1920s

Briand resigned as Prime Minister in March 1917 as a result of disagreements over the prospective Nivelle Offensive, to be succeeded by Alexandre Ribot.

On 13 December Briand formed a new government, reducing the size of the Council of Ministers from 23 to 10 and replacing Roques with General Lyautey. That day his government survived a vote of confidence by 30 votes, and Joffre was appointed "general-in-chief of the French armies, technical adviser to the government, consultative member of the War Committee," with Nivelle as commander-in-chief of the Armies of the North and Northeast. Joffre commented “this is not what they promised me” when reading the newspaper on the morning of 13 December. He was persuaded to accept by Briand, but soon found that he had been stripped of real power and asked to be relieved on 26 December.[13]

Late in 1916 Roques was sent on a fact-finding mission to Salonika after Britain, Italy and Russia had pushed for the dismissal of the theatre commander Sarrail. To Briand’s and Joffre’s surprise, Roques returned recommending that Sarrail be reinforced and that Sarrail no longer report to Joffre. Coming on the back of the disappointing results of the Somme campaign and the fall of Romania, Roques’ report further discredited Briand and Joffre and added to the Parliamentary Deputies’ demands for a closed session. On 27 November Briand proposed that Joffre be effectively demoted to commander-in-chief in northern France, with both he and Sarrail reporting to the War Minister, although he withdrew this proposal after Joffre threatened resignation. The Closed Session began on 28 November and lasted until 7 December. Briand had little choice but to make concessions to preserve his government, and in a speech of 29 November he promised to repeal Joffre's promotion of December 1915 and in vague terms to appoint a general as technical adviser to the government. Briand survived a confidence vote by 344-160 (six months earlier he had won a confidence vote 440-80).[12]

[11]

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