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Basilica of San Vitale

Church of San Vitale
The Church of San Vitale
Basilica of San Vitale is located in Italy
Shown within Italy
Basic information
Location Ravenna, Italy
Geographic coordinates
Affiliation Roman Catholic
Region Emilia-Romagna
Province Archdiocese of Ravenna-Cervia
Year consecrated 547
Website http://www.ravennamosaici.it/
Architectural description
Architectural style Byzantine
Groundbreaking 527
Completed 548
Construction cost 26,000 solidi

The Basilica of San Vitale is a church in Ravenna, Italy, and one of the most important examples of early Christian Byzantine art and architecture in western Europe. The building is styled an "ecclesiastical basilica" in the Roman Catholic Church, though it is not of architectural basilica form. It is one of eight Ravenna structures inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.

Contents

  • History 1
  • Architecture 2
  • Mosaic art 3
    • Justinian and Theodora panels 3.1
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • Further reading 6
  • External links 7

History

The church was begun by Bishop Ecclesius in 526, when Ravenna was under the rule of the Ostrogoths and completed by the 27th Bishop of Ravenna, Maximian, in 547 preceding the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna. The architect of the church is unknown.

The construction of the church was sponsored by a Greek banker, Julius Argentarius, of whom very little is known, except that he also sponsored the construction of the Basilica of Sant' Apollinare in Classe at around the same time. (A donor portrait of the banker may appear among the courtiers on the Justinian mosaic.) The final cost amounted to 26,000 solidi (gold pieces).[1]

The central vault used a western technique of hollow tubes inserted into each other, rather than bricks. The ambulatory and gallery were vaulted only later in the Middle Ages.[2]

The Baroque fresco on the dome was made between 1778 and 1782 by S. Barozzi, U. Gandolfi and E. Guarana.[3]

Architecture

Ground plan of the building

The church has an octagonal plan. The building combines Roman elements: the dome, shape of doorways, and stepped towers; with Byzantine elements: polygonal apse, capitals, and narrow bricks. The church is most famous for its wealth of Byzantine mosaics, the largest and best preserved outside of Constantinople. The church is of extreme importance in Byzantine art, as it is the only major church from the period of the Emperor Justinian I to survive virtually intact to the present day. Furthermore, it is thought to reflect the design of the Byzantine Imperial Palace Audience Chamber, of which nothing at all survives. The belltower has four bells, the tenor one dates to the 16th century. According to legend, the church was erected on the site of the martyrdom of Saint Vitalis.[4] However, there is some confusion as to whether this is the Saint Vitalis of Milan, or the Saint Vitale whose body was discovered together with that of Saint Agricola, by Saint Ambrose in Bologna in 393.

Mosaic art

The presbytery.
Triumphal arch mosaics of Jesus Christ and the Apostles.

The central section is surrounded by two superposed ambulatories. The upper one, the matrimoneum, was reserved for married women. A series of mosaics in the lunettes above the triforia depict sacrifices from the Old Testament:[5] the story of Abraham and Melchizedek, and the Sacrifice of Isaac; the story of Moses and the Burning Bush, Jeremiah and Isaiah, representatives of the twelve tribes of Israel, and the story of Abel and Cain. A pair of angels, holding a medallion with a cross, crowns each lunette. On the side walls the corners, next to the mullioned windows, have mosaics of the Four Evangelists, under their symbols (angel, lion, ox and eagle), and dressed in white. Especially the portrayal of the lion is remarkable in its ferocity.

The cross-ribbed vault in the presbytery is richly ornamented with mosaic festoons of leaves, fruit and flowers, converging on a crown encircling the Lamb of God. The crown is supported by four angels, and every surface is covered with a profusion of flowers, stars, birds and animals, including many peacocks. Above the arch, on both sides, two angels hold a disc and beside them a representation of the cities of Jerusalem and Bethlehem. They symbolize the human race (Jerusalem representing the Jews, and Bethlehem the Gentiles).

