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Demography of England

Map of population density in England as at the 2011 census
The non-metropolitan counties and unitary authorities of England, colour-coded to show population. (Due to the small size of the City of London density is displayed as part of the overall Greater London area)

The demography of England has since 1801 been measured by the decennial national census, and is marked by centuries of population growth and urbanisation. Due to the lack of authoritative contemporary sources, estimates of the population of England for dates prior to the first census in 1801 vary considerably.

Contents

  • Population 1
  • Historical population 2
  • Place of birth 3
  • Live births in England and Wales by country of birth of mother and father 4
  • Age 5
  • Ethnicity 6
  • Languages 7
  • Religion 8
  • See also 9
  • Notes 10
  • References 11
  • External links 12

Population

The population at the time of the 2011 census was 53,012,456

  • Male: 26,069,148
  • Female: 26,943,308
  • Total: 53,012,456[1]
  • Total Fertility Rate: 1.97[2] (higher than Germany – 1.42 & Italy – 1.40, lower than France – 2.02)

Historical population

Place of birth

Places of birth given by respondents to the 2001 and 2011 censuses were as follows:

Map showing the percentage of the population born outside England according to the 2011 census.
Country of birth 2001[10] 2011[11]
Number % Number %
 England 42,968,596 87.44% 44,246,592 83.46%
 Scotland 794,577 1.62% 708,872 1.34%
 Wales 609,711 1.24% 506,619 0.96%
 Northern Ireland 215,124 0.44% 206,735 0.39%
 United Kingdom UK not otherwise specified 6,499 0.01%
 Ireland 459,662 0.94% 395,182 0.75%
 EU Other EU Member Countries 695,045 1.41%
 EU Other EU Member Countries (joined pre 2001) 894,908 1.69%
 EU Other EU Member Countries (joined post 2001) 1,085,351 2.04%
 UN Other Countries 3,396,116 6.91% 4,961,698 9.36%
Total 49,138,831 100.00% 53,012,456 100.00%

