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Close-mid central unrounded vowel

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Title: Close-mid central unrounded vowel  
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Subject: Polish phonology, Table of vowels, Mid central vowel, Close central unrounded vowel, Near-close near-back vowel
Collection: Vowels
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Close-mid central unrounded vowel

Close-mid central unrounded vowel
IPA number 397
Entity (decimal) ɘ
Unicode (hex) U+0258
Kirshenbaum @
Braille ⠲ (braille pattern dots-256) ⠑ (braille pattern dots-15)

The close-mid central unrounded vowel, or high-mid central unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɘ. This is a reversed letter e, and should not be confused with the schwa ə, which is a turned e. It was added to the IPA in 1993; before that, this vowel was transcribed ë (Latin small letter e with umlaut, not Cyrillic small letter yo). This letter may be used with a lowering diacritic ɘ̞, to denote the mid central unrounded vowel.

The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".


  • Features 1
  • Occurrence 2
  • References 3
  • Bibliography 4


IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]

 •  • chart •  chart with audio •


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Dutch Standard[1][2][3] bit     'bit' Somewhat fronted;[1][2][3] typically transcribed in IPA as ɪ, the way it's pronounced in some dialects.[4] See Dutch phonology
English Australian[5][6] bird [bɘːd] 'bird' Typically transcribed in IPA as ɜː. See Australian English phonology
Southern Michigan[7] [bɘ˞ːd] Rhotacized.
Cardiff[8] foot [fɘ̠t] 'foot' Somewhat retracted;[8] corresponds to /ʊ/ in other dialects. See English phonology
New Zealand[9] bit [bɘt] 'bit' Corresponds to /ɪ/ in other dialects. See English phonology
Southern American[10] nut [nɘt] 'nut' Some dialects.[10] Corresponds to /ʌ/ in other dialects. See English phonology
Irish Munster[11] sáile [ˈsˠɰaːlʲɘ] 'salt water' Usually transcribed [ɪ̽]. It is an allophone of /ə/ next to non-palatal slender consonants.[11] See Irish phonology
Kaingang[12] [ˈᵐbɘ] 'tail' Varies between central [ɘ] and back [ɤ].[13]
Kazakh тілі' [tɘlɘ] 'language'
Korean [ɘː.ɾɯn] 'senior' See Korean phonology.
Mongolian[14] үсэр [usɘɾɘ̆] 'jump'
Norman acataer [akatɘ] 'to buy' May be [u ~ o ~ e] depending by the region. In Jèrriais it's spelled aï and pronounced [aɪ].
Northern Tiwa Taos dialect [ˌpʼɒ̀ˑxɘ̄ˈɬɑ̄ːnæ] 'star' Allophone of /ɤ/. See Taos phonology
Paicî ?? [kɘ̄ɾɘ̄] 'spider'
Polish[15] tymczasowy     'temporary' Somewhat fronted;[15] typically transcribed in IPA as ɨ. See Polish phonology
Romanian Moldavian dialects[16] casă [ˈkäsɘ] 'house' Corresponds to [ə] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Russian[17] солнце     'sun' This occurs only for some speakers after /t͡s/.[17] See Russian phonology
Skolt Sami vuõˊlǧǧem [vʲuɘlɟ͡ʝːɛm] 'I left'
Vietnamese[19] v [vɘ˨˩ˀ] 'wife' Typically transcribed in IPA as ɤ. See Vietnamese phonology
Zapotec Tilquiapan[20] ne [nɘ] 'and'


  1. ^ a b Gussenhoven (1992:47)
  2. ^ a b Verhoeven (2005:245)
  3. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003:128)
  4. ^ Collins & Mees (2003:131)
  5. ^ Cox (2006:?)
  6. ^ Durie & Hajek (1994:?)
  7. ^ Hillenbrand (2003:122)
  8. ^ a b Coupland (1990:93)
  9. ^ Bauer et al. (2007)
  10. ^ a b Roca & Johnson (1999:186)
  11. ^ a b Ó Sé (2000)
  12. ^ Jolkesky (2009:676–677 and 682)
  13. ^ Jolkesky (2009:676 and 682)
  14. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005:62, 66–67)
  15. ^ a b Jassem (2003:105)
  16. ^ Pop (1938), p. 29.
  17. ^ a b Jones & Ward (1969:38)
  18. ^ Fast Mowitz (1975:2)
  19. ^ Hoang (1965:24)
  20. ^ Merrill (2008:109–10)


  • Bauer, L.; Warren, P.; Bardsley, D.; Kennedy, M.; Major, G. (2007), "New Zealand English", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 37 (1): 97–102,  
  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003), The Phonetics of English and Dutch, Fifth Revised Edition (PDF),  
  • Cox, F.M. (2006), vowels in the speech of some Australian teenagers"/hVd/"The acoustic characteristics of , Australian Journal of Linguistics 26: 147–179,  
  • Coupland, Nikolas (1990), English in Wales: Diversity, Conflict, and Change, p. 93,  
  • Durie, M.; Hajek, J. (1994), "A revised standard phonemic orthography for Australian English vowels", Australian Journal of Linguistics 14 (1): 93–107,  
  • Fast Mowitz, Gerhard (1975), Sistema fonológico del idioma achual, Lima: Instituto Lingüístico de Verano 
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (2): 45–47,  
  • Hillenbrand, James M. (2003), "American English: Southern Michigan" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (1): 121–126,  
  • Hoang, Thi Quynh Hoa (1965), A phonological contrastive study of Vietnamese and English (PDF), Lubbock, Texas: Texas Technological College 
  • Iivonen, Antti; Harnud, Huhe (2005), "Acoustical comparison of the monophthong systems in Finnish, Mongolian and Udmurt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (1): 59–71,  
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (1): 103–107,  
  • Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho de Valhery (2009), "Fonologia e prosódia do Kaingáng falado em Cacique Doble", Anais do SETA (Campinas: Editora do IEL-UNICAMP) 3: 675–685 
  • Jones, Daniel; Ward, Dennis (1969), The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press,  
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 38 (1): 107–114,  
  • Ó Sé, Diarmuid (2000), Gaeilge Chorca Dhuibhne (in Gaeilge), Dublin: Institiúid Teangeolaíochta Éireann,  
  • Pop, Sever (1938), Micul Atlas Linguistic Român, Muzeul Limbii Române Cluj 
  • Roca, Iggy; Johnson, Wyn (1999), A Course in Phonology, Blackwell Publishing,  
  • Verhoeven, Jo (2005), "Belgian Standard Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (2): 243–247,  
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