World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Dzongkha Braille

Article Id: WHEBN0040986914
Reproduction Date:

Title: Dzongkha Braille  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Braille, Tibetan Braille, Korean Braille, Tibetan alphabet, Tibetan language
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Dzongkha Braille

Dzongkha Braille
Bhutanese Braille
Type
Languages Dzongkha
Parent systems
Braille
Print basis
Tibetan alphabet

Dzongkha Braille, or Bhutanese Braille, is the braille alphabet for writing Dzongkha, the national language of Bhutan. It is based on English braille, with some extensions from international usage. As in print, the vowel a is not written.

Despite Dzongkha and Tibetan using nearly the same alphabet in print, the braille alphabets differ radically, with Tibetan Braille closer to German conventions and assigned letter values according to different sound correspondences.

Alphabet[1]

Consonant ka kha ga nga ca cha ja nya
Print
Braille ⠅ (braille pattern dots-13) ⠣ (braille pattern dots-126) ⠛ (braille pattern dots-1245) ⠬ (braille pattern dots-346) ⠉ (braille pattern dots-14) ⠡ (braille pattern dots-16) ⠚ (braille pattern dots-245) ⠧ (braille pattern dots-1236)
Consonant ta tha da na pa pha ba ma
Print
Braille ⠞ (braille pattern dots-2345) ⠹ (braille pattern dots-1456) ⠮ (braille pattern dots-2346) ⠝ (braille pattern dots-1345) ⠏ (braille pattern dots-1234) ⠋ (braille pattern dots-124) ⠃ (braille pattern dots-12) ⠍ (braille pattern dots-134)
Consonant tsa tsha dza wa zha za 'a ya
Print
Braille ⠌ (braille pattern dots-34) ⠻ (braille pattern dots-12456) ⠵ (braille pattern dots-1356) ⠺ (braille pattern dots-2456) ⠟ (braille pattern dots-12345) ⠭ (braille pattern dots-1346) ⠱ (braille pattern dots-156) ⠽ (braille pattern dots-13456)
Consonant ra la sha sa ha
Print
Braille ⠗ (braille pattern dots-1235) ⠇ (braille pattern dots-123) ⠩ (braille pattern dots-146) ⠎ (braille pattern dots-234) ⠓ (braille pattern dots-125)

The reversed letters used in Sanskrit loanwords are indicated with the diacritic :

, , , , .

The vowel "a" is inherent in a consonant letter, and is not written explicitly. Other vowels are written after a consonant as in English Braille. When a vowel occurs at the beginning of a word, the vowel letter is carried by a null consonant :

Vowels a i u e o
Print
(on )
ཨི ཨུ ཨེ ཨོ
Braille ⠁ (braille pattern dots-1) ⠁ (braille pattern dots-1) ⠊ (braille pattern dots-24) ⠁ (braille pattern dots-1) ⠥ (braille pattern dots-136) ⠁ (braille pattern dots-1) ⠑ (braille pattern dots-15) ⠁ (braille pattern dots-1) ⠕ (braille pattern dots-135)
ka ki ku ke ko
Print
(on )
ཀི ཀུ ཀེ ཀོ
Braille ⠅ (braille pattern dots-13) ⠅ (braille pattern dots-13) ⠊ (braille pattern dots-24) ⠅ (braille pattern dots-13) ⠥ (braille pattern dots-136) ⠅ (braille pattern dots-13) ⠑ (braille pattern dots-15) ⠅ (braille pattern dots-13) ⠕ (braille pattern dots-135)

Sanskrit vowel-marking includes:

ཨཿ aḥ, ཨྃ aṃ,

as in ཀིཿ kiḥ, ཀོྃ koṃ.

It's not clear how conjuncts are indicated. However, the conjunct ཀྵ kṣa in Sanskrit loans suggests that the 45 points conjoin two consonants.

Punctuation

Digits are as in English Braille. Native punctuation (syllable divider, comma, stop) is:

Print
Braille ⠂ (braille pattern dots-2) ⠸ (braille pattern dots-456) ⠆ (braille pattern dots-23) ⠆ (braille pattern dots-23)

Roman punctuation differs from that of English Braille. The question and exclamation marks, for example, are prefixed by a point 6, and .

Print , ? ! ; : . ... - / *
Braille ⠂ (braille pattern dots-2) ⠠ (braille pattern dots-6) ⠦ (braille pattern dots-236) ⠠ (braille pattern dots-6) ⠖ (braille pattern dots-235) ⠆ (braille pattern dots-23) ⠒ (braille pattern dots-25) ⠐ (braille pattern dots-5) ⠔ (braille pattern dots-35) ⠜ (braille pattern dots-345) ⠄ (braille pattern dots-3) ⠄ (braille pattern dots-3) ⠄ (braille pattern dots-3) ⠤ (braille pattern dots-36) ⠸ (braille pattern dots-456) ⠌ (braille pattern dots-34) ⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠔ (braille pattern dots-35)
Print “ ... ” ( ... ) [ ... ] { ... }
Braille ⠦ (braille pattern dots-236) ⠀ (braille pattern blank) ⠴ (braille pattern dots-356) ⠷ (braille pattern dots-12356) ⠀ (braille pattern blank) ⠾ (braille pattern dots-23456) ⠈ (braille pattern dots-4) ⠷ (braille pattern dots-12356) ⠀ (braille pattern blank) ⠈ (braille pattern dots-4) ⠾ (braille pattern dots-23456) ⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠷ (braille pattern dots-12356) ⠀ (braille pattern blank) ⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠾ (braille pattern dots-23456)

References

  1. ^ UNESCO (2013) World Braille Usage, 3rd edition.
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.