Live births in England and Wales by country of birth of mother and father

Live births (numbers and percentages): country of birth of mother, 2008 to 2014

Country of birth of mother 2014 (Number,%) 2013 (Number,%) 2012 (Number,%) 2011 (Number,%) 2010 (Number,%) 2009 (Number,%) 2008 (Number,%)
Total 695 233 698 512 729 674 723 913 723 165 706 248 708 711
United Kingdom 507 587 (73,01) 513 411 (73,50) 540 572 (74,08) 539 364 (74,51) 541 321 (74,85) 532 046 (75,33) 537 854 (75,89)
Total outside United Kingdom 187 610 (26,99) 185 075 (26,50) 189 079 (25,92) 184 529 (25,49) 181 827 (25,15) 174 174 (24,67) 170 834 (24,11)
EU 64 067 (9,22) 60 448 (8,65) 59 061 (8,09) 55 194 (7,62) 52 868 (7,31) 47 680 (6,75) 44 022 (6,21)
New EU 45 344 42 523 (6,09) 40 971 (5,61) 37 199 (5,14) 34 363 (4,75) 30 020 (4,25) 26 215 (3,70)
Poland 22 122 (3,18) 21 275 (3,05) 21 156 (2,90) 20 495 (2,83) 19 762 (2,73) 18 159 (2,57) 16 101 (2,27)
Rest of Europe (non EU) 8 562 (1,23) 7 959 (1,14) 7 740 (1,06) 7 401 (1,02) 7 379 (1,02) 7 136 (1,01) 7 060 (1,00)
All Europe 580 216 (83,46) 581 818 (83,29) 607 373 (83,24) 601 959 (83,15) 601 568 (83,19) 586 862 (83,10) 588 936 (83,10)
Africa 35 030 (5,04) 36 264 (5,19) 37 837 (5,19) 38 523 (5,32) 39 828 (5,51) 39 419 (5,58) 39 744 (5,61)
North Africa 3 733 (0,54) 3 661 (0,52) 3 488 (0,48) 3 562 (0,49) 3 839 (0,53) 3 769 (0,53) 3 555 (0,50)
Western Africa 12 613 (1,81) 12 906 (1,85) 13 344 (1,83) 13 067 (1,81) 13 217 (1,83) 12 861 (1,82) 12 876 (1,82)
Central Africa 2 275 (0,33) 2 288 (0,33) 2 356 (0,32) 2 364 (0,33) 2 599 (0,36) 2 662 (0,38) 2 700 (0,38)
Eastern Africa 12 586 (1,81) 13 305 (1,90) 14 149 (1,94) 14 800 (2,04) 15 417 (2,13) 15 400 (2,18) 15 736 (2,22)
Southern Africa 3 765 (0,54) 4 032 (0,58) 4 425 (0,61) 4 651 (0,64) 4 675 (0,65) 4 654 (0,66) 4 777 (0,67)
The Americas and the Caribbean 11 191 (1,61) 10 933 (1,57) 11 317 (1,55) 11 286 (1,56) 11 494 (1,59) 11 296 (1,60) 11 282 (1,59)
North America 4 586 (0,66) 4 382 (0,63) 4 567 (0,63) 4 518 (0,62) 4 604 (0,64) 4 278 (0,61) 4 422 (0,62)
Central America 403 (0,06) 365 (0,05) 345 (0,05) 373 (0,05) 343 (0,05) 318 (0,05) 327 (0,05)
South America 3 419 (0,49) 3 301 (0,47) 3 285 (0,45) 3 282 (0,45) 3 378 (0,47) 3 295 (0,47) 3 128 (0,44)
Caribbean 2 783 (0,40) 2 885 (0,41) 3 120 (0,43) 3 113 (0,43) 3 169 (0,44) 3 405 (0,48) 3 405 (0,48)
Middle East and Asia 65 725 (9,45) 66 324 (9,50) 69 667 (9,55) 68 534 (9,47) 66 348 (9,17) 64 974 (9,20) 64 861 (9,15)
Middle East 7 073 (1,02) 6 773 (0,97) 6 781 (0,93) 6 793 (0,93) 6 657 (0,92) 6 294 (0,89) 5 640 (0,80)
Central Asia 376 (0,05) 364 (0,05) 375 (0,05) 360 (0,05) 296 (0,04) 303 (0,04) 305 (0,04)
Eastern Asia 6 072 (0,87) 5 605 (0,80) 6 541 (0,90) 5 928 (0,82) 5 931 (0,82) 5 559 (0,79) 5 399 (0,76)
Southern Asia 46 485 (6,69) 47 755 (6,84) 49 302 (6,76) 48 817 (6,74) 46 737 (6,46) 46 061 (6,52) 46 412 (6,55)
India 13 735 (1,98) 14 044 (2,01) 14 621 (2,00) 14 892 (2,06) 13 575 (1,88) 12 499 (1,77) 12 453 (1,76)
Pakistan 17 943 (2,58) 18 578 (2,66) 19 091 (2,62) 18 434 (2,55) 17 840 (2,47) 18 394 (2,60) 18 826 (2,66)
Bangladesh 7 783 (1,12) 7 982 (1,14) 8 224 (1,13) 8 371 (1,16) 8 360 (1,16) 8 452 (1,20) 8 629 (1,22)
South East Asia 5 641 (0,81) 5 774 (0,83) 6 592 (0,90) 6 561 (0,91) 6 650 (0,92) 6 679 (0,95) 6 982 (0,99)
Antarctica and Oceania 3 035 (0,44) 3 147 (0,45) 3 457 (0,47) 3 591 (0,50) 3 910 (0,54) 3 669 (0,52) 3 865 (0,55)
Australasia 2 800 (0,40) 2 921 (0,42) 3 232 (0,44) 3 350 (0,46) 3 660 (0,51) 3 426 (0,49) 3 612 (0,51)
Other Oceania 235 (0,03) 226 (0,03) 223 (0,03) 239 (0,03) 249 (0,03) 243 (0,03) 253 (0,04)
Not Stated 36 (0,01) 26 (<0,01) 23 (<0,01) 20 (<0,01) 17 (<0,01) 28 (<0,01) 23 (<0,01)

Age

The data below is based on the 2011 census.[12] In 2001, the mean age of England's population was 38.60, and the median age was 37.00.

