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Atheism in Hinduism

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Atheism in Hinduism

Atheism (Sanskrit: निरीश्वरवाद, nir-īśvara-vāda, lit. "statement of no Lord", "doctrine of godlessness") or disbelief in God or gods has been a historically propounded viewpoint in many of the orthodox and heterodox streams of Hindu philosophies.[1] In Indian philosophy, three schools of thought are commonly referred to as nastika for rejecting the doctrine of Vedas: Jainism, Buddhism and Cārvāka.[2][3] Though nastika, meaning heterodox, refers to the non-belief of Vedas rather than non-belief of God,[4] all these schools also reject the notion of a creationist god.

Hinduism is a religion, but also a philosophy.[5][6] Among the various schools of Hindu philosophy, Samkhya, Yoga and Mimamsa while not rejecting either the Vedas or the Brahman ,[7] typically reject a personal God, creator God, or a God with attributes. While Samkhya and Yoga rejected the idea of an eternal, self-caused, creator God, Mimamsa argued that the Vedas could not have been authored by a deity.

Though some schools of thought view the path of the atheist difficult to follow in matters of spirituality it is still a valid one.[8] Hindu atheists accept Hinduism more as a "way of life" than a religion.

Etymology

The Sanskrit term Āstika ("pious, orthodox") refers to the systems of thought which admit the validity of the Vedas.[4] Sanskrit asti means "there is", and Āstika (per Pāṇini 4.2.60) derives from the verb, meaning "one who says 'asti'". Technically, in Hindu philosophy the term Āstika refers only to acceptance of authority of Vedas, not belief in the existence of God.[9] However, though not accepted universally, Āstika is sometimes translated as "theist" and Nāstika as "atheist", assuming the rejection of Vedas to be synonymous to the rejection of God.[10]

Historical development

The Rig Veda, the oldest of the Vedas, deals with a lot of skepticism when dealing with the fundamental question of a creator God and the creation of the universe. It does not, at many instances, categorically accept the existence of a creator God. Nasadiya Sukta (Creation Hymn) in the tenth chapter of the Rig Veda states:[11][12]

Whence was it produced? Whence is this creation?
The gods came afterwards, with the creation of this universe.

The Brihadaranyaka, Isha, Mundaka (in which Brahman is everything and "no-thing") and especially Chandogya Upanishads have also been interpreted as atheistic because of their stress on the subjective self.[13]

Mimamsa was a realistic, pluralistic school of philosophy which was concerned with the exegesis of the Vedas.[14] The core text of the school was the Purva Mimamsa Sutras of Jaimini (c. 200 BCE–200 CE). Mimamsa philosophers believed that the revelation of the Vedas was sacred, authorless (apaurusheyatva) and infallible, and that it was essential to preserve the sanctity of the Vedic ritual to maintain dharma (cosmic order).[15][16]:52–53 As a consequence of the belief in sanctity of the ritual, Mimamsas rejected the notion of God in any form.[14] Later commentators of the Mimamsa sutras such as Prabhākara (c. 7th century CE) advanced arguments against idea of God.[17][18] The early Mimamsa not only did not accept God but said that human action itself was enough to create the necessary circumstances for the enjoyment of its fruits.[19]

Samkhya is an atheistic[20] and strongly dualistic[21][22] orthodox (Astika) school of Indian philosophy. The earliest surviving authoritative text on classical Samkhya philosophy is the Samkhyakarika (c. 350–450 CE) of Iśvarakṛṣṇa.[16]:63 The Samkhyakarika accepts the notion of higher selves or perfected beings but rejects the notion of God.[23]

Cārvāka, a materialistic and atheistic school of Indian philosophy, had developed a systematic philosophy by the 6th century CE. Cārvākas rejected metaphysical concepts like reincarnation, afterlife, extracorporeal soul, efficacy of religious rites, other world (heaven and hell), fate, and accumulation of merit or demerit through the performance of certain actions. Cārvākas also refused to ascribe supernatural causes to describe natural phenomena. Cārvāka philosophy appears to have died out some time after 1200 CE.[24]

