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Duchy of Ingria

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Title: Duchy of Ingria  
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Subject: New Sweden, Charles IX of Sweden, Charles XI of Sweden, Oxenstierna, Treaty of Stolbovo, Ingrian War, Johan Skytte, Timeline of Russian history, Treaty of Teusina, Saint Petersburg Governorate
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Duchy of Ingria

Swedish Ingria
Svenska Ingermanland
Dominion of the Swedish Empire

1580-1595
1617-1721

Flag Coat of arms
Swedish Empire in the 17th century.
Capital Narva
Languages Swedish, Finnish, Ingrian, Votian
Government Dominion
King of Sweden
 -  1568–92 John III
 -  1592–99 Sigismund
 -  1611–32 Gustav II Adolf
 -  1720–51 Frederick I
Governor-General
 -  1617– Carl Carlsson Gyllenhielm
 -  1659–1673 Simon Grundel-Helmfelt
History
 -  Conquered by Sweden 1580
 -  Ceded to Russia 18 May 1595
 -  Treaty of Stolbovo 17 February 1617
 -  Great Northern War 1700–21
 -  Conquered by Russia 1708
 -  Treaty of Nystad 30 August 1721
Population
 -  1644 est. 15,000 

Swedish Ingria (Swedish: Svenska Ingermanland) was a dominion of the Swedish Empire from 1580 to 1595 and then again from 1617 to 1721, when it was ceded to the Russian Empire in the Treaty of Nystad.

Ingria was ceded to Sweden by Russia together with the County of Kexholm by the Treaty of Stolbovo in 1617. It consisted of the area along the basin of the river Neva, between the Gulf of Finland, the Narva River, Lake Peipsi in South-West, and Lake Ladoga in North-East. Bordering to Kexholm and Swedish Karelia by the Sestra (Rajajoki /Systerbäck) river in North-West.

Ingria fell to Sweden in the 1580s, was returned to Russia by the Treaty of Teusina (1595), and again ceded to Sweden in the Treaty of Stolbovo (1617). Sweden's interest of the territory was strategic: as a buffer zone against Russian attacks on the Karelian Isthmus and present-day Finland; and Russian trade was to pass through Swedish territory. In addition, Ingria became the destination for Swedish deportees.

Ingria remained sparsely populated. In 1664 the population was counted to 15,000. Swedish attempts to introduce Lutheranism were met with repugnance by the Orthodox peasantry obliged to attend Lutheran services; converts were promised grants and tax reductions, but Lutheran gains were most of all due to voluntary resettlements from Savonia and Karelia. Ingria was enfeoffed to noble militaries and state officials, bringing their own Lutheran servants and workmen.

Nyen became the trading centre of Ingria, and in 1642 was made its administrative centre. In 1656 a Russian attack badly damaged the town, and the administrative centre was moved to Narva in neighbouring Swedish Estonia.[1]

In the early 18th century the area was reconquered by Russia in the Great Northern War after a century in Swedish possession. On the place of the Swedish town Nyen or in Finnish Nevanlinna (Castle of Neva) close to the Neva river's estuary at the Gulf of Finland, the new Russian capital Saint Petersburg was founded in 1703.

Governors-General

Stadtholder
  • Samuel Nilsson till Hässle (1601–1607)
  • Filip Scheiding (1607–1613)
  • Evert Karlsson Horn af Kanckas (1613–1615)
  • Anders Eriksson Hästehufvud (1615–1617)
Ingrian Governors (Narva, Ivangorod, Jaama, Koporje and Nöteborg)
Ingrian and Livonian Governors-General
Ingrian and county of Kexholm Governors-General
  • Erik Carlsson Gyllenstierna (1642–1645)
  • Carl Mörner (1645–1651)
  • Erik Stenbock (1651–1654)
  • Gustaf Evertsson Horn (1654–1657)
  • Krister Klasson Horn af Åminne (1657–1659)
  • Simon Grundel-Helmfelt (1659–1664)
  • Jacob Johan Taube (Kudina mõisast) (1664–1668)
  • Simon Grundel-Helmfelt (1668–1673)
  • Jacob Johan Taube (1673–1678)
  • Gustaf Adam Banér (1678)
  • Jacob Johan Taube (1678–1681)
Ingrian Governors
  • Martin Schultz von Ascheraden (1681–1682)
  • Hans von Fersen the older (1682–1683)
  • Göran von Sperling (1683–1687)
Ingrian Governors-General

References

See also

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