All these mosaics are executed in the Hellenistic-Roman tradition: lively and imaginative, with rich colors and a certain perspective, and with a vivid depiction of the landscape, plants and birds. They were finished when Ravenna was still under Gothic rule. The apse is flanked by two chapels, the prothesis and the diaconicon, typical for Byzantine architecture.

Inside, the intrados of the great triumphal arch is decorated with fifteen mosaic medallions, depicting Jesus Christ, the twelve Apostles and Saint Gervasius and Saint Protasius, the sons of Saint Vitale. The theophany was begun in 525 under bishop Ecclesius. It has a great gold fascia with twining flowers, birds, and horns of plenty. Jesus Christ appears, seated on a blue globe in the summit of the vault, robed in purple, with his right hand offering the martyr's crown to Saint Vitale. On the left, Bishop Ecclesius offers a model of the church.

Justinian and Theodora panels

The mosaic of Emperor Justinian and his retinue.
Apse mosaic.
Ceiling mosaic above the presbytery.
Empress Theodora and attendants.

At the foot of the apse side walls are two famous mosaic panels, executed in 547. On the right is a mosaic depicting the East Roman Emperor Justinian I, clad in Tyrian purple with a golden halo, standing next to court officials, Bishop Maximian, palatinae guards and deacons. The halo around his head gives him the same aspect as Christ in the dome of the apse. Justinian himself stands in the middle, with soldiers on his right and clergy on his left, emphasizing that Justinian is the leader of both church and state of his empire.

The gold background of the mosaic shows that Justinian and his entourage are inside the church. The figures are placed in a V shape; Justinian is placed in the front and in the middle to show his importance with Bishop Maximian on his left and lesser individuals being placed behind them. This placement can be seen through the overlapping feet of the individuals present in the mosaic.[6]

Another panel shows Empress Theodora solemn and formal, with golden halo, crown and jewels, and a train of court ladies. She is almost depicted as a goddess. As opposed to the V formation of the figures in the Justinian mosaic, the mosaic with Empress Theodora shows the figures moving from left to right into the church. Theodora is seen holding the wine.

See also

External video
Byzantine Art: San Vitale, Ravenna, Smarthistory[7]

References

  1. ^ Kleiner and Mamiya. Gardner's Art Through the Ages, p. 332.
  2. ^ Krautheimer, Richard (1986). Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture (4 ed.). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. p. 234.  
  3. ^ Basilica of S. Vitale: Justification for the inclusion to the World Heritage List. Retrieved on May 30, 2015.
  4. ^ Kleiner, Fred, Fred S.; Christin J. Mamiya (2008).  
  5. ^ Kleiner and Mamiya. Gardner's Art Through the Ages, p. 333.
  6. ^ Kleiner and Mamiya. Gardner's Art Through the Ages, pp. 333, 336.
  7. ^ "Byzantine Art: San Vitale, Ravenna".  

Further reading

  • Andreas Agnellus. The Book of Pontiffs of the Church of Ravenna. Translated by D. Mauskopf Deliyannis. Washington: The Catholic University of American Press, 2004.
  • Andreescu-Treadgold, Irina and Warren Treadgold. "Procopius and the Imperial Panels of San Vitale." Art Bulletin, 79, 1997, pp. 708–723.
  • Mango, Cyril. Art of the Byzantine Empire, 352-1453: Sources and Documents. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1986.
  • Procopius. On Buildings. Loeb Classical Library Series. Translated by H.B. Dewing and Glanville Downey. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1961.
  • Von Simson, Otto G. Sacred Fortress: Byzantine Art and Statecraft in Ravenna. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1986.
  • Weitzmann, Kurt, ed., Age of spirituality : late antique and early Christian art, third to seventh century, no. 65-66, 593, 1979, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, ISBN 9780870991790; full text available online from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries

External links

Media related to at Wikimedia Commons

  • Restoring the Mosaics of San Vitale by Livia Alberti (article)
  • History of Byzantine Architecture: San Vitale (photos)
  • Great Buildings On-line: San Vitale (photos)
  • Adrian Fletcher's Paradoxplace Ravenna Pages (photos)


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