Ājīvikas (a movement extinct from at least the 13th century CE), whose founder, Makkhali Gosala, was a contemporary of Mahavira and Gautama Buddha (the central figures of Jainism and Buddhism, respectively). Gosala and his followers also denied the existence of a creator god.[25]

Arguments against God

Mimamsas argued that there was no need to postulate a maker for the world, just as there was no need for an author to compose the [28]

Samkhya gave the following arguments against the idea of an eternal, self-caused, creator God:[23]

  • If the existence of karma is assumed, the proposition of God as a moral governor of the universe is unnecessary. For, if God enforces the consequences of actions then he can do so without karma. If however, he is assumed to be within the law of karma, then karma itself would be the giver of consequences and there would be no need of a God.
  • Even if karma is denied, God still cannot be the enforcer of consequences. Because the motives of an enforcer God would be either egoistic or altruistic. Now, God's motives cannot be assumed to be altruistic because an altruistic God would not create a world so full of suffering. If his motives are assumed to be egoistic, then God must be thought to have desire, as agency or authority cannot be established in the absence of desire. However, assuming that God has desire would contradict God's eternal freedom which necessitates no compulsion in actions. Moreover, desire, according to Samkhya, is an attribute of prakriti and cannot be thought to grow in God. The testimony of the Vedas, according to Samkhya, also confirms this notion.
  • Despite arguments to the contrary, if God is still assumed to contain unfulfilled desires, this would cause him to suffer pain and other similar human experiences. Such a worldly God would be no better than Samkhya's notion of higher self.
  • Furthermore, there is no proof of the existence of God. He is not the object of perception, there exists no general proposition that can prove him by inference and the testimony of the Vedas speak of prakriti as the origin of the world, not God.

Therefore, Samkhya maintained that the various cosmological, ontological and teleological arguments could not prove God.

The Indian Nobel Prize-winner Amartya Sen, in an interview with Pranab Bardhan for the California Magazine published in the July–August 2006 edition by the University of California, Berkeley states:[29]

In some ways people had got used to the idea that India was spiritual and religion-oriented. That gave a leg up to the religious interpretation of India, despite the fact that Sanskrit had a larger atheistic literature than what exists in any other classical language. Madhava Acharya, the remarkable 14th century philosopher, wrote this rather great book called Sarvadarshansamgraha, which discussed all the religious schools of thought within the Hindu structure. The first chapter is "Atheism" – a very strong presentation of the argument in favor of atheism and materialism.

According to Markandey Katju, Chairman of the Press Council of India and former judge of the Supreme Court of India, "...there are six classical systems of Indian philosophy, Nyaya, Vaisheshik, Sankya, Yoga, Purva Mimansa and Uttar Mimansa, and three non-classical systems, Buddhism, Jainism and Charvak. Out of these nine systems eight of them are atheistic as there is no place for God in them. Only the ninth one, that is Uttar Mimansa, which is also called Vedanta, has a place for God in it."[30][31]

Notable Hindu atheists

See also

References

  1. ^ The Speak Tree – The Atheistic Roots of Hindu Philosophy. The Times of India.
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^ a b
  5. ^
  6. ^ P. ix, The Book of Hindu Imagery: Gods, Manifestations and Their Meaning By Eva Rudy Jansen
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^ a b
  15. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica (2007)
  16. ^ a b
  17. ^
  18. ^
  19. ^
  20. ^
  21. ^
  22. ^
  23. ^ a b
  24. ^ Bhattacharya, Ramkrishna. Materialism in India: A Synoptic View. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
  25. ^
  26. ^
  27. ^
  28. ^
  29. ^ "The Arguing Indian" California Magazine
  30. ^
  31. ^
  32. ^
  33. ^
  34. ^
  35. ^
  36. ^ BBC News
  37. ^

External links

  • Lokayata/Carvaka - non-believers in ancient India
  • Modern Hinduism, Atheism, and their philosophical roots
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