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Balinese name

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Balinese name

The Balinese name is a naming system used by the Balinese people of Bali, Indonesia and the western parts of neighboring island of Lombok, Indonesia, which is characterized by the use of four 'typical' names. Since most Balinese are Hindus, most names are Sanskrit, while others still use native Balinese one. Regardless of being male or female, each person receives one of four names based on birth order. Though there are significant variations in the four names of Balinese people, some due to caste membership, and others due to regional customs and variations in the Balinese language between the North and the South of the island, there are four names in Balinese culture that are repeated frequently. The firstborn is "Wayan" or "Gede" or "Putu", second is "Made" or "Kadek", third is "Nyoman" or "Komang" (Man or Mang for short), and fourth is "Ketut" (often elided to Tut). (The vowels are pronounced vowels similarly as in Spanish or Italian). Balinese names are rendered into Roman script by the Romanization of the Indonesian language. The spelling to pronunciation relationship is said to be "perfect" because the spelling of words was revised significantly in the 70's and/or 80's (and even more recently).

Birth order

The first born is Wayan, and if there is a fifth child, he/she is often called Wayan Balik (or Wayan "again").[1] Balinese children/people are given other names, including a new "name" after death. Generally, everyone uses birth order names to refer to each other, and to call each other constantly throughout the day. "Given" names may be chosen due, for example, to the influence of popular culture or politics. Like some other Indonesian cultures, Balinese do not use family names.

  • First born names : Wayan, Putu, Gede, Ni Luh(female only)

Wayan is Balinese originally meant Wayah or oldest.

  • Second born names : Made, Kadek, Nengah, Ngurah

Made/Nengah means madya or middle. Kadek means little brother/sister

  • Third born names : Nyoman, Komang
  • Fourth born names : Ketut

Catur Warna

The naming system is a method to instantly recognize caste. Caste, unlike in India, is relatively unimportant to the Balinese and the idea of it probably flowed into Balinese culture as close links with Hindu-Buddhist Java evolved. The real inclusion of the caste notion probably succeeds Airlangga, a half Balinese who became king of Daha in Java, about 1000 AD.

It is possible that the naming system of the peasant farmers of Bali precedes the idea of caste. These people are largely a mix of 'native' (early proto Polynesian type) Balinese and very early Hindu-Buddhist missionaries and their followers, who did not arrive in Bali with successive waves of Javanese nobles and military rulers. They form the caste level that would be called sudra in India, that is, people outside the triwarna, or three colors (Wesya, overseers and minor aristocracy, Ksatria, nobles, kings and warriors and Bhramana, the highest caste comprising teachers, priests, writers and philosophers). This "farmer caste" comprises the vast freemasonry of the Balinese villages, as set out above, this caste uses names to denote birth position. It is an ingenious way for peasant farmers to keep track of inheritance questions, Wayan, for first born, Made for second, Nyoman for third and Ketut for fourth. The three castes, use a caste identifier as the first part of a name:

Sudra

There are no special names for people from Sudra caste. They usually only use the names which denotes birth position. Traditionally they will only add word "I" for male and "Ni" for female in front of their names.

Example:

Wesya

Names for Wesya caste : for trader and farmer

  • Gusti Bagus (male), Gusti Ayu (female)

Ksatria

Names for Ksatria caste :

  • I Gusti Ngurah (male), I Gusti Ayu (female)
  • Anak Agung (male), Anak Agung Ayu or Anak Agung Istri (female)
  • Tjokorda, sometimes abbreviated as Tjok (male), Tjokorda Istri (female)
  • /Ida I Dewa/ Dewa Agung/I Dewa (male), I Dewa Ayu/Desak (female)

Gusti literally means "leader". As members of this caste have the same preoccupation as wealthy peasants with inheritance of lands, and in any case were often families promoted from the farmer caste, they often use positional names for the birth order of their children. Sometimes they borrow the whole order of the farmer caste names, so you may find a name like I Gusti Ketut Rajendra, male of the wesya caste, fourth born, whose personal name is Rajendra).

The word Agung means "great", or "prominent". The word Tjokorda is a conjunction of the Sanskrit words Tjoka and Dewa. It literally means "the foot of the Gods", and is awarded to the highest members of the aristocracy. A typical name might be Anak Agung Rai, meaning a Ksatrya, whose personal name means "The Great One". It is more difficult to differentiate sexes by name alone among the k'satrya people, though personal names often tell, like Putra, or "Prince", for a boy, and Putri, or "Princess", for a girl.

In 1352 - 1380, Bali was led by Sri Kresna Kepakisan, He was the ancestor of King of Gel-Gel Kingdom in Kelungkung Semara pura-Bali (second Maja Pahit in Bali),now His descent named Ida I Dewa for the King in Kelungkung, I Dewa for the King family (no longer become king)

Example:

Brahmana

Names for Brahmana caste :

  • Ida Bagus (male), Ida Ayu (female)

A typical name might be Ida Ayu Ngurah, meaning "Brahman woman, Beautiful highness whose personal name is Ngurah," (in English, "gift from heaven"). Example:

Inter-caste marriages occur these days. Those who marry someone from a higher caste will adopt the name Jero (literally meaning 'come in') in front of their name.

Gender

The naming system also differentiates - for the same reasons of inheritance rights, but perhaps also to reduce confusion - between males and females, I (pronounced 'ee') is added as a prefix for males, and Ni (pronounced 'nee') for females. So typical names might look like I Wayan Pedjeng, or Ni Ketut Sulastri. These mean, respectively, 'first born male whose personal name is Pedjeng' (in English, moon), and 'fourth born female whose personal name is Sulastri' (in English, fine light).

Unlike Javanese names, Balinese names of Sanskrit origin do not change some of the letter 'a's into 'o's (such as the Javanese 'Susilo', from 'Susila').

See also

References


-- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p
  1. ^ Zajonc, R. B. 2001. The family dynamics of intellectual development. American Psychologist 56: 490–496, p. 490.
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