World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Cardinal Rampolla

Article Id: WHEBN0006066577
Reproduction Date:

Title: Cardinal Rampolla  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Franz Joseph I of Austria, Jus exclusivae
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Cardinal Rampolla

Mariano Rampolla del Tindaro
Official of the Congregation of the Holy Office
Pope Leo XIII
Appointed 30 December 1908
Term ended 23 February 1910
Predecessor Giuseppe Pizzardo
Successor Donato Raffaele Sbarretti Tazza
Other posts
  • Cardinal-Priest of S. Cecilia
  • Archpriest of the Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano
  • Archivist of the Vatican Secret Archives
Orders
Ordination 1866
Consecration 8 December 1882
by Edward Henry Howard
Created Cardinal 14 March 1887
Rank Cardinal-Priest
Personal details
Birth name Mariano Rampolla del Tindaro
Born (1843-08-17)17 August 1843
Polizzi Generosa
Died 16 December 1913(1913-12-16) (aged 70)
Rome
Denomination Roman Catholic
Previous post
  • President of the Pontifical Biblical Commission (1902 - 1908)
  • Secretary of the Secretariat of State (1887 - 1908)
  • Apostolic Nuncio to Spain (1882 - 1887)
  • Titular Archbishop of Heraclea in Europa (1882 - 1887)
Coat of arms

Mariano Rampolla del Tindaro (17 August 1843 – 16 December 1913) was an Italian Cardinal in the Roman Catholic Church.

Early life

Born in Polizzi Generosa, Sicily, Rampolla was the son of Ignazio Rampolla, Count of Tindaro, and of his wife, Orsola Errante. He is often referred to with the title of marquess, but this appears to be inaccurate.

Rampolla was educated at the Collegio Capranica and the Pontifical Gregorian University. Having displayed a considerable knowledge in Oriental affairs, he was sent to the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles as preparation for service in the Roman Curia.

In 1866 Rampolla was ordained a priest. In 1874 he was named a Canon of the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore. In 1875 he was sent to Spain as Auditor of the papal nunciature. In 1877 he returned to Rome and was named Secretary for Oriental Affairs of the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith. The following year he was made a Protonotary apostolic de numero participantium. In 1880 he was named Secretary of the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith, and then also Secretary of the Congregation of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs. On 1 December 1882 Rampolla was appointed titular archbishop of Heraclea in Europa, and consecrated bishop by Cardinal Edward Henry Howard. This was in preparation for his nomination as Apostolic Nuncio to Spain several weeks later.

Cardinal

Styles of
Mariano Rampolla del Tindaro
Reference style His Eminence
Spoken style Your Eminence
Informal style Cardinal
See Heraclea in Europa (titular)

On 14 March 1887, Pope Leo XIII created and proclaimed Rampolla del Tindaro, at the age of 43, Cardinal-Priest of Santa Cecilia in Trastevere. On 2 June he was appointed Secretary of State. In this office (as previously in Spain), Rampolla employed Giacomo della Chiesa, the future Benedict XV, as his secretary.

1903 Conclave veto

When Leo XIII died in 1903, it was widely expected that Rampolla would be elected pope. His candidacy gained momentum until the last moment when the Austrian Emperor Francis Joseph I, sovereign of one of the three major European Catholic nations claiming such power, imposed the veto Jus exclusivae during the Conclave. Cardinal Jan Puzyna de Kosielsko, Prince-Archbishop of Kraków, expressed the veto on behalf of the Austrian emperor. Cardinal Puzyna de Kosielsko was subsequently (1904) decorated with the Grand Cross of the Order of Saint Stephen of Hungary.[1]

The Secretary of the Conclave, Archbishop Rafael Merry del Val, reported later that Cardinal Puzyna de Kosielsko came to see him, demanding to announce his veto against Cardinal Rampolla in the name of Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria. Merry Del Val protested and refused even to accept the document. Rampolla, according to Merry del Val, actually gained votes after the veto. However, Merry del Val later opined to Ludwig von Pastor that Rampolla was unlikely to win as a majority of the cardinals wanted a more conservative direction from the relatively liberal pontificate of Pope Leo XIII, as did he himself.


The specific reasons for Austria's opposition have never been clarified. Possibly, the veto was a result of the pro-French positions adopted by Rampolla, which were reflected in the policies of Leo XIII. Part of the Holy See's solution involving the French Republic was the attempt to reconcile French Catholics with their nation's republican government via Laïcité. This was anathema to the powerful Ultramontanes. Informed sources at the time also claimed that Austria acted on behalf of Italy's government through the intervention of State Minister Zanardelli.[2]

Craig Heimbichner, writing in the August 2003 Catholic Family News, states that Monsignor Jouin is said to have intervened personally with Emperor Franz Joseph to ask for the Jus exclusivae to be invoked, having procured some evidence that Cardinal Rampolla had at least a close affinity with the Freemasons.[3] The OTO itself, in the November, 1999 newsletter for Thelema Lodge in Berkeley, California, acknowledges that Msgr. Jouin accused Cardinal Rampolla of belonging to the OTO.[4][5]

While some prelates formally protested this intrusion after voting had been in progress, the Ultra Cardinals readily recognized the existing legal right of the emperor. Support for Rampolla dissipated, leading to the election of Giuseppe Sarto as Pope Pius X. Abolition of the veto right was one of the new Pope's first official acts.

Pius X chose the able secretary of the conclave that had elected him, Rafael Merry del Val, to succeed Rampolla as Secretary of State. However, Rampolla remained Arch-Priest of Saint Peter's,[2] a position to which he had been appointed by Leo XIII. He lived in a modest house behind Saint Peter's Basilica. Between 1908 and his death in 1913, Rampolla served as Secretary (then the head) of the Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office. In 1912, Pope Pius X appointed Rampolla, in addition to his role as head the Holy Office, as Archivist and Librarian of the Holy Roman Church, a position he held until his death.

Symbolising successful papal diplomacy and worldwide contacts, he continued to be viewed as a most likely successor to Pope Pius X in case of the pontiff's death. Rampolla died suddenly in Rome on December 16, 1913 at age seventy, some months before the pope died in August 1914.[6] His friend and closest collaborator, Giacomo della Chiesa, presided over his funeral ceremonies and less than a year later became Cardinal and then was elected as Pope Benedict XV.

See also

References

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Angelo Bianchi
Nuncio to Spain
19 December 1882 - 2 June 1887
Succeeded by
Angelo Di Pietro
Preceded by
Luigi Jacobini
Cardinal Secretary of State
2 June 1887 - 20 July 1903
Succeeded by
Rafael Merry del Val
Preceded by
Gaetano Aloisi Masella
Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals
16 January 1893 - 18 May 1894
Succeeded by
Fulco Luigi Ruffo-Scilla
Preceded by
Francesco Ricci Paracciani
Archpriest of St. Peter's Basilica
21 March 1894 - 16 December 1913
Succeeded by
Rafael Merry del Val
Preceded by
Francesco Salesio Della Volpe
Archivist of the Holy Roman Church
26 November 1912 - 16 December 1913
Succeeded by
Francesco di Paola Cassetta


This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.