Population pyramid for England as at the 2011 census.
Ages attained
(years)
Population % of total
population
% per year
of age band
0–4 3,318,449 6.26 1.25
5–9 2,972,632 5.61 1.12
10–14 3,080,929 5.81 1.16
15–19 3,340,265 6.30 1.26
20–24 3,595,321 6.78 1.36
25–29 3,650,881 6.89 1.38
30–34 3,509,221 6.62 1.32
35–39 3,549,116 6.69 1.34
40–44 3,885,934 7.33 1.47
45–49 3,879,815 7.32 1.46
50–54 3,400,095 6.41 1.28
55–59 2,996,992 5.65 1.13
60–64 3,172,277 5.98 1.20
65–69 2,508,154 4.73 0.95
70–74 2,044,129 3.86 0.77
75–79 1,669,345 3.15 0.63
80–84 1,258,773 2.37 0.47
85–89 776,311 1.46 0.29
90+ 403,817 0.76

Life expectancy at birth[13]

  • January 2001 – December 2003
    • Males: 76.24 years
    • Females: 80.72 years
  • January 2002 – December 2004
    • Males: 76.55 years
    • Females: 80.91 years
  • January 2003 – December 2005
    • Males: 76.92 years
    • Females: 81.14 years

Ethnicity

The 2001 and 2011 censuses recorded the following ethnic groups:

Ethnic group 2001
population
2001
%
2011
population
2011
%
White: British 42,747,136 87.0 42,279,236 79.8
White: Irish 624,115 1.3 517,001 1.0
White: Irish Traveller/White Gypsy[note 1] 54,895 0.1
White: Other 1,308,110 2.7 2,430,010 4.6
White: Total 44,679,361 91.0 45,281,142 85.4
Asian or Asian British: Indian 1,028,546 2.1 1,395,702 2.6
Asian or Asian British: Pakistani 706,539 1.4 1,112,282 2.1
Asian or Asian British: Bangladeshi 275,394 0.6 436,514 0.8
Asian or Asian British: Chinese[note 2] 220,681 0.5 379,502 0.7
Asian or Asian British: Asian Other 237,810 0.5 819,403 1.6
Asian or Asian British: Total 2,468,970 5.1 4,143,403 7.8
Black or Black British: Caribbean 561,246 1.1 591,016 1.1
Black or Black British: African 475,938 1.0 977,741 1.8
Black or Black British: Other 95,324 0.2 277,857 0.5
Black or Black British: Total 1,132,508 2.3 1,846,614 3.5
Mixed: White and Caribbean 231,424 0.5 415,616 0.8
Mixed: White and African 76,498 0.2 161,550 0.3
Mixed: White and Asian Other 184,014 0.4 332,708 0.6
Mixed: Other Mixed 151,437 0.3 283,005 0.3
British Mixed: Total 643,373 1.4 1,192,879 2.3
Other: Arab[note 3] 220,985 0.4
Other: Any other ethnic group 214,619 0.4 327,433 0.6
Other: Total 214,619 0.4 548,418 1.0
Total 49,138,831 100 53,012,456 100

Notes for table above

  1. ^ New category created for the 2011 census
  2. ^ In 2001, listed under the 'Chinese or other ethnic group' heading.
  3. ^ New category created for the 2011 census
Source: 2001 Census KS06 Ethnic group: Key Statistics for local Authorities and 2011 Census: KS201EW Ethnic group: local authorities in England and Wales.

