World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Battle of Alcântara (1580)

 

Battle of Alcântara (1580)

Battle of Alcântara
Part of the War of the Portuguese Succession

Engraving of the Battle of Alcântara (1580).
Date 25 August 1580
Location Alcântara (Lisbon), Portugal
Result Decisive Spanish victory[1][2]
Belligerents
Portuguese loyal to António Spain
Commanders and leaders
Prior of Crato
Count of Vimioso
Duke of Alba
Sancho d'Avila
Strength
8,000 infantry[3]
500 cavalry[4]
30 guns
13,000 infantry[5]
1,800 cavalry
22 guns
Casualties and losses
4,000 dead or captured 500 dead or wounded

The Battle of Alcântara took place on 25 August 1580, near the brook of Alcântara, in the vicinity of Lisbon, Portugal, and was a decisive victory of the Spanish Habsburg King Philip II over the Portuguese pretender to the Portuguese throne, Dom António, Prior of Crato.

Contents

  • Background 1
  • Battle 2
  • Aftermath 3
  • See also 4
  • Notes 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7

Background

In Portugal, the death of King Sebastian of Portugal in 1578, with only an elderly childless great uncle to succeed him, plunged the country into a succession crisis. King Philip II of Spain was one of seven who laid claim to the Portuguese throne, and in June 1580 a Spanish army of about 40,000 men[6] (about half of which were German and Italian mercenaries)[7][8] invaded Portugal, under the command of Don Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alba.

Two years earlier, the Portuguese army had been decimated at the Battle of Ksar El Kebir (1578),[9] causing the death and imprisonment of tens of thousands of Portuguese soldiers and nobles. Dom António also lacked support from what was left of the Portuguese nobility and high clergy, which chose to support Philip II instead.[10][11] Dom António was therefore forced to recruit an irregular army composed mainly of local peasants and townspeople[12][13][14] as well as 3,000 African slaves who fought for António in exchange for their freedom.[15][16]

Battle

The Duke of Alba met little resistance and in July landed his forces at Cascais, west of Lisbon. By mid-August, the Duke was only 10 kilometers from the city. West of the small brook Alcântara, the Spanish encountered a Portuguese force on the eastern side of it, commanded by António, Prior of Crato (a grandson of King Manuel I of Portugal who had proclaimed himself King as António I) and his lieutenant Francisco de Portugal, 3rd Count of Vimioso.

The battle ended in a decisive victory for the Spanish army, both on land and sea. Two days later, the Duke of Alba captured Lisbon, and on March 25, 1581, Philip of Spain was crowned King of Portugal as Philip I.

Aftermath

The decimated Antonian army fled towards Oporto with the intention of reassembling his troops, but was completely destroyed at Oporto by the Spanish forces under the command of Don Sancho d'Avila.[17] At the end of 1580, most of the Portuguese territory was in Spanish hands. Two more battles (1582 and 1583) over the succession were fought in the Azores.

Spain and Portugal would remain united in a personal union of the crowns (remaining formally independent and with autonomous administrations) for the next 60 years, until 1640. This period is called the Iberian Union.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Geoffrey Parker p.35
  2. ^ Henry Kamen The Duke of Alba p. x + 204
  3. ^ Newton de Macedo p.96
  4. ^ Newton de Macedo p.96
  5. ^ Newton de Macedo p.96
  6. ^ Dauril Alden p.90
  7. ^ Jeremy Black p.119
  8. ^ Thomas Henry Dyer p.287
  9. ^ David S. Katz p.51
  10. ^ David Eggenberger p.10
  11. ^ Peter N. Stearns, William Leonard Langer p.296
  12. ^ Tony Jaques p.25
  13. ^ Cathal J. Nolan p.10
  14. ^ David Eggenberger p.10
  15. ^ History of Portugal: pamphlet collection p.267
  16. ^ Newton de Macedo p.96
  17. ^ Espasa. Vol 6. p.1297

References

  • Geoffrey Parker, The Army of Flanders and the Spanish road, London, 1972 ISBN 0-521-08462-8
  • Henry Kamen, The Duke of Alba (New Haven–London: Yale University Press, 2004).
  • David Eggenberger: An encyclopedia of battles: accounts of over 1,560 battles from 1479 B.C. to the present (1985)
  • History of Portugal: pamphlet collection (197?)
  • Peter N. Stearns, William Leonard Langer: The Encyclopedia of world history: ancient, medieval, and modern, chronologically arranged (2001)
  • Cathal J. Nolan: The age of wars of religion, 1000-1650: an encyclopedia of global warfare and civilization (2006)
  • Newton de Macedo: História de Portugal: Glória e Declínio do Império-de D.Manuel I ao Domínio dos Filipes (2004) ISBN 989-554-109-0
  • Jeremy Black: European warfare, 1494-1660 (2002)
  • Tony Jaques: Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: A-E (2007)
  • Thomas Henry Dyer: The history of modern Europe: from the fall of Constantinople, in 1453, to the war in the Crimea, Volume 2 (1857)
  • David S. Katz: The Jews in the history of England, 1485-1850 (1997)
  • Enciclopedia Universal Ilustrada. Espasa. Volume 6 (1999).
  • Dauril Alden: The making of an enterprise: the Society of Jesus in Portugal, its empire, and beyond, 1540-1750 (1996)

External links

  • The Spanish Tercios 1525 - 1704
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.