Languages

The most common main languages spoken in England according to the 2011 census are shown below.[14]

Rank Language Usual residents aged 3+ Proportion
1 English 46,936,780 92.02%
2 Polish 529,173 1.04%
3 Panjabi 271,580 0.53%
4 Urdu 266,330 0.52%
5 Bengali (with Sylheti and Chatgaya) 216,196 0.42%
6 Gujarati 212,217 0.42%
7 Arabic 152,490 0.30%
8 French 145,026 0.28%
9 Portuguese 131,002 0.26%
10 Spanish 118,554 0.23%
11 Tamil 99,773 0.20%
12 Turkish 98,083 0.19%
13 Italian 90,547 0.18%
14 Somali 84,387 0.17%
15 Lithuanian 84,327 0.17%
16 German 75,190 0.15%
17 Persian/Farsi 75,179 0.15%
18 Tagalog/Filipino 67,593 0.13%
19 Romanian 66,496 0.13%
20 Russian 66,271 0.13%
Welsh 8,248 0.02%
Cornish 554 0.00%
Other 1,209,614 2.37%
Population 51,005,610 100.00%

Religion




Religious structure, according to the 2011 census

  Christianity (59.39%)
  Islam (5.02%)
  Hinduism (1.52%)
  Sikhism (0.79%)
  Judaism (0.49%)
  Buddhism (0.45%)
  Other religion (0.43%)
  No religion (24.74%)
  Not declared (7.17%)

Respondents to the 2001 and 2011 censuses gave their religions as follows:

Religion 2001[15] 2011[16]
Number % Number %
Christian 35,251,244 71.74% 31,479,876 59.38%
Muslim 1,524,887 3.10% 2,660,116 5.02%
Hindu 546,982 1.11% 806,199 1.52%
Sikh 327,343 0.67% 420,196 0.79%
Jewish 257,671 0.52% 261,282 0.49%
Buddhist 139,046 0.28% 238,626 0.45%
Other religion 143,811 0.29% 227,825 0.43%
No religion 7,171,332 14.59% 13,114,232 24.74%
Religion not stated 3,776,515 7.69% 3,804,104 7.18%
Total population 49,138,831 100.00% 53,012,456 100.00%

See also

Notes

References

  1. ^ "2011 Census: Population Estimates for the United Kingdom" (PDF). Office for National Statistics. 27 March 2011. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  2. ^ "National Statistics Online – Live births". Statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved 9 July 2010. 
  3. ^ Prior, Francis (2004). BC Life in Britain and Ireland Before the Romans. London: Harper Perennial.  
  4. ^ John Hatcher and Mark Bailey, Modelling the Middle Ages, Oxford University press, 2001, pg. 29 ISBN 978-0-19-924412-6
  5. ^ Stuart James Borsch, The Black Death in Egypt and England: a comparative study, University of Texas Press, 2005.
  6. ^ a b Wrigley and Schofield, "The Population History of England, 1541–1871. A reconstruction.", Harvard University Press, 1981, Table 7.8, pgs. 208-9, [2]
  7. ^ At the time of the first census. Census officials estimated that there had been an increase of 77% in the preceding 100 years. In each county women were in the majority. Notes for 1801 taken from Kent 1800–1899 – A Chronicle of the Nineteenth Century Bob Ogley (Froglets Publications 2003) ISBN 1-872337-51-1. Wrigley and Schofield estimate 8,664,000 based on birth and death records.]
  8. ^ Vision of Britain a population through time England, Retrieved 9 August 2013
  9. ^ 2011 Census: Population Estimates for the United Kingdom, 27 March 2011 Published ONS 12 December 2011, Retrieved 9 August 2013
  10. ^ Census 2001 Key Statistics – Local Authorities KS05 Country of birth, Accessed 6 September 2014
  11. ^ 2011 Census: KS202EW National identity, local authorities in England and Wales, Accessed 22 December 2012
  12. ^ UK Statistics (27 March 2011). "2011 Census: Usual resident population by five-year age group and sex, United Kingdom and constituent countries". UK Statistics. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  13. ^ Neighbourhood Statistics. "Life Expectancy at Birth for City of London, London, England". Neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved 9 July 2010. 
  14. ^ "View:England". NOMIS. Retrieved 5 September 2014. 
  15. ^ "Religion (2001 Census)". data.gov.uk. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  16. ^ "2011 Census: KS209EW Religion, local authorities in England and Wales". ons.gov.uk. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 

External links

  • National Statistics
  • Populstat population figure site – main source for 1801–1991
  • Genealogical documents
  • England map